US585218A - Musical instrument - Google Patents

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US585218A
US585218A US585218DA US585218A US 585218 A US585218 A US 585218A US 585218D A US585218D A US 585218DA US 585218 A US585218 A US 585218A
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strings
bars
fret
bar
dampers
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D3/00Details of, or accessories for, stringed musical instruments, e.g. slide-bars
    • G10D3/06Necks; Fingerboards, e.g. fret boards
    • G10D3/08Fingerboards in the form of keyboards
    • G10D3/09Fingerboards in the form of keyboards for zithers

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  • This invention relates to improvements in that class of musical instruments known as autoharps, in which metallic bars or other hard substance, in combination with strips of felt or similar material, are employed to operate on the strings; and it consists in certain peculiarities of the construction, novel arrangement, and operation of the various parts thereof, as will be hereinafter more fully set forth and specifically claimed.
  • the main objects of my invention are to provide a musical instrument of the order or class known as autoharps, which shall possess means for producin clear fret-tones like that of a cithern; to so construct the instrument that a less number of strings are required than is used on the autoharp of the ordinary or general construction yet attaining the tones produced by the omitted strings and rendering the operation of learning or playing the instrument more easy and simpler; to provide the instrument with dampers, which shall act on each and every bar and key; to enable strings of the same length to be used, and yet to produce uniform and equal vibrations; to enlarge the volume of tone; to produce the chromatic and diatonic scales on every string; to produce the chromatic and diatonic scales in chords; to furnish an instrument that shall produce every key, both major and minor, complete, also dominant seventh, diminished seventh, and dominant to minor in every key.
  • Fig. 3 is an enlarged sectional view, partly in elevation, taken on line 3 3 of Fig. 1, showing a portion of the upper part of the sounding-box and some of the fret-bars and catches or locks to hold the same in contact with the strings.
  • Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional view, partly in elevation, taken on line 1- l of Fig. 1, showing a series of press-buttons and levers to operate the dampers.
  • Fig. 5 is a perspective view, partly in section, of one of the fret-bars detached from the frame.
  • Fig. 6 is a fragmental view of a portion of the sounding-box, showing a modification in the manner of arranging the strings in order to produce chords; and Fig. 7 is a sectional view of the upper part of the sounding-box and a portion of one of the side rails, illustrating a modification in the construction of the fret-bars.
  • 8 represents a soundingbox which may be made of any suitable material and of any suitable construction, but preferably of the form shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings.
  • a bridge 9 On the upper surface of this box and at the tail end thereof is secured a bridge 9, and at its other end or head is a bridge 10, extending across and resting upon which are a series of strings, (indicated by numerals 11 to 26, inclusive,) but the number of strings may be more or less, if desired.
  • These strings are fastened at one of their ends to the tail of the sounding-box by means of suitable pins 27 and at their other ends to the head of the instrument by means of tuning pins or pegs 2S.
  • a spring 15 Located in each of the slots 30 of the side rails is a spring 15, on which the ends of the fret-bars rest and are normally held in a raised position, so that the strips a3 and at will be out of contact with the strings.
  • a button or knob 4:6 On the upper surface of each of the fret-bars and at its middle is located a button or knob 4:6, to which the thumb or finger may be applied to alford uniform pressure throughout the length of the strips on the strings.
  • These catches are located in pairs between two of the fretbars, so that they may be turned in either direction to secure the baron either side thereof in a lowered position, and I may use any number of said catches, as is apparent.
  • rods at Extending from one of the side rails 29 to the other (usually below the strings) and movably secured in their ends adjacent to the tail of the sounding-box are rods at), 50, and 51, each of which is provided with dampers 52, made of felt or other suitable material and located at proper points between the strings. Each of these rods is provided with a spring 53 to retract it and hold the dampers in contact with the strings.
  • a series of rods 54-, 55, 56, and 57 Movably secured on one of the rails 29 in an upright position is a series of rods 54-, 55, 56, and 57, each of which is provided at its upper end with a press-button or knob 58 and are pivotally connected at their lower ends to one of the arms of the bell-crank levers 59, fulcrumed on the side rail, to the other arms of which levers are pivotally secured connecting-rods 60, whose other ends are pivotally connected to one of the arms of a series of bell-crank levers G1, horizontally fulcrumed on the side rail,whose other arms are pi votally connected to the rods19, 50, and 51, thus affording means for shifting said rods longitudinally and throwing the dampers thereon into and out of contact with the strings, as desired.
  • Fig. 6 I have shown a modification inv the manner of arranging the strings, so that the chords may be played by 'n'essing down one fret-bar only or by leaving all strings open, which consists in arranging the strings in groups of four or in chords, as shown.
  • the dampers may be omitted, but the fret-bars are used, as above stated.
  • Fig. 7 a modification in the construction of the fret-bars, which consists in locating a metallic or strip 123' ⁇ of other hard substance beneath the bar and strings on the top of the sounding-box and providing the bar with a strip at of felt or other material, as before, so that the strings may be pressed down on the strip 43. ⁇ , thus aecomplishing the same result as by the firstnamed construction.
  • This modification may be used with or without the dampers, as is obvious.
  • buttons on the vertical rods 51- or 57 should be pressed down, which operation will shift the dampers 52 from strings 12 and 18, or 9*, pi, thus leaving them undampered.
  • buttons on the vertical rods 56 and 57 press down the buttons on the vertical rods 56 and 57, which will shift the dampers 52 from the strings 22 and 1G, or Q), C, to 17 and 23, or C, Q, from strings 12 and 18, or f, K, leaving the latterundampered.
  • the scale is played in the following manner: G major, for example, is produced by first picking (j, or 17, string of the middle oc tave with all the fret-bars up. Then press bar 37 and pick Q, below C, which produces D. Then pick 5 above 6 with all fret-bars up. Then press bar 35 and pick 5', or 17,
  • a musical instrument the combination with a sounding box or body, of a series of strings thereon, a series of metal strips extending crosswise the body and a series of felt strips also extending crosswise the body, said metal strips and felt strips being arranged to operate in conjunction with one another on the strings, the felt strips serving to stop the vibration of the strings and the metal strips to produce a clear tone.
  • a sounding box or body of a series of strings thereon, a series of metal strips extending crosswise the body, and a series of felt strips also extending crosswise the body, said metal strips and felt strips being ar ranged to operate in pairs, and in conjunction with one another on the strings, the felt strips serving to stop the vibration of the strings and the metal strips to produce a clear tone.
  • a sounding box or body of a series of strings thereon, a series of spring-actuated and vertically-movable bars, each provided with a strip of felt or like material, and a strip of metal or other hard material in its lower part extending crosswise the body, a number of movable rods each provided with dampers and extending crosswise the body and means to shift the dampers.
  • a sounding box or body of a series of strings thereon, two parallel side rails on the upper surface of the body 011 each side of the strings, said rails having vertical slots or guideways, springs located in said slots, bars extending across the strings and resting their ends on said springs, each of said bars being provided in its lower surface with astrip of felt or simihtr nmterinl, and at strip of metal or other hard substance, :1 number of catches pivotnlly secured on the side rails between the bars and adapted to engage the bars and hold them in n lowered position, at number of movable and spring-actuated rods extending crosswise the strings, each having dampers, and a mechanism to shift said dampers, substantially as described.

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  • Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Acoustics & Sound (AREA)
  • Multimedia (AREA)
  • Stringed Musical Instruments (AREA)

Description

(No Model.)
H. O. MARX.
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
No. 585.218. Patented June-29,1897.
0 7 s aw 3897 lNVE/V TOR ATTORNEY m: "cams Pains co, PNDTULH'HO. wAsumwoN, u. c.
UNITED STATES PATENT ErrcE.
HENRY C. MARX, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 585,218, dated June 29, 1897.
Application filed December 26, 1896. Serial No. 617,001. (No model.)
To all whom, it nun/ concern:
Be it known that I, HENRY C. MARX, a citizen of the United States, residing at Chicago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Musical Instruments, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to improvements in that class of musical instruments known as autoharps, in which metallic bars or other hard substance, in combination with strips of felt or similar material, are employed to operate on the strings; and it consists in certain peculiarities of the construction, novel arrangement, and operation of the various parts thereof, as will be hereinafter more fully set forth and specifically claimed.
The main objects of my invention are to provide a musical instrument of the order or class known as autoharps, which shall possess means for producin clear fret-tones like that of a cithern; to so construct the instrument that a less number of strings are required than is used on the autoharp of the ordinary or general construction yet attaining the tones produced by the omitted strings and rendering the operation of learning or playing the instrument more easy and simpler; to provide the instrument with dampers, which shall act on each and every bar and key; to enable strings of the same length to be used, and yet to produce uniform and equal vibrations; to enlarge the volume of tone; to produce the chromatic and diatonic scales on every string; to produce the chromatic and diatonic scales in chords; to furnish an instrument that shall produce every key, both major and minor, complete, also dominant seventh, diminished seventh, and dominant to minor in every key.
Other objects and advantages will appear in the description hereinafter set forth.
tion, taken on line 2 2 of Fig. 1, showing a part of the upper portion of the sounding-box and a portion of the dampers and fret-bars in position to act on the strings. Fig. 3 is an enlarged sectional view, partly in elevation, taken on line 3 3 of Fig. 1, showing a portion of the upper part of the sounding-box and some of the fret-bars and catches or locks to hold the same in contact with the strings. Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional view, partly in elevation, taken on line 1- l of Fig. 1, showing a series of press-buttons and levers to operate the dampers. Fig. 5 is a perspective view, partly in section, of one of the fret-bars detached from the frame. Fig. 6 is a fragmental view of a portion of the sounding-box, showing a modification in the manner of arranging the strings in order to produce chords; and Fig. 7 is a sectional view of the upper part of the sounding-box and a portion of one of the side rails, illustrating a modification in the construction of the fret-bars.
In the drawings, 8 represents a soundingbox which may be made of any suitable material and of any suitable construction, but preferably of the form shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings. On the upper surface of this box and at the tail end thereof is secured a bridge 9, and at its other end or head is a bridge 10, extending across and resting upon which are a series of strings, (indicated by numerals 11 to 26, inclusive,) but the number of strings may be more or less, if desired. These strings are fastened at one of their ends to the tail of the sounding-box by means of suitable pins 27 and at their other ends to the head of the instrument by means of tuning pins or pegs 2S.
Extending parallel with one another on the upper surface of the sounding-box and near its edges of the head portion are located side rails 29, each of which is provided with a series of vertical slots or guideways 30 for the reception and operation of the fret-bars,which are indicated by the numerals 31 to Ali, inclusive, but may be more or less in number, and each is provided in its lower portion with a metallic strip 4:3, and a strip ll, of felt or other soft material, the felt strip extending somewhat farther from the fret-bar than the metallic strip, as is clearly shown in Figs. 2, 3, and 5 of the drawings, will touch and act 011 the strings, so as to stop the vibration after the string has been picked, and will also steady or firmly hold the string in place, so that it will not jingle or rattle on the metallic strip, or, in other words, will perform the same function as placing the finger on the string before the fret, as in playing a guitar or cithern. It will be understood that by press ing the fret-bar downward the string or strings will be embedded in the yielding felt until the metal strip eonstit uting a fret, which is placed before the felt, contacts with the strings and produces a clear tone like that produced by a guitar or cithern.
Located in each of the slots 30 of the side rails is a spring 15, on which the ends of the fret-bars rest and are normally held in a raised position, so that the strips a3 and at will be out of contact with the strings. On the upper surface of each of the fret-bars and at its middle is located a button or knob 4:6, to which the thumb or finger may be applied to alford uniform pressure throughout the length of the strips on the strings. Pivoted at one of their ends to the side rails are catches or looks 17, each of which is provided with a knob 48, used for turning them, so as to press and hold the fret-bars in contact with the strings, as is shown in Fig. 3. These catches are located in pairs between two of the fretbars, so that they may be turned in either direction to secure the baron either side thereof in a lowered position, and I may use any number of said catches, as is apparent.
Extending from one of the side rails 29 to the other (usually below the strings) and movably secured in their ends adjacent to the tail of the sounding-box are rods at), 50, and 51, each of which is provided with dampers 52, made of felt or other suitable material and located at proper points between the strings. Each of these rods is provided with a spring 53 to retract it and hold the dampers in contact with the strings. Movably secured on one of the rails 29 in an upright position is a series of rods 54-, 55, 56, and 57, each of which is provided at its upper end with a press-button or knob 58 and are pivotally connected at their lower ends to one of the arms of the bell-crank levers 59, fulcrumed on the side rail, to the other arms of which levers are pivotally secured connecting-rods 60, whose other ends are pivotally connected to one of the arms of a series of bell-crank levers G1, horizontally fulcrumed on the side rail,whose other arms are pi votally connected to the rods19, 50, and 51, thus affording means for shifting said rods longitudinally and throwing the dampers thereon into and out of contact with the strings, as desired.
It will be observed by reference to Fig. 4; that the bell-crank lever on the vertical rod 57 is connected to the rod 60, which unites the lever on the vertical rod 5st, thus enabling the rod 51 to be operated by pressing on either of the buttons on said vertical rods and so arranging the buttons that the rods 5-1 and 55 or 50 and 57 may be pressed down at the same time by placing the thumb or finger between the two so as to rest on each.
In Fig. 6 I have shown a modification inv the manner of arranging the strings, so that the chords may be played by 'n'essing down one fret-bar only or by leaving all strings open, which consists in arranging the strings in groups of four or in chords, as shown. In this modification the dampers may be omitted, but the fret-bars are used, as above stated.
In Fig. 7 is shown a modification in the construction of the fret-bars, which consists in locating a metallic or strip 123'} of other hard substance beneath the bar and strings on the top of the sounding-box and providing the bar with a strip at of felt or other material, as before, so that the strings may be pressed down on the strip 43.}, thus aecomplishing the same result as by the firstnamed construction. This modification may be used with or without the dampers, as is obvious.
The operation of my instrument is as follows: For example, in playing the O chord with the strings arranged in chord groups of the major triad, as in Fig. 1, all of the fretbars are left in their raised position and the thumb is run overall the strings. To produce Ct} chord, the fret-bar 81 should be pressed on the strings and the thumb run overall the strings. To produce D chord, bar should be pressed down and all of the strings struck as before. To produce Dfi chord, press down bar 33 and strike all of the strings as before. To produce It, press down bar 34. and strike all of the strings. To produce F chord, press down bar 35 and strike all the strings. To produce Fti, press down bar 3b and strike all the strin To produce G, press down bar 37 and strike all of the strings. For Git press down bar 38 and strike all the strings. For A press down bar 39 and strike all the strings. For Aij press down bar 10 and strike all the strings. For B press down bar 4:1 and strike allthe strings. For 0 press down bar 42 and strike all the strings, which will produce C one octave higher than with all strings open. In pro ducing any of the above-named chords the thumb is run continuously over all the strings. In changing any of those chords to minor chords it is necessary to press on the button on the vertical rod 55, which will shift the dampers 52 from strings 21 and 15, or strings w, to strings 20 and 1-1, or Q, 5, as indicated by the tuning-chart 62, used for reference in playing music, and which may be located at a suitablepoint on the instrumem; and the letters of which are arranged and inclined as follows:
656 terms CCW'ZGJU to distinguish the octaves. This chart may also be used byivhich to tune the instrument. To change any of the first-named or major chords to dominant seventh, the buttons on the vertical rods 51- or 57 should be pressed down, which operation will shift the dampers 52 from strings 12 and 18, or 9*, pi, thus leaving them undampered. To change any of the major ,chords to a diminished seventh chord, press down the buttons on the vertical rods 56 and 57, which will shift the dampers 52 from the strings 22 and 1G, or Q), C, to 17 and 23, or C, Q, from strings 12 and 18, or f, K, leaving the latterundampered. To produce dominant to the minor chord, press down buttons on rods 54 and. 55, which will shift the dampers from strings 21, 15, 19, and 12, or w, 3*, t}, g", and onto strings 20 and 14:, or v 5, only. Each and every one of the shifting dampers will cooperate with each and every one of the fret-bars or chords.
The scale is played in the following manner: G major, for example, is produced by first picking (j, or 17, string of the middle oc tave with all the fret-bars up. Then press bar 37 and pick Q, below C, which produces D. Then pick 5 above 6 with all fret-bars up. Then press bar 35 and pick 5', or 17,
string,which produces F. Then pick G above 6 with all the fret-bars up. Then press bar 35 and pick 5 above 6, which produces A. Then press bar 37 and pick E above C, which produces 13. Then pick 9 with all bars up, which produces the diatonicscale of C major.
All other keys are obtained in the same manner, but by using different fret-bars. The chromatic scale is obtained by picking the above-named strings and by employing the fret-bars 34c, 36, and 38 in connection with bars 35 and 37, but are pressed down sepa rately.
In playing pieces the melody is picked with the forefinger, while the accompaniments are obtained by using the thumb2'-. 6., the music of Nearer, My God, to Thee may be written as follows:
and to play the same pick the string 5 with all fret-bars up, which is indicated by 0. Then pick q, and press bar 37, then C with bars up, then Q, and press bar 35, then 3 and press bar 35, then E. and press bar 35, then Q: with all bars up, then 6' with all bars up, then 5 with all bars up, then C, and press bar 87. \Vhere the letters have dots, as and G, the strings are picked, and where no dots are used the strings are played in chords to the string indicated. The chords are played when the strings are arranged in groups, as shown in Fig. 6, by picking tonic first, then subdominant, then dominant seventh, and if minor is wanted then the minor group may be picked in a like manner, the chart 63 being used to distinguish the tonic, subdominant, dominant seventh, and minor chords and may also be used for tuning. These groups are designated on the drawings by the words Minor to indicate the minor group, Tonic for the tonic or first chord of the key, Sub-dom. for the subdominant or second chord of the key, and Dom. seventh for dominant seventh or third chord of the key. As the bars are placed a half-tone apart, it will be noted that by pressing down bar 31 011 the groups of strings the key will be changed a half-tone higher and by pressing down bar 32 it will be changed another halftone higher, and so on in this manner all the keys are obtained throughout the twelve bars.
IIavin g thus fully described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. In a musical instrument, the combination with a sounding box or body, of a series of strings thereon, a series of metal strips extending crosswise the body and a series of felt strips also extending crosswise the body, said metal strips and felt strips being arranged to operate in conjunction with one another on the strings, the felt strips serving to stop the vibration of the strings and the metal strips to produce a clear tone.
2. In a musical instrument, the combination of a sounding box or body, of a series of strings thereon, a series of metal strips extending crosswise the body, and a series of felt strips also extending crosswise the body, said metal strips and felt strips being ar ranged to operate in pairs, and in conjunction with one another on the strings, the felt strips serving to stop the vibration of the strings and the metal strips to produce a clear tone.
3. The combination with a sounding box or body, of a series of strings thereon, a series of spring-actuated and vertically-movable bars, each provided with a strip of felt or like material, and a strip of metal or other hard material extending crosswise the body,said strips adapted to be brought in contact with the strings.
In a musical instrument, the combination of a sounding box or body, of a series of strings thereon, a series of spring-actuated and vertically-movable bars, each provided with a strip of felt or like material, and a strip of metal or other hard material in its lower part extending crosswise the body, a number of movable rods each provided with dampers and extending crosswise the body and means to shift the dampers.
5. The combination with a sounding box or body, of a series of strings thereon, parallel side rails on the upper surface of the body, said rails having vertical guideways or slots, springs located in said guideways, bars resting at their ends on said springs, and each provided in its lower part with a strip of felt or like material, and a strip of metal or other hard substance, a number of catches pivotally connected to the side rails between the bars, and adapted to hold the same in a lowered position, substantially as described.
6. In a musical instrument, the combination of a sounding box or body, of a series of strings thereon, two parallel side rails on the upper surface of the body 011 each side of the strings, said rails having vertical slots or guideways, springs located in said slots, bars extending across the strings and resting their ends on said springs, each of said bars being provided in its lower surface with astrip of felt or simihtr nmterinl, and at strip of metal or other hard substance, :1 number of catches pivotnlly secured on the side rails between the bars and adapted to engage the bars and hold them in n lowered position, at number of movable and spring-actuated rods extending crosswise the strings, each having dampers, and a mechanism to shift said dampers, substantially as described.
7. The combination of a sounding box or HENRY C. lilAliX.
Witnesses Cults. C. 'liLLMAN, CHAS. E. GonToN.
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