US582655A - Apparatus for manufacturing gas - Google Patents

Apparatus for manufacturing gas Download PDF

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US582655A
US582655A US582655DA US582655A US 582655 A US582655 A US 582655A US 582655D A US582655D A US 582655DA US 582655 A US582655 A US 582655A
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chamber
combustion
oil
gas
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B3/00Hydrogen; Gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen; Separation of hydrogen from mixtures containing it; Purification of hydrogen
    • C01B3/02Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen
    • C01B3/32Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air
    • C01B3/34Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents
    • C01B3/38Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents using catalysts
    • C01B3/384Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents using catalysts the catalyst being continuously externally heated

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  • My invention relates to certain improvements in the manufacture of gas, and has for its object to manufacture at a minimum price a gas of high illuminating power from a liquid hydrocarbon and steam, the plant being principally designed for use where a comparatively small quantity of gas is to be manufactured and used, as for a private consumer, although by increasing the size and capacity of the apparatus it may be employed for the manufacture of gas upon a commercial scale.
  • Figure 1 is a sectional elevation of an apparatus constructed in accordance with my invention
  • Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional elevation of the same on the line 2 2, Fig. 1.
  • A represents the outer shell or casing of a boiler provided with an inner combustion-chamber B, a continuous water-chamber a being formed between the walls of the combustion chamber and the outer shell or casing, so that the greatest efficiency may be obtained from the fuel.
  • WVithin the combustion chamber are suitably arranged grate-bars b, beneath which is an ashpit I), having an outlet-pipe O for the escape of the manufactured gas.
  • the shell or casingA Above the shell or casingA is a cylindrical Vessel D,the lower wall of which forms the upper line of the combustion-chamber, the upper chamber being separated from the waterchamber by a separating plate or ring (1.
  • a stack L From the top of the smoke-box extends a stack L, through which the products of combustion escape, and a similar stack M is arranged above an outlet at in the shell or casing A for the escape of the products of combustion directly from the combustionchamber B.
  • the cylindrical vessel D is filled with hydrocarbon, which as it is volatilized by the heat from the products of combustion escaping through the tubes 6 accumulates in the form of an oil-gas until it is conducted to the fixing-chamber, the degree of heat to which the oil is subjected being governed by a valve m, arranged above the escape-flue 0/, leading directly from the combustion-chamber, and by a valve l, provided above the top of the vessel D, the two valves being so arranged that either one or other, or both, may be opened to direct the escape of the products of combustion through the flue a to heat the water and fire-brick, or through the tubes 6 to heat the oil, or partially through both escape-flues, if desired.
  • combustion-chamber B is an arch N, formed of perforated fire-brick and extending continuously from end to end of the chamber, the perforations n in the arch serving for the escape of the products of combustion through either of the escape-fines, and above this arch the combustion-chamber is filled with checker-work fire-brick, which is heated by the products of combustion before the final escape through the fines, the height of the combustion-chamber being sufficient to provide a depth of checker-work suificicnt to fix the gas.
  • the shell D On the shell D is a gage-glass p and a suitable pressuregage and petcocks, and the water-chamber is provided with similar devices for the purpose of determining the height of liquid and the pressure of vapor in the vessels.
  • Extending from the upper portion of the shell A of the combustion-chamber is a pipe 8, provided with a safety-valve s of any ordinary construction, and leading from this pipe is a second pipe T, extending through the upper portion of the casing A into the interior of the combustion-chamber at a point above the arch N.
  • the combustion-chamber B at a point above the level of the grate-bars, is an arch N, of fire-brick, which is heated by the products of combustion, as previously described.
  • the chamber or boiler (L is filled with water to a proper level, and the oil-chamber D is filled with a suitable hydrocarbon, and the fire is started on the gratebars, the combustion being preferably aided by a forced air-blast through the pipe 0 under the grate-bars. All valves being closed, the valve m, leading to stack M, is opened,
  • the heat acts directly on the water-chamber without passing up through the tubes in the oil-chamber.
  • the steam is raised to the proper pressure and temperature, and the arched fire-brick and checker-work are intensely heated.
  • the valve m is then closed and the valve Z is opened, the products of combustion then passing up through the tubes 6 in the oilchamber, heating and vaporizing the oil until it reaches atemperatnre sufficiently high for the purpose intended, or after the products of combustion have been directed for a short time through the escape-flue of the boiler-section they may then be partially directed through the escape-fines of the boiler-section and partially through the escape-flue of the oil-chamber D and the subsequent heating of the water, the oil, and the fire-brick be carried on simultaneously. lVhen the oil and water have been heated, the fire-brick and checker-work have reached the proper temperature, and the process of manufacturing the gas can then be commenced.
  • the escape-pipe C from the bottom of the ash-pit is opened, and if an oil-gas is to be manufactured the valve to in the pipe 25 is opened, and the oil-vapor, under a high pressure and temperature, is forced down through the pipe 75 into the combustion-chamber and, passing through the heated fire-brick and the incandescent fuel which remains on the gratebars, is fixed and issues from the pipe 0 as a permanent fixed gas.
  • the steam in passing through the heated firebrick and incandescent fuel is decomposed and, combining partly with the carbon of the fuel and partly with the carbon of the oil-vapor, forms a water-gas, the whole body of gas so formed escaping through the pipe C as a mixture of oil-gas, carbonic oxid, and free hydrogen.
  • the supply of oil-vapor may be cut off altogether and the steam admitted alone or in combination with a small percentage of the oil-vapor, and in this way by burning a gas-jet at the exit end of the apparatus or the holder the purity of the gas and its illuminating qualities may be observed and the candle-power be increased or diminished, as desired, by increasing the supply of oil-vapor or the supply of steam, as may be desired.
  • the apparatus as described is of the alternating c1assthat is to say, one in which the blowing up of heats alternates with the production of gas, it being impracticable to carry on the process of manufacturing gas continuously. If, however, it is desired to employ a continuous process with the same or practically the same apparatus, a retort is substituted for the fircbrick in the combustion-chamber, and the gas or steam, or both, is forced into the retort and escapes from the opposite end thereof as a fixed gas, the continuous fire in the combustion-chamber heating up the retort and at the same time keeping up the pressure of steam and of oilvapor without otherwise aitecting the operati0n,it being then possible to keep both escapevalves open and to permit the products of combustion to act at the same time on the oil and water chambers.
  • An apparatus for the manufacture of gas comprising in combination, a combustion-chamber, checker-work fire-brick contained therein, water-legs forming the steamboiler surrounding the combustion-chamber, a chamber containing oil mounted above said combustion-chamber, eseape-flues for the products of combustion in said oil-chamber, and valved outlets for directing the passage of the products of combustion either directly from the combustion-chamber or through the fiues of the oil-chamber.
  • An apparatus for manufacturing gas comprising in combination, a combustionchainbcr B, a steam-boiler A, partially surrounding the combi'istion-ehamber, an oilcontaining chamber D above the combustionchamber, escape-fines for the products of combustion in said oil-chamber, valved outlets a and h, for directing the passage of the products of combustion either directly from the combustion-chamber or through the flues of the oil-chamber or partly through both outlets, vapor-pipes connecting the oil-chamber and the steam-boiler with the interior of the combustion-chamber, and an exit-pipe C for the manufactured gas provided in said combustion-chamber at a point below the grate- 10 bars, substantially as specified.

Description

(No Model.)
F. LOGAN. A APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING GAS.
No. 582,655. Patented May 18, 1897.
UNITED STATES PATENT FFICE.
FERDINAND LOGAN, OF PHGENIXVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA.
APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING GAS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 582,655, dated May 18, 1897.
Application filed May 8, 1896. Serial No. 590,687. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, FERDINAND LOGAN, of Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, have invented a certain Improvement in Apparatus for Man ufacturin g Gas,of which the following is a full, clear, and exact specification.
My invention relates to certain improvements in the manufacture of gas, and has for its object to manufacture at a minimum price a gas of high illuminating power from a liquid hydrocarbon and steam, the plant being principally designed for use where a comparatively small quantity of gas is to be manufactured and used, as for a private consumer, although by increasing the size and capacity of the apparatus it may be employed for the manufacture of gas upon a commercial scale.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a sectional elevation of an apparatus constructed in accordance with my invention; and Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional elevation of the same on the line 2 2, Fig. 1.
Referring to the drawings, A represents the outer shell or casing of a boiler provided with an inner combustion-chamber B, a continuous water-chamber a being formed between the walls of the combustion chamber and the outer shell or casing, so that the greatest efficiency may be obtained from the fuel. WVithin the combustion chamber are suitably arranged grate-bars b, beneath which is an ashpit I), having an outlet-pipe O for the escape of the manufactured gas.
Above the shell or casingA is a cylindrical Vessel D,the lower wall of which forms the upper line of the combustion-chamber, the upper chamber being separated from the waterchamber by a separating plate or ring (1.
Extending vertically within the cylindrical vessel D are a series of vertical tubes 6, secured to upper and lower tube-sheets, the upper tube-sheet e forming the lower portion of a smoke box or chamber g, which forms a flue having a centrally-arranged outlet h for the escape of the products of combustion, and
being also provided with a series of manholes 1, arranged around the central opening, for the purpose of cleaning the tubes when necessary. From the top of the smoke-box extends a stack L, through which the products of combustion escape, and a similar stack M is arranged above an outlet at in the shell or casing A for the escape of the products of combustion directly from the combustionchamber B.
The cylindrical vessel D is filled with hydrocarbon, which as it is volatilized by the heat from the products of combustion escaping through the tubes 6 accumulates in the form of an oil-gas until it is conducted to the fixing-chamber, the degree of heat to which the oil is subjected being governed by a valve m, arranged above the escape-flue 0/, leading directly from the combustion-chamber, and by a valve l, provided above the top of the vessel D, the two valves being so arranged that either one or other, or both, may be opened to direct the escape of the products of combustion through the flue a to heat the water and fire-brick, or through the tubes 6 to heat the oil, or partially through both escape-flues, if desired.
In the combustion-chamber B is an arch N, formed of perforated fire-brick and extending continuously from end to end of the chamber, the perforations n in the arch serving for the escape of the products of combustion through either of the escape-fines, and above this arch the combustion-chamber is filled with checker-work fire-brick, which is heated by the products of combustion before the final escape through the fines, the height of the combustion-chamber being sufficient to provide a depth of checker-work suificicnt to fix the gas.
On the shell D is a gage-glass p and a suitable pressuregage and petcocks, and the water-chamber is provided with similar devices for the purpose of determining the height of liquid and the pressure of vapor in the vessels.
Extending from the upper portion of the shell A of the combustion-chamber is a pipe 8, provided with a safety-valve s of any ordinary construction, and leading from this pipe is a second pipe T, extending through the upper portion of the casing A into the interior of the combustion-chamber at a point above the arch N.
From the upper portion of the cylindrical vessel D leads a pipe 25, connected to a vertical pipe 25, also provided with a safety-valve, the lower end of the pipe 25 being connected to the pipe T, which leads to the combustionchamber, the pipes s i being provided with valves 20 10, respectively, to govern the flow of steam and oil vapor into the combustionchamber.
lVithin the combustion-chamber B, at a point above the level of the grate-bars, is an arch N, of fire-brick, which is heated by the products of combustion, as previously described.
In operation the chamber or boiler (L is filled with water to a proper level, and the oil-chamber D is filled with a suitable hydrocarbon, and the fire is started on the gratebars, the combustion being preferably aided by a forced air-blast through the pipe 0 under the grate-bars. All valves being closed, the valve m, leading to stack M, is opened,
and the heat acts directly on the water-chamber without passing up through the tubes in the oil-chamber. After a short time the steam is raised to the proper pressure and temperature, and the arched fire-brick and checker-work are intensely heated. The valve m is then closed and the valve Z is opened, the products of combustion then passing up through the tubes 6 in the oilchamber, heating and vaporizing the oil until it reaches atemperatnre sufficiently high for the purpose intended, or after the products of combustion have been directed for a short time through the escape-flue of the boiler-section they may then be partially directed through the escape-fines of the boiler-section and partially through the escape-flue of the oil-chamber D and the subsequent heating of the water, the oil, and the fire-brick be carried on simultaneously. lVhen the oil and water have been heated, the fire-brick and checker-work have reached the proper temperature, and the process of manufacturing the gas can then be commenced.
The escape-pipe C from the bottom of the ash-pit is opened, and if an oil-gas is to be manufactured the valve to in the pipe 25 is opened, and the oil-vapor, under a high pressure and temperature, is forced down through the pipe 75 into the combustion-chamber and, passing through the heated fire-brick and the incandescent fuel which remains on the gratebars, is fixed and issues from the pipe 0 as a permanent fixed gas. In practice, however, it is not altogether advisable to force the oilvapor down through the mass of incandescent fuel, and it is preferably diluted to some extent by opening the valve 10 and admitting with the oil-vapor a quantity of steam sufficient for the purpose, the vapors of steam and oil mingling in the pipe T and passing through said pipe into the combustion-chamber and the steam in the fixing operation operating to some extent to smother the oil-vapor and prevent its flashing into lampblack. The steam in passing through the heated firebrick and incandescent fuel is decomposed and, combining partly with the carbon of the fuel and partly with the carbon of the oil-vapor, forms a water-gas, the whole body of gas so formed escaping through the pipe C as a mixture of oil-gas, carbonic oxid, and free hydrogen.
In the manufacture of a water-gas the supply of oil-vapor may be cut off altogether and the steam admitted alone or in combination with a small percentage of the oil-vapor, and in this way by burning a gas-jet at the exit end of the apparatus or the holder the purity of the gas and its illuminating qualities may be observed and the candle-power be increased or diminished, as desired, by increasing the supply of oil-vapor or the supply of steam, as may be desired.
The apparatus as described is of the alternating c1assthat is to say, one in which the blowing up of heats alternates with the production of gas, it being impracticable to carry on the process of manufacturing gas continuously. If, however, it is desired to employ a continuous process with the same or practically the same apparatus, a retort is substituted for the fircbrick in the combustion-chamber, and the gas or steam, or both, is forced into the retort and escapes from the opposite end thereof as a fixed gas, the continuous fire in the combustion-chamber heating up the retort and at the same time keeping up the pressure of steam and of oilvapor without otherwise aitecting the operati0n,it being then possible to keep both escapevalves open and to permit the products of combustion to act at the same time on the oil and water chambers.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. An apparatus for the manufacture of gas, comprising in combination, a combustion-chamber, checker-work fire-brick contained therein, water-legs forming the steamboiler surrounding the combustion-chamber, a chamber containing oil mounted above said combustion-chamber, eseape-flues for the products of combustion in said oil-chamber, and valved outlets for directing the passage of the products of combustion either directly from the combustion-chamber or through the fiues of the oil-chamber.
2. The combination of the combustionchamber, a steam -boiler surrounding the same, a valved escape-flue leading directly from said combustion-chamber, a gas-outlet beneath the grate-bars of the combustionehamber, a mass of checker-work fire-brick in the combustion-chamber, an oil-chamber, escape-fines therein, and a valved outlet at the top of the oil-chamber for directing the passage of the products of combustion through the fines of said oil-chamber, substantially as specified.
3. An apparatus for manufacturing gas, comprising in combination, a combustionchainbcr B, a steam-boiler A, partially surrounding the combi'istion-ehamber, an oilcontaining chamber D above the combustionchamber, escape-fines for the products of combustion in said oil-chamber, valved outlets a and h, for directing the passage of the products of combustion either directly from the combustion-chamber or through the flues of the oil-chamber or partly through both outlets, vapor-pipes connecting the oil-chamber and the steam-boiler with the interior of the combustion-chamber, and an exit-pipe C for the manufactured gas provided in said combustion-chamber at a point below the grate- 10 bars, substantially as specified.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand, this 22d day of April, A. D. 1896, in the presence of two subscribing Witnesses.
FERDINAND LOGAN.
Witnesses:
JNo. E. PARKER, EDMUND S. MILLS.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102281893A (en) * 2008-11-14 2011-12-14 贝林格尔·英格海姆维特梅迪卡有限公司 Vaccine strains of brachyspira hyodysenteriae

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102281893A (en) * 2008-11-14 2011-12-14 贝林格尔·英格海姆维特梅迪卡有限公司 Vaccine strains of brachyspira hyodysenteriae

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