US560347A - Profiling-machine - Google Patents

Profiling-machine Download PDF

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US560347A
US560347A US560347DA US560347A US 560347 A US560347 A US 560347A US 560347D A US560347D A US 560347DA US 560347 A US560347 A US 560347A
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former
wheel
shaft
arm
face
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23CMILLING
    • B23C3/00Milling particular work; Special milling operations; Machines therefor
    • B23C3/16Working surfaces curved in two directions
    • B23C3/20Working surfaces curved in two directions for shaping dies
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T409/00Gear cutting, milling, or planing
    • Y10T409/30Milling
    • Y10T409/30084Milling with regulation of operation by templet, card, or other replaceable information supply
    • Y10T409/301176Reproducing means
    • Y10T409/302688Reproducing means with provision for circumferential relative movement of cutter and work
    • Y10T409/302744Reproducing means with provision for circumferential relative movement of cutter and work and means for operation without manual intervention

Description

6 SheetsSheet 1. G. E. DAVIS 8a 0, L. GROHMANN.
(No Model.)
PROFILING MACHINE.
No. 560,347. Patented May 19, 1896.
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O-UFHO.WASHING7DN D C 6 Sheets-Sheet 2. G. E. DAVIS & C. L. GROHMANN; PROPILING MACHINE. No. 560,347. Patented May 19, 1896.
(No Model.)
(No Model.) 6 Sheets-Sheet 5.
O. E. DAVIS 8a 0. L. GROHMANN.
. PROFILING MACHINE. No. 560,347. Patented May 1 mill IIlII III1 1 v 4 (No Model.) I 6 Sheets-Sheet 6.
0'. E. DAVIS & 0. L. GROHMANN. PROFILING MACHINE.
No. 560,347. v Patented May19, 1896.
a i a NITE TATES:
CHARLES E. DAVIS AND CARL L. GROIIMANN, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
PROFILylNG-MACHINE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 560,347, dated May 19, 1896. Application filed October 20,1894. Serial No. 526,513. (No model.)
To all whom, it ntay concern.-
Be itknown that we, CHARLES E. DAVIS and CARL L. GROHMANN, of Chicago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Profiling-ll'lachines, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description,reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, in which corresponding letters of reference in the differ ent figures indicate like parts.
The object of our invention is to provide a profiling-machine which shall be so constructed as to permit of the automatic shaping by means of a suitable cutter or tool of an indefinite variety of forms conforming in contour, respectively, with formers of varying shape. To this end our purpose, among other things, is to provide a profiling-machine in which the strain of the driving and feed belts shall be removed from the spindle in order to permit the attainment of high speed in the latter and the consequent satisfactory use of small cutters; further, to provide a novel feed mechanism for the machine, whereby the lineal feed of the work is rendered uniform in speed regardless of the distance of the tool at any given time from the axis of the face plate upon which the work is held; further, to enable a former to be employed which is larger than the size of the article to be formed. Again, we desire by means of novel and simple adjustments to cut cams or other forms of a steeper pitch than has heretofore been in the size thereof by means of a tapering former-pin, thus insuring exact work and enabling all of the special forms to be made by the use of plain cutters in lieu of a variety of cutters of special and costly shapes. Moreover, it is our purpose to provide certain novel devices'with relation to the feeding mechanism whereby it may be controlled either by hand or power.
. To these ends our invention consists in the combination of elements hereinafter more particularly described, and definitely pointed out in the claims.
In the drawings, Figure 1 is a front elevation of our improved machine. Fig. 2 is the side view thereof. Fig. 3 is an enlarged view in detail of a friction-wheel, being a modified construction. Fig. 4 is a central longitudinal sectional view in detail of the spindlehead. Fig. 5 is asectional view thereof, taken upon the line 5, Fig. 1, Viewed in the direction of the arrows there shown. Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken upon the line 6, Fig. 4. Fig. 7 is a side view of the machine, taken from an opposite direction from that shown in Fig. 2.
cal sectional view of the friction-Wheel shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 11 is an end view of said friction-wheel as seen from the front of the machine. Fig. 12 is a central horizontal sectional view of said frietion wheel. Fig. 13 is a detail view of the tilting arm for tilting the friction-wheel. Fig. 14 is a detail view of the ring for connecting the tilting arm with the wheel. Fig. 15 is a sectional view taken upon the line 15, Fig. 14. Fig. 16 is a vertical sectional View upon the line 16, Fig. 19. Fig. 17 is a longitudinal sectional view in detail of the oscillating faceplate-holding arm and the shafts and gearing mounted therein. Fig. 18 is a face view in detail of the face-plate, showing work of an irregular form clamped therein. Fig. 19 is a detail view of the oscillating arm, looking toward the face-plate, said arm being detached from the horizontal portion by which it is supported. Fig. 20 is an enlarged vertical sectional viewin detail of the hand feeding-crank and its connections. Fig. 21 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of the former-pin head. Fig. 22 is a like view showing a modification thereof. Fig. 23 is a front View of the face-plate, showing the clamping device for holding the work. Figs. 24, 26, 2S, and are like face views; and Figs. 25, 27, 29, and 31 are edge views of a face-plate, showing clamping devices with varying kinds of work therein.
Referring to the drawings, a represents the frame of our improved machine, which con- Fig. 8 is plan view in detail of the former-pin head, together with a sectional sists of an upright of cast metal of such proportions as to render it thoroughly rigid. Attached to the top of the frame Cb is sliding head 1), Figs. 1, 2, at, and 5, which is connected with the frame a by means of the dovetailed block if, arranged in a suitable guideway in said frame, as clearly shown in Fig. 5. Bolts b one of which is shown in said last-named figure, serve to attach the block b to hollow adjusting screw-bolts b tapped into the head I), by which the wear in the slide may be taken up when desired. Lugsc c are formed upon the block I)", through which is loosely passed a feeding-screw cl. (Indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 1 and shown in Figs. 2 and 5.) A nut (1' (indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 1) is formed upon the screw d and interposed between the lugs c c. The screw dis held from longitudinal movement in the frame, as indicated, so that when turned by means of a hand-wheel d thereon the head I) may be.
caused to slide longitudinally for the purpose of adjusting the, cutting-tool to the work or of removing it therefrom, as hereinafter stated.
Mounted in suitable bearings in the head I), as clearly shown in Fig. 4, is a hollow spindie 6, to which is keyed a disk 6', Figs. 4 and 5, to which is, attached by means of a screw 6 a square block e A stationary sleeve 6 through which the hollow spindle is passed, is rigidly attached to a bracket or arm b of the head I). A secondary sleeve 6 is loosely mounted upon thesleeve 6 upon which sleeve is in. turn loosely mounted the hub of a main driving-pulley f, of which said sleeve forms the hearing. A slot 6 is formed in the web of said pulley, into which is loosely inserted the block 6", thus indirectly connecting the pulley f with the hollow spindle, so that as the former is rotated it will cause the rotation of the latter. It will be observed that this. construction enables the hollow spindle to be entirely relieved from the strain of the belt, and hence it may be rotated at a high rate of speed without danger of heating. Moreover, it permits the use of a small and inexpensive cutter where otherwise a large one would need to be employed to accomplish a satisfactory amount of work.
Abracket g, provided with a sleeve integral therewith, is rigidly attached to the frame, and serves as a support for a secondary pulley g, which is attached to a ring g by means of a screw 9 which is in turn splined to the hollow. spindle. Thus the outer end of the spindleis supported while the strain of the pulley g is entirely removed therefrom.
A draw-in spindle g is placed within the hollow spindle e and is provided with a handwheel g3, by which it is operated. The other end is tapped into the usual cone-chuck, as
shown, for the purpose of holding the tool 9 The pulley g is connected by meansof a belt g Figs. 1 and 2, to a cone-pulley g, mounted upon a. bearing attached to the frame, which pulley is connected to a secondary cone-pulley h by means of a belt it, said pulley being mounted upon a stud 72 rigidly attached to the frame. A spiral spring 7t is interposed between the pulley and frame for the purpose hereinafter stated. Rigidly attached to the pulley 72' is a friction-disk i, which is intended to rotate continuously and is designed to antomatically regulate the feed, as hereinafter specified.
We will first describe our improved means for giving an oscillatory movement to the face-plate,wherebythe position of the cuttin gtool is accommodated to the contour of the work, after which we will describe our inproved automatic feeding device.
Mounted in horizontal bearings j, Fig. 1., is a hollow rock-shaft 7c. Shown in section in Fig. 17. Said hollow shaft is provided with a flange 7t, to which is detaehably secured by means of a like flange bolted thereto, a hollow upright arm Z, upon the upper end of which is formed a head i, within which is mounted a revolublc face-plate m. A hub m, Fig. 17, is preferably formed upon the faceplate, which hub is secured in a suitable bearing in the head or upper part of the arm Z. A ring m fitted within an offset in the face plate, as clearly shown in Fig. 17, is bolted to a flange upon the head and serves to re tain the face-plate in position while permit ting it to be rotated.
Formed upon the periphery of the faceplate within the head are gear-teeth, as shown adapted to engage with a worm m, Fig. 15), upon a shaft m, located within the arm Z. The upper end of the shaft on is secured in a bearing m Figs. 10 and 19, which is rendered laterallyadjustable by means of the set-screw m and adj listing-plate m which enables any desired adjustment to be made. The lower end of the shaft 177." is supported within a bearin g 772 which is rigidly connected, as shown in Fig. 17, with a similar bearing 76*, detachably secured within the hollow rock-shaft 71'. The bearing 71: together with a suitable bearing 76*, supported in the opposite end of the rock-shaft, serves to support a shaft it within the rock-shaft 7c, the former of which is connected with the shaft 712 by means of four peculiarly-arranged beveled gears 7.1", a, a, and m, Figs. 7, 17, 19, and 20. The gear n is mounted upon a short hollow shaft of, Fig. 20, which is secured within a bearing or at the base of the arm Z, thus enabling the shaft to extend outwardly toward the front of the machine. Keyedrigidly to the outer end of the shaft n is a hand-wheel n Figs. 1, 2, 7, 1!), and 20, by which the shaft on" may be. operated by hand, when desired, through the gear 12. WVithin the hollow shaft n which forms a bearing therefor, is placed a shaft a, to which the gear 01 is attached. Splined to the outer end of the shaft 01 is a hub 12, which extends beyond said outer end, as shown in Fig. 20, and is adapted to be moved longitudin ally thereon,while required to rotate therewith. A plate a" is rigidly attached to the outer end of the hub. A screw it having a shoulder 01 thereon, is tapped into the shaft 7"? and is provided with a hand-wheel n which, when turned, serves to impart-a 1ongitudinal movement to the hub. The hub is provided with a cone-shaped flange n adapted to fit within a corresponding recess formed in the hub of the hand-wheel n. Thus by means of the hand-wheel n the cone-shaped rim n may be forced into said recess, thereby clutching the hub n and hand-wheel n together by frictional contact and causing the shafts 02 71 to rotate as one. The shaft 10 (see Figs. 7 and 17) is connected by means of intermediate mechanism, hereinafter described, with a source of power for the purpose of rotating the face-plate. Vhen, therefore, the friction-clutch just described is set, as shown in Fig. 20, the gear meshing into the gear 71, drives the latter, and with it the gear 11,, which in turnengages with the gear m thus driving the shaft m and imparting motion to the face-plate m through the worm m Upon reversing the hand-wheel n and loosening the friction-clutch the gears 70 71 continue to rotate, but the shaft 12 remains stationary, and hence no motion is imparted to the face-plate; but should it be desirable to feed the work by hand this may be accomplished by turning the hand-wheel n Thus it will be seen that the machine may be adj usted at will so that the face-plate may be rotated by power automatically or by hand by merely clutching or unclutching the shafts n n".
Attached to the left-hand end of the shaft k Figs. 2 and 17, is a gear-wheel 0 in engagement with a worm 0 upon a shaft 0 One end of the latter is supported in bearings formed in a casing 0 which covers the gear 0. The other end of said shaft is supported in a bearing 0, Fig. 2, upon the outer end of the stud 71. (shown in Fig. 1 and indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 2,) said stud extending through a central opening in the frictiondisk t'.
Loosely mounted upon the shaft 0 is a sleeve 0 Figs. 9, 10, 11, and 12, which is splined into the groove 0, so as to permit a longitudinal movement upon said shaft while rotating therewith. Upon one end of said sleeve is formed a ball 0 which serves as a bearing for a wheel 19. Pins 0 0 Fig. 12, are projected from the body of the wheel into grooves 0" in such manner as to permit the wheel to tilt laterally upon its axis while causing the rotation of the sleeve 0 and shaft 0 The body of the wheel 13 is made in two parts bolted together, as indicated, to enable it to be placed upon the ball. sections is preferably secured a ring 19 of rubber or other suitable material, having a friction-surface adapted to engage in frictional contact with the surface of the frictionwheel 1'. Placed loosely within a groove or recess formed between two sections of the wheel 1) is a ring p, Figs. 9, 10, 11, 12, 14,
Between the and 15, which is cut away, as shown at 19 and notched at the sides, as shown at 19 19 A collar 10 is loosely mounted upon the sleeve 0 said collar having an arm 19 with a notch 19 formed upon its under side, which is in operative connection with the cut-away portion of the ring 19. Trunnions 19 p are formed upon the collar and are connected by means of links 10 19 to the respective branches ff of an arm g, which is rigidly attached to the rock-shaft f Figs. 1 and 2, sustained in a bearing within a hollow stud f which is rigidly attached to the frame. The inner end of the shaft f has an arm f (indicated in dotted lines,) which is connected by means of a link f to an arm f, which is rigidly attached to the rock-shaft 7c. Bythis means the oscillation of the rock-shaft is communicated to the sleeve p thereby actuating the latter and moving the friction-wheel 19 either toward or away from the center of the disk 11, according to the direction of the movement of the rockshaft. In order to save power and prevent undue wear of the friction-surfaces upon the wheel 19 and disk 2', which would occur asa result of forcibly sliding the former upon the latter, we provide the means described for tilting the wheel 19 obliquely to the shaft 0 which causes it to roll to or from the center, according to the direction in which it is tilted. The relative distance of the wheel from the center of the disk 2' governs its speed, which varies in exact proportion to said distance, and hence varies the speed of the face-plate m through the shafts 0 70 m. The object of this devicewill be more clearly understood in connection with the construction and operation of the former with reference to the cutting-tool, which will now be described.
Secured in the hollow hub m of the faceplate m is a tapered pin 0", to the outer end of which is attached by means of a suitable nut a former .9, Figs. 1, 7, and 17. A bracket t, Figs. 1 and 7, is formed upon the frame, which is provided with a dovetailed groove, in which is fitted an arm t, adapted to slide thereon. A screw 6 having a hand-wheel i is tapped into a depending lug secured to the arm t. By turning the hand-wheel the arm may be moved backward or forward to any desired position. I
Secured in the upper end of the arm 15 by means of a hand tightening-screw 25, Figs. 1, 7, 8, 21, and 22, is a former-pin holder i which may be adjusted longitudinally by means of a screw-thread thereon, as shown, and is preferably made hollow, so as to receive a former-pin t therein. The formerpin is adjusted so as to engage with the former, whatever its character or contour may be. If a cam, as shown in Figs. '7 and 8, the end of the former-pin is placed in the groove 8 thereof, in which case we prefer to employ a straight former-pin, as shown in Fig. 8. In case a different former is used upon workrequiring profile-cutting only, we prefer to employ a tapered former-pin, as shown in Figs.
21 and 22. In such case the former-pinholder '6 which is tapped into the head of the part 2, may be adjusted longitudinally, so as to permit the tapered portion of the pin to bear upon the former in such a way as to compensate for the wear of the cutter. Thus it is obvious that not only a cutter of very small diameter may be employed, but it may be permitted to wear indefinitely and yet insure accurate work. A great advantage of this construction which permits the use of a small cutter is that it enables every variety of work to be speedily, accurately, and cheaply done that has heretofore required the use of special and expensive cutters. The means for adjusting and aiding in the manipulation of the parts referred to are the followin g: An arm t Figs. 2 and 7 is formed upon the arm i, upon which is mounted a sheave i over which is trained a cord it, having a weight it thereon. An eccentric hand-clamp 1L (better shown in Fig. 2) enables the cord to be clamped atwill. The end of the cord is attached to the head Z of the arm Z, and the constant tendency of the weight is to draw the arm forward and hold the former against the former-pin.
The work n, varying indefinitely in form, as indicated in Figs. 18 and 23 to 31, inclusive, is clamped upon the face-plate m, and a former .5' of the desired contour is attached to the oscillating head in the manner described. The former-pin is adjusted in contact with the former and the cord i unclutched, so as to permit the Weight to act and hold the former against the former-pin as the former is rotated. The cutter or tool g is then placed in the chuck and adjusted to the work by turning the hand-wheel d Powerbeing applied to the machine, the friction-wheel i is rotated in the manner described, and being pressed by the action of the spring 7? against the frietion-whcel p the motion of the latter is imparted in the manner specified to the face plate. Assuming that the work to be done is the cutting of a groove in a cam r, Fig. 1., the contour of which is like that shown at s, Fig. 7, as the face-plate is rotated the arm Z is oscillated to conform to the variations in the former. Assuming the former to be in the position shown in Fig. 7, the friction-wheel 1), Fig. 2, as a result of the position of the rockshaft, will be very near the center of the disk *5, and consequently will be rotated at a minimum rate of speed, thereby rotating the faceplate slowly, so as to feed the work to the cutter g at no greater speed than if the cutter were nearer to the axis of the cam. As the face-plate is further rotated so as to bring the former-pin in that part of the groove nearest to the center of the former, the wheel 19 is moved farther from the center of the disk 1' and is thereby caused to rotate at a proportionately higher rate of speed, thus rotating the face-plate faster when the cutter is nearest to the center. By this means the lineal feed to the cutter is always automatically lllttlllbtlllGtl at a uniform rate, regardless of the shape of the former, the speed of rotation of the face-plate being always in proportion to the distance of the former-pin from the center of the former.
In lieu of the tilting wheel, which automatically accommodates itself to the desired direction of movement of the sleeve 0" upon the shaft 0 an ordinary wheel may be used, as shown in Fig. 3; but the power required to shift it would be much greater.
Aside from the advantage incident to an automatic and uniform lineal feed, which is the direct result of the employment of the rockshaft 76 and the oscillating face-plate, this construction enables a much larger former to be employed and allows profile work to be done of a much steeper pitch than can be done upon ordinary machines, while the friction incident to the work is greatly decreased. Moreover, the automatic feed described onables the tool to cut with greater smoothness than if the feed were varied, as it necessarily would be when controlled by hand.
It is obvious that the conditions described may be reversed and that the cutting-tool and former-pin instead of being stationary may be made to oscillate in harmony with the contour of the former by which it may be controlled, and that the work and former may be placed upon the stationary axis and rotated to conform in its lineal feed to the contour of the former without departing from the principle involved in our invention; but we prefer the construction hereinbefore set forth.
Having thus described our invention, we claim- 1. The combination in a profiling-machine of an oscillating arm, a revoluble former mounted thereon, for determining the contour of the Work to be formed an adjustable formerpin, means for securing the same in a stationary position, a work-holdin g face-plate in operative connection with said former, a cutting-tool, means for feeding the work thereto, a source of power for actuating said former and cutting-tool, and means such as a weighted cord and pulley for holding the former in engagement with the former-pin with a yielding pressure, whereby all play is taken up and the exact contour of the former is followed in the work, substantially as described.
2. In a profiling-machine, the combination of an oscillating arm mounted upon a rockshaft, a revoluble former mounted upon said arm, means for holding said former in operative contact with a stationary pin, a revoluble face-plate, a cutting-tool, a source of power in operative connection with said face-plate and cutting-tool, an automatic feeding device and means in operative connection with said rock-shaft whereby the lineal feed may be controlled by the relative position of the rockshaft as it is caused to oscillate by the former, substantially as described.
3. In aprofiling-macl1ine, the combination of an oscillatory arm mounted upon a rockshaft, a revoluble former mounted upon said arm, means for holding said former in operative contact with a stationary pin, a revoluble face-plate, a cutting-tool, a source of power in operative connection with said face-plate and cutting-tool, a friction-disk, a laterallymovable friction-wheel connected with the feeding mechanism to drive the same, and means, in operative connection with said rockshaft for moving said friction-wheel away from or toward the center of said frictiondisk as said arm is oscillated by the former, substantially as described.
4. In a profiling-machine, the combination of an oscillatory arm mounted upon a rockshaft, a revoluble former mounted upon said arm, means for holding said former in operative contact with a stationary pin, a revoluble faceplate, a cutting-tool, a source of power in operative connection with said face-plate and cutting-tool, a friction-disk, a laterallytilting friction-wheel connected by means of suitable shafting and gears with the faceplate and means, in operative connection with said rock-shaft for laterally tilting said friction-wheel in harmony with the movement of said rock-shaft, substantially as described.
5. In a profiling-machine, the combination of a revoluble former mounted upon an oscillatory arm, a revoluble face-plate a cuttingtool, a source of power in operative connection with said face-plate and cutting-tool, a feeding device, a former-pin having a tapered end adapted to be brought into engagement with the former, means for adjusting said former-pin longitudinally, means for also adjusting the same at varying distances from the axis of the former and means for holding said former in operative contact with said former-pin, substantially as described.
6. The combination in a profiling-machine, of a revoluble former, a former-pin having a tapering end adapted to engage with the former, and means for adjusting said formerpin longitudinally, whereby the wear of the tool may be compensated for, substantially as described.
'7. The combination in a profiling-machine of a revoluble former mounted upon a rockshaft, a work-holding face-plate in operative connection therewith, feeding mechanism, a
friction-disk in operative connection with the driving-power for actuating the feeding mechanism, a friction-wheel adapted to be tilted obliquely to its axis and in frictional contact with said disk and interposed means in operative connection with said rock-shaft for tilting said friction-wheel in harmony with the oscillation of the face-plate, substantially as described.
8. The combination with the friction-diski of the laterally-movable tilting wheel 19 in operative connection with the feed mechanism, substantially as described.
9. The combination with a revoluble oscillatory former, of the shaft 0 in operative connection with the feed mechanism, disk 2', tilting wheel 19, lever q and means for automatically oscillating said lever in harmony with the oscillation of the former, substantially as described.
10. In a profiling-machine, the combination of an oscillatory arm, a revoluble former mounted thereon for determining the contour of the work to be formed, a former-pin, means for securing the same in a stationary position, means for holding the former in engagement therewith, a cutting-tool, means for feeding the work thereto, a source of power for actuatin g said former and cutting-tool, and means for receiving the belt pull, whereby the cutting-tool may be relieved from friction, substantially as described.
11. In a profilin g-machine, the combination of a spindle for holding the cutting-tool, a driving-pulley mounted upon a bearing independent of the spindle, and a disk splined or otherwise secured to thespindle and connected with said pulley by means of a sliding or yielding connection, whereby rotary motion may be imparted to the disk while said disk is wholly relieved from the belt strain, substantially as described.
In testimony whereof we have signed this specification, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses, this 13th day of July, 1894.
- CHARLES E. DAVIS.
CARL L. GROHMANN. \Vitnesses D. H. FLETCHER, W. H. OHAMBERLIN.
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2735307A (en) * 1956-02-21 nordsieck
US2779883A (en) * 1954-02-01 1957-01-29 Helmut W Schumann Motor tool

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2735307A (en) * 1956-02-21 nordsieck
US2779883A (en) * 1954-02-01 1957-01-29 Helmut W Schumann Motor tool

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