US5302924A - Temperature compensated dielectric filter - Google Patents

Temperature compensated dielectric filter Download PDF

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Publication number
US5302924A
US5302924A US07906214 US90621492A US5302924A US 5302924 A US5302924 A US 5302924A US 07906214 US07906214 US 07906214 US 90621492 A US90621492 A US 90621492A US 5302924 A US5302924 A US 5302924A
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Prior art keywords
capacitor
temperature compensated
dielectric material
side surfaces
body
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Expired - Fee Related
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US07906214
Inventor
Heli Jantunen
Aimo Turunen
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Filtronic LK Oy
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Filtronic LK Oy
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P1/00Auxiliary devices
    • H01P1/30Auxiliary devices for compensation of, or protection against, temperature or moisture effects ; for improving power handling capability
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P1/00Auxiliary devices
    • H01P1/20Frequency-selective devices, e.g. filters
    • H01P1/201Filters for transverse electromagnetic waves
    • H01P1/205Comb or interdigital filters; Cascaded coaxial cavities
    • H01P1/2056Comb filters or interdigital filters with metallised resonator holes in a dielectric block

Abstract

A temperature compensated filter comprises a block (1) of dielectric material having at least one transmission line resonator (3) formed herein. All surfaces except one side surface of the block are substantially coated with an electrically conductive layer (11). For achieving temperature compensation, a capacitor (6) coupled to the conductive layer (11) through a strip line (7) is attached, in a heat conductive way, to the uncoated side surface of the dielectric block. The capacitor (6) tunes the main resonator and the temperature dependence of its frequency is opposite that of the dielectric body so that it compensates the temperature dependence of the frequency of the main resonator.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a temperature compensated filter comprising a body of dielectric material having at least one transmission line resonator formed therein.

A dielectric filter is disclosed in European patent application EP-A-0,401,839 and corresponding U.S. Pat. No. 5,103,197, comprising a body of dielectric material which has upper and lower surfaces, two side surfaces, two end surfaces, and at least one hole extending from said upper surface towards said lower surface, an electrically conductive layer covering major portions of the lower surface, one side face, both end faces and the surface of said at least one hole so as to form said at least one transmission line resonator.

The properties required from the dielectric material are a high proportional dielectrical coefficient εr and a small dissipation coefficient. The difficulty with this is that although materials with sufficiently high dielectric coefficients (about 8-100) and low temperature dependence, are available on the market they are relatively expensive and difficult to procure. Relatively good εr values and a low temperature dependence of frequency can be obtained with ceramic compounds, for example, but the dissipation coefficients generally increase in these compounds.

The purpose of the present invention is to arrange, by using comparatively simple means, the temperature compensation of the frequency of a dielectric filter in which the material of the dielectric body can be chosen relatively freely on the basis of price and an advantageous dissipation coefficient.

According to the present invention a dielectric filter having the features mentioned in the opening paragraph above is characterized in that a capacitor is coupled to the transmission line resonator for tuning the filter and having a temperature coefficient of frequency opposite that of the dielectric body.

The capacitor itself forms part of the resonance circuit the frequency of which varies with temperature in the opposite sense to the frequency variation of the filter. Since the capacitor is coupled to the "main" transmission line resonator it has the effect of temperature compensating the filter.

Suitably, the filter may have a structure in accordance with that disclosed and claimed in the aforementioned European patent application and the corresponding US patent.

The capacitor may be a so-called chip capacitor which is attached to the dielectric body adjacent the hole therein, preferably on a side surface where the conductive layer is not present.

In a preferred embodiment the capacitor has one terminal electrically coupled to the electrically conductive layer, preferably through a conductive strip provided on the side surface of the dielectric body where the conductive layer is not present. The other terminal of the capacitor may also be coupled to a further conductive strip on the same side face.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

An embodiment of the invention will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a dielectric filter in accordance with the invention,

FIG. 2 is a cross section of the filter in FIG. 1, and FIG. 3 is a side view of the filter in FIG. 1 (with the conductive cover omitted).

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the filter comprises a ceramic block 1 substantially covered with a conductive layer 11, except for one side surface. A cover plate 2, made of pressed metal overlies the uncoated surface of the block. The holes 3 extend through the block 1 and these are coated with the conductive layer 11 thus forming respective transmission line resonators. Areas 4 around the holes on the top surface of the block are left free of conductive material. As disclosed in detail in the aforementioned European patent application and corresponding US patent, and electrode pattern is provided on the uncoated side surface of the dielectric block to allow coupling to the resonator and between adjacent resonators. It is noted here that the coupling to the resonators is generally inductive at the lower parts of the ceramic block and generally capacitive at the upper parts. Coupling pins 5 which extend through the metal cover 2 permit coupling to the filter via the electrode pattern on the side surface.

In accordance with the invention, a capacitor 6, connected to the dielectric block in a thermally conductive manner, is placed on the uncoated side surface of the filter i.e. the same surface on which the electrode pattern is situated, for compensating the temperature dependence of the frequency of the dielectric substance of the base block. Lower surface 6a of the capacitor is attached to separate ends of strip lines 8 present on the side surface of the block as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3; whereas the upper conductive surface 6b is connected to coating 11 of the base block through strip line 7. The material of dielectric layer 6c of the chip-type capacitor, for example, is so chosen that this capacitor which tunes the main resonator comprises an opposite temperature dependence of frequency with respect to the main resonator.

Because the connection in the upper part of the filter is mainly capacitive and inductive in the lower part thereof, as stated above, the capacitor is placed in the upper part. Thus it is comprehended that a shunt connection of inductance (formed by strip line 7) and capacitance is formed in which the temperature dependence of the capacitance varies in an opposite direction with respect to the material of the base block.

It will be evident that the capacitor can be of a type other than the chip capacitor shown in the drawing and that its attachment may also be different.

In FIG. 3 it is shown that the position of the temperature compensating capacitor 6 may vary from resonator to resonator. Alternatively, the capacitors 6 may be provided at the same position at some or all of the resonators.

The amount of compensation of the temperature dependence of the frequency of the main resonator 3 depends on the temperature coefficient of the compensating capacitor 6 as well as on the strength of coupling between the main resonator 3 and the side resonator circuit, as the combination of the capacitor 6 and the strip lines 7, 8 could be called. The strength of coupling depends on the distance between the main resonator 3 and the side resonator circuit so that the shorter the distance is, the stronger is the coupling between the main resonator 3 and the side resonator circuit. Besides temperature compensation the side resonator circuit affects the resonance frequency of the main resonator 3. The Q value of the side resonator circuit is smaller, i.e. the losses are greater than of the main resonator 3. Therefore the resonance frequency of the side resonator circuit should be chosen so that it does not deteriorate the characteristics of the main resonator. The resonance frequencies of the main resonator and the side resonator circuit should therefore differ enough in order to avoid disturbances. When the resonance frequency of the main resonator is for example around 900 MHz the resonance frequency of the side resonator circuit should be at least above 1 GHz, for example 1300 MHz. The position of the temperature compensating capacitor affects the main resonator, so that the closer it is to the capacitive end of the main resonator, the stronger it affects the temperature compensation and the frequency of the main resonator.

Claims (10)

We claim:
1. A temperature compensated filter comprising a body of dielectric material having at least one transmission line resonator formed therein, and a capacitor coupled to said transmission line resonator for tuning said filter and having a temperature coefficient of frequency opposite that of the dielectric body.
2. A temperature compensated filter as in claim 1, wherein said body of said dielectric material has upper and lower surfaces, two side surfaces, two end surfaces, and at least one hole extending from said upper surface towards said lower surface, and an electrically conductive layer covering major portions of said lower surface, one of said two side surfaces, both of said two end surfaces and a surface defining said at least one hole so as to form said at least one transmission line resonator.
3. A temperature compensated filter as in claim 2, wherein said capacitor is present opposite to one of said two side surfaces of said body of dielectric material adjacent said at least one hole.
4. A temperature compensated filter as in claim 2 or claim 3, wherein said capacitor has one terminal electrically coupled to said electrically conductive layer.
5. A temperature compensated filter as in claim 4, wherein said one terminal of said capacitor is coupled to said electrically conductive layer through a conductive strip provided on the other of said two side surfaces of said block of dielectric material.
6. A temperature compensated filter as in claim 4 or claim 5, wherein said capacitor has another terminal electrically coupled to a further conductive strip provided on the other of said two side surfaces of said block of dielectric material.
7. A temperature compensated filter as in claim 3, wherein said capacitor is present on the other of said two side surfaces of said block of dielectric material at a location which
8. A temperature compensated filter as in claim 2, wherein said capacitor is a chip capacitor, attached to the other of said two side surfaces of said block of dielectric material.
9. A temperature compensated filter as in claim 2, wherein said body of dielectric material has at least two holes extending from said upper surface towards said lower surface, said at least two holes each being bounded by a surface which is covered by said conductive layer so as to form at least two resonators, further comprising respective capacitors each having a temperature coefficient of frequency opposite to that of said dielectric body and being provided on the other of said two side surfaces of the body of dielectric material adjacent said at least two holes.
10. A temperature compensated filter as in claim 9, wherein the respective capacitors are provided at different positions in a longitudinal direction of said holes.
US07906214 1991-06-25 1992-06-25 Temperature compensated dielectric filter Expired - Fee Related US5302924A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FI913087 1991-06-25
FI913087A FI88441C (en) 1991-06-25 1991-06-25 Temperaturkompenserat filter dielektriskt

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US5302924A true US5302924A (en) 1994-04-12

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Family Applications (1)

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US07906214 Expired - Fee Related US5302924A (en) 1991-06-25 1992-06-25 Temperature compensated dielectric filter

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US (1) US5302924A (en)
EP (1) EP0520665B1 (en)
JP (1) JPH05191106A (en)
CA (1) CA2071257A1 (en)
DE (2) DE69218674D1 (en)
FI (1) FI88441C (en)

Cited By (36)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5642084A (en) * 1992-01-22 1997-06-24 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Dielectric filter having respective capacitance gaps flushed with the inner surface of corresponding holes
US20070139277A1 (en) * 2005-11-24 2007-06-21 Pertti Nissinen Multiband antenna apparatus and methods
US20100244978A1 (en) * 2007-04-19 2010-09-30 Zlatoljub Milosavljevic Methods and apparatus for matching an antenna
US20100295737A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2010-11-25 Zlatoljub Milosavljevic Adjustable Multiband Antenna and Methods
US20110156972A1 (en) * 2009-12-29 2011-06-30 Heikki Korva Loop resonator apparatus and methods for enhanced field control
US8390522B2 (en) 2004-06-28 2013-03-05 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna, component and methods
US8473017B2 (en) 2005-10-14 2013-06-25 Pulse Finland Oy Adjustable antenna and methods
US8593237B1 (en) 2011-09-26 2013-11-26 Sandia Corporation Localized temperature stability of low temperature cofired ceramics
US8618990B2 (en) 2011-04-13 2013-12-31 Pulse Finland Oy Wideband antenna and methods
US8629813B2 (en) 2007-08-30 2014-01-14 Pusle Finland Oy Adjustable multi-band antenna and methods
US8648752B2 (en) 2011-02-11 2014-02-11 Pulse Finland Oy Chassis-excited antenna apparatus and methods
US8786499B2 (en) 2005-10-03 2014-07-22 Pulse Finland Oy Multiband antenna system and methods
US8866689B2 (en) 2011-07-07 2014-10-21 Pulse Finland Oy Multi-band antenna and methods for long term evolution wireless system
US8988296B2 (en) 2012-04-04 2015-03-24 Pulse Finland Oy Compact polarized antenna and methods
US9123990B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2015-09-01 Pulse Finland Oy Multi-feed antenna apparatus and methods
US9203154B2 (en) 2011-01-25 2015-12-01 Pulse Finland Oy Multi-resonance antenna, antenna module, radio device and methods
US9246210B2 (en) 2010-02-18 2016-01-26 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna with cover radiator and methods
US9350081B2 (en) 2014-01-14 2016-05-24 Pulse Finland Oy Switchable multi-radiator high band antenna apparatus
US9406998B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2016-08-02 Pulse Finland Oy Distributed multiband antenna and methods
US9450291B2 (en) 2011-07-25 2016-09-20 Pulse Finland Oy Multiband slot loop antenna apparatus and methods
US9461371B2 (en) 2009-11-27 2016-10-04 Pulse Finland Oy MIMO antenna and methods
US9484619B2 (en) 2011-12-21 2016-11-01 Pulse Finland Oy Switchable diversity antenna apparatus and methods
US9531058B2 (en) 2011-12-20 2016-12-27 Pulse Finland Oy Loosely-coupled radio antenna apparatus and methods
US9590308B2 (en) 2013-12-03 2017-03-07 Pulse Electronics, Inc. Reduced surface area antenna apparatus and mobile communications devices incorporating the same
US9634383B2 (en) 2013-06-26 2017-04-25 Pulse Finland Oy Galvanically separated non-interacting antenna sector apparatus and methods
US9647338B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2017-05-09 Pulse Finland Oy Coupled antenna structure and methods
US9673507B2 (en) 2011-02-11 2017-06-06 Pulse Finland Oy Chassis-excited antenna apparatus and methods
US9680212B2 (en) 2013-11-20 2017-06-13 Pulse Finland Oy Capacitive grounding methods and apparatus for mobile devices
US9722308B2 (en) 2014-08-28 2017-08-01 Pulse Finland Oy Low passive intermodulation distributed antenna system for multiple-input multiple-output systems and methods of use
US9761951B2 (en) 2009-11-03 2017-09-12 Pulse Finland Oy Adjustable antenna apparatus and methods
US9906260B2 (en) 2015-07-30 2018-02-27 Pulse Finland Oy Sensor-based closed loop antenna swapping apparatus and methods
US9948002B2 (en) 2014-08-26 2018-04-17 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna apparatus with an integrated proximity sensor and methods
US9973228B2 (en) 2014-08-26 2018-05-15 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna apparatus with an integrated proximity sensor and methods
US9979078B2 (en) 2012-10-25 2018-05-22 Pulse Finland Oy Modular cell antenna apparatus and methods
US10069209B2 (en) 2012-11-06 2018-09-04 Pulse Finland Oy Capacitively coupled antenna apparatus and methods
US10079428B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2018-09-18 Pulse Finland Oy Coupled antenna structure and methods

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DE4244146C2 (en) * 1992-12-24 1995-04-13 Ant Nachrichtentech A dielectric resonator

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GB157216A (en) * 1915-11-13 1922-04-10 Heinrich Kuehn Improvements in photomechanical printing processes
US4464640A (en) * 1981-10-02 1984-08-07 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Distribution constant type filter
US4559506A (en) * 1984-07-05 1985-12-17 Zenith Electronics Corporation Temperature compensated coaxial cable isolator
US4965537A (en) * 1988-06-06 1990-10-23 Motorola Inc. Tuneless monolithic ceramic filter manufactured by using an art-work mask process
US5010309A (en) * 1989-12-22 1991-04-23 Motorola, Inc. Ceramic block filter with co-fired coupling pins
US5015974A (en) * 1988-06-20 1991-05-14 Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. Isolating circuit and dielectric filter for use therein
US5103197A (en) * 1989-06-09 1992-04-07 Lk-Products Oy Ceramic band-pass filter
US5202654A (en) * 1991-07-22 1993-04-13 Motorola, Inc. Multi-stage monolithic ceramic bandstop filter with isolated filter stages
US5202653A (en) * 1990-04-17 1993-04-13 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Band-pass filter including resonance elements coupled by a coupling line and a by-pass coupling line

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FR2541536B1 (en) * 1983-02-22 1989-09-08 Thomson Csf Generator of millimeter wave electronic pacing rate
DE3414864C2 (en) * 1984-04-19 1990-02-22 Ant Nachrichtentechnik Gmbh, 7150 Backnang, De
US4901044A (en) * 1988-01-13 1990-02-13 Taiyo Yuden Co., Ltd. Distributed-constant filter
US4879533A (en) * 1988-04-01 1989-11-07 Motorola, Inc. Surface mount filter with integral transmission line connection
JPH07105644B2 (en) * 1988-10-18 1995-11-13 沖電気工業株式会社 Yukyokugata dielectric filter
DE4029410A1 (en) * 1990-09-17 1992-03-19 Ant Nachrichtentech Cavity resonator with temp. compensation - using bimetallic plate with higher heat expansion coefft. metal lying on outside

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB157216A (en) * 1915-11-13 1922-04-10 Heinrich Kuehn Improvements in photomechanical printing processes
US4464640A (en) * 1981-10-02 1984-08-07 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Distribution constant type filter
US4559506A (en) * 1984-07-05 1985-12-17 Zenith Electronics Corporation Temperature compensated coaxial cable isolator
US4965537A (en) * 1988-06-06 1990-10-23 Motorola Inc. Tuneless monolithic ceramic filter manufactured by using an art-work mask process
US5015974A (en) * 1988-06-20 1991-05-14 Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. Isolating circuit and dielectric filter for use therein
US5103197A (en) * 1989-06-09 1992-04-07 Lk-Products Oy Ceramic band-pass filter
US5010309A (en) * 1989-12-22 1991-04-23 Motorola, Inc. Ceramic block filter with co-fired coupling pins
US5202653A (en) * 1990-04-17 1993-04-13 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Band-pass filter including resonance elements coupled by a coupling line and a by-pass coupling line
US5202654A (en) * 1991-07-22 1993-04-13 Motorola, Inc. Multi-stage monolithic ceramic bandstop filter with isolated filter stages

Cited By (45)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6014067A (en) * 1992-01-22 2000-01-11 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Dielectric resonator filter having a portion of the outer surface closer to the resonators
US6078230A (en) * 1992-01-22 2000-06-20 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Characteristic adjusting method for dielectric filter using a grinding tool
US6087910A (en) * 1992-01-22 2000-07-11 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Dielectric filter having stepped resonators with non-conductive gap
US5642084A (en) * 1992-01-22 1997-06-24 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Dielectric filter having respective capacitance gaps flushed with the inner surface of corresponding holes
US8390522B2 (en) 2004-06-28 2013-03-05 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna, component and methods
US8564485B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2013-10-22 Pulse Finland Oy Adjustable multiband antenna and methods
US20100295737A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2010-11-25 Zlatoljub Milosavljevic Adjustable Multiband Antenna and Methods
US8786499B2 (en) 2005-10-03 2014-07-22 Pulse Finland Oy Multiband antenna system and methods
US8473017B2 (en) 2005-10-14 2013-06-25 Pulse Finland Oy Adjustable antenna and methods
US20070139277A1 (en) * 2005-11-24 2007-06-21 Pertti Nissinen Multiband antenna apparatus and methods
US7663551B2 (en) 2005-11-24 2010-02-16 Pulse Finald Oy Multiband antenna apparatus and methods
US20100244978A1 (en) * 2007-04-19 2010-09-30 Zlatoljub Milosavljevic Methods and apparatus for matching an antenna
US8466756B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2013-06-18 Pulse Finland Oy Methods and apparatus for matching an antenna
US8629813B2 (en) 2007-08-30 2014-01-14 Pusle Finland Oy Adjustable multi-band antenna and methods
US9761951B2 (en) 2009-11-03 2017-09-12 Pulse Finland Oy Adjustable antenna apparatus and methods
US9461371B2 (en) 2009-11-27 2016-10-04 Pulse Finland Oy MIMO antenna and methods
US8847833B2 (en) 2009-12-29 2014-09-30 Pulse Finland Oy Loop resonator apparatus and methods for enhanced field control
US20110156972A1 (en) * 2009-12-29 2011-06-30 Heikki Korva Loop resonator apparatus and methods for enhanced field control
US9246210B2 (en) 2010-02-18 2016-01-26 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna with cover radiator and methods
US9406998B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2016-08-02 Pulse Finland Oy Distributed multiband antenna and methods
US9203154B2 (en) 2011-01-25 2015-12-01 Pulse Finland Oy Multi-resonance antenna, antenna module, radio device and methods
US9917346B2 (en) 2011-02-11 2018-03-13 Pulse Finland Oy Chassis-excited antenna apparatus and methods
US8648752B2 (en) 2011-02-11 2014-02-11 Pulse Finland Oy Chassis-excited antenna apparatus and methods
US9673507B2 (en) 2011-02-11 2017-06-06 Pulse Finland Oy Chassis-excited antenna apparatus and methods
US8618990B2 (en) 2011-04-13 2013-12-31 Pulse Finland Oy Wideband antenna and methods
US8866689B2 (en) 2011-07-07 2014-10-21 Pulse Finland Oy Multi-band antenna and methods for long term evolution wireless system
US9450291B2 (en) 2011-07-25 2016-09-20 Pulse Finland Oy Multiband slot loop antenna apparatus and methods
US8593237B1 (en) 2011-09-26 2013-11-26 Sandia Corporation Localized temperature stability of low temperature cofired ceramics
US9123990B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2015-09-01 Pulse Finland Oy Multi-feed antenna apparatus and methods
US9531058B2 (en) 2011-12-20 2016-12-27 Pulse Finland Oy Loosely-coupled radio antenna apparatus and methods
US9484619B2 (en) 2011-12-21 2016-11-01 Pulse Finland Oy Switchable diversity antenna apparatus and methods
US8988296B2 (en) 2012-04-04 2015-03-24 Pulse Finland Oy Compact polarized antenna and methods
US9509054B2 (en) 2012-04-04 2016-11-29 Pulse Finland Oy Compact polarized antenna and methods
US9979078B2 (en) 2012-10-25 2018-05-22 Pulse Finland Oy Modular cell antenna apparatus and methods
US10069209B2 (en) 2012-11-06 2018-09-04 Pulse Finland Oy Capacitively coupled antenna apparatus and methods
US9647338B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2017-05-09 Pulse Finland Oy Coupled antenna structure and methods
US10079428B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2018-09-18 Pulse Finland Oy Coupled antenna structure and methods
US9634383B2 (en) 2013-06-26 2017-04-25 Pulse Finland Oy Galvanically separated non-interacting antenna sector apparatus and methods
US9680212B2 (en) 2013-11-20 2017-06-13 Pulse Finland Oy Capacitive grounding methods and apparatus for mobile devices
US9590308B2 (en) 2013-12-03 2017-03-07 Pulse Electronics, Inc. Reduced surface area antenna apparatus and mobile communications devices incorporating the same
US9350081B2 (en) 2014-01-14 2016-05-24 Pulse Finland Oy Switchable multi-radiator high band antenna apparatus
US9948002B2 (en) 2014-08-26 2018-04-17 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna apparatus with an integrated proximity sensor and methods
US9973228B2 (en) 2014-08-26 2018-05-15 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna apparatus with an integrated proximity sensor and methods
US9722308B2 (en) 2014-08-28 2017-08-01 Pulse Finland Oy Low passive intermodulation distributed antenna system for multiple-input multiple-output systems and methods of use
US9906260B2 (en) 2015-07-30 2018-02-27 Pulse Finland Oy Sensor-based closed loop antenna swapping apparatus and methods

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
FI913087A0 (en) 1991-06-25 application
JPH05191106A (en) 1993-07-30 application
DE69218674T2 (en) 1997-10-02 grant
FI913087D0 (en) grant
EP0520665A2 (en) 1992-12-30 application
EP0520665A3 (en) 1994-06-08 application
CA2071257A1 (en) 1992-12-26 application
FI88441B (en) 1993-01-29 application
DE69218674D1 (en) 1997-05-07 grant
FI88441C (en) 1993-05-10 grant
EP0520665B1 (en) 1997-04-02 grant

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