US528367A - Robert l - Google Patents

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US528367A
US528367A US528367DA US528367A US 528367 A US528367 A US 528367A US 528367D A US528367D A US 528367DA US 528367 A US528367 A US 528367A
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pipes
tubular
cement
cementing
materials
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/005Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries by forcing prefabricated elements through the ground, e.g. by pushing lining from an access pit

Description

v UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

ROBERT HARRIS, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.

TUBULAR UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 528,367, dated October 30, 1894.

Application filed February 9,1894. Serial No. 499,584. (No model.)

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, ROBERT L. HARRIS. a c tizen of the United States, residing in the city, county, and State of New York, have invented an Improvement in Tubular Underground Structures, of which the following is a specification.

In Letters Patent No. 435,142, granted to me August 26, 1890, a means is set forth for introducing cement among loose materials for the purpose of strengthening or constructing foundations for piers and other structures, and in Letters Patent No. 464,771, granted to me December 9, 1891, a method of and means I 5 for constructing foundations or inclosures for buildings or other structures are set forth. In both of these patents adhesive material such as cement is introduced through tubes and by the same directed toward the place where the cement is to be lodged and allowed to harden, and in Patent No. 464,771 a method is described for opening up. a channel or way between the end of one pipe or pipes and the end of another pipe or pipes before the intro- 2 5 duction of the cementing material.

In the present invention I employ a mode of operation corresponding generally to that set forth in the aforesaid patents but proceed in such a manner as to form a tubular or substantially tubular structure in the sand or other material beneath the surface of the ground or below the bottom of a river, bay or other Water-course, so that the tubular structure produced in the earthy materials 3 5 can be opened or bored out after the cement hardens, and such cement will support the pressure of the earth or other materials above or around the tubular structure, and the cement and earthy materials may be used to form the tubular structure, or a lining of brickwork or other suitable material may be applied within the tubular structure after it has been bored out or excavated; and I provide for separating the structure into sections so as to keep out water or fine material where the structure is beneath the vwater and to allow for excavating one tubular section while the cementing materials of another section are hardening. In all instances such 50 tubular structure is produced progressively bythe cementing material introduced through pipes from'the surface or above the ground or water. In wet or troublesome earthy materials a large portion of the expense of making sewers or tunnels when excavated from the surface, is for the side sheeting or protection and for the excavation of the materials above the proposed structure and the filling in above the structure.

By my present improvement a large portion of expense of sewers, tunnels and similar tubular structures is saved by dispens ing with the excavation and the sheeting or protection for the same and the returning of the material above the tubular structure; and where the material is troublesome and treacherous, such as in quicksands, the risk of caving in is entirely prevented or reduced to a minimum and the cemented structure which is formed in the earthy material before any portion is disturbed or removed increases the strength of the permanent structure which may be made within the tubular excavation.

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a vertical section illustrative of the mode of commencing the structure within the earthy materials. Fig. 2 is a plan illustrating the places where tubes are to be inserted downwardly from the surface of the earth. Fig. 3 is a section simi- 8o lar to Fig. 1 illustrative of the manner in which the upper portion of the tubular structure is made. Fig. 4 is a plan indicating the position of the tubes in relation to such structure.

The series of pipes G H are to be driven from the surface so that their lower ends are near the grade of the bottom of the tunnel or other tubular structure, and through these pipes or rows of pipes G and H cementing 9o material is inserted so as to form a floor A either by accretion, as set forth in my Patent N 0. 435,142, or channels or chambers may be opened up between the ends of the pipes previous to the insertion of the cementing mate- 5 rial, as set forth in my Patent No. 464,771, and the cementing material is to be so introduced that the cement from one pipe-will reach and commingle with the cement from another pipe so as to produce within the earthy materials the floor A which is tobe of suflicient thickness to withstand the pressure and to obtain the desired strength. The pipes G H are now to be drawn up sufficiently to clear their lower ends from the previously introduced cementing material.

The ranges of pipes I J are to be introduced at the proper-distances from the pipes G H and with their lower ends at the proper level for introducing cement to form with the ocmenting materials introduced through the pipes G H the inclined sides B and O in substantially the same manner as the floor A, the mode of procedure depending upon the character of the soil within which the structure is to be made, and in so doing either of the modes of operation set forth in my aforesaid patents may be made use of, and these planes or sides 13 and C are to be of the proper thickness and strength.

The pipes G and H are to be drawn up to the desired elevation for forming the top portions of the desired tubular structure, and the operations heretofore described are to be repeated for producing the inclined planes or sides D and E between the respective ranges of pipes I G and H J, and then a roof or top F is constructed in the manner similar to the floor A, by introducing cement between the pipes in the respective ranges of pipes G and H, as illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4:. The ranges of pipes may now be withdrawn and the earthy materials that are cemented together by the cement that is introduced as aforesaid are allowed to remain until the cementing material properly hardens; and it is to be understood that the before described operations are to be extended along the route of the tunnel, sewer or other tubular underground structure, and the cement shell is made within the earthy materials in sections progressively, one section being firmly united to the next when the cement structure is completed.

In structures that are beneath the water it is generally desirable to separate the tubular shell by transverse bulkheads. This is effected by cementing material introduced through pipes arranged in a plane or group transversely of the tubular tunnel or sewer, as shown at L, the cement being inserted in either or both of the modes before described. After the cement structure or shell has sufficiently hardened, the interior thereof can be excavated or bored out in any suitable manner and the material removed either at the end of the tunnel or through man-holes or shafts at suitable distances apart, and the sewer or tunnel may be lined with brickwork, metal plates or any other permanent structure, and the bulkheads made as aforesaid serve to divide up the cement shell or structure into sections that facilitate the construction, and should anyone section be found weak or defective, the section or tunnel can be flooded while the defect is remedied or the Weak place strengthened in any suitable manner, such as by the introduction of cementing material.

The shape of the structure may be varied as desired. It may be triangular, polygonal, circular or elliptical, and where it is desired to construct a solid foundation, this may be made therein after the tubular cement shell has been excavated.

This plan of making an underground shell offers a great advantage in treacherous ground or beneath bodies of water or in cities beneath streets or buildings. I do not therefore limit myself to any particular occasion upon which the present improvements may be employed.

I claim as my invention- 1. The method herein specified of forming tubular underground structures, consisting in forcing down pipes from the surface to near the level of the lower portion of the structure, introducing cementing materials through such tubes to cause the earthy materials to adhere together, introducing other ranges of pipes with their lower ends at a higher level and continuing the formation of the cement shell between the respective ranges of pipes and drawing up one range of pipes to a higher level, introducing cement through the respective pipes for the formation of the upper portion of the tubular structure, and excavating such tubular structure after the cementing materials have hard ened, substantially as set forth.

2. The method herein specified of forming tubular underground structures, consisting in forcing down pipes from the surface to near the level of the lower portion of the structure, introducing cementing materials through such tubes to cause the earthy materials to adhere together, introducing other ranges of pipes with their lower ends at a higher level and continuing the formation of the cement shell between ,the respective ranges of pipes and drawing up the first range of pipes to a higher level, introducing cement through the respective pipes for the formation of the upper portion of the tubular structure, introd uoing pipes and forcing in cementing material to divide up the tubular structure into sections by bulkheads or partitions, and excavating such tubular structure after the cementing materials have hardened, substantially as set forth.

Signed by me this 6th day of February, 18%.

ROBERT L. HARRIS.

Witnesses:

GEO. T. PINCKNEY, WILLIAM G. Morr.

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3934420A (en) * 1973-08-06 1976-01-27 Erik Ingvar Janelid Method of sealing the rock around a rock chamber intended for a medium, the temperature of which is below the natural temperature of the rock
US4900196A (en) * 1987-11-20 1990-02-13 Iit Research Institute Confinement in porous material by driving out water and substituting sealant
US5002431A (en) * 1989-12-05 1991-03-26 Marathon Oil Company Method of forming a horizontal contamination barrier
US5118220A (en) * 1988-06-15 1992-06-02 Kabushiki Kaisha Kematsu Seisakusho Method of building underground cavern and tunneling machine
US6520718B1 (en) * 1998-11-27 2003-02-18 Shigeki Nagatomo, Et Al. Sardine-bone construction method for large-section tunnel

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3934420A (en) * 1973-08-06 1976-01-27 Erik Ingvar Janelid Method of sealing the rock around a rock chamber intended for a medium, the temperature of which is below the natural temperature of the rock
US4900196A (en) * 1987-11-20 1990-02-13 Iit Research Institute Confinement in porous material by driving out water and substituting sealant
US5118220A (en) * 1988-06-15 1992-06-02 Kabushiki Kaisha Kematsu Seisakusho Method of building underground cavern and tunneling machine
US5002431A (en) * 1989-12-05 1991-03-26 Marathon Oil Company Method of forming a horizontal contamination barrier
US6520718B1 (en) * 1998-11-27 2003-02-18 Shigeki Nagatomo, Et Al. Sardine-bone construction method for large-section tunnel

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