US484814A - Calculating-machine - Google Patents

Calculating-machine Download PDF


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US484814A US484814DA US484814A US 484814 A US484814 A US 484814A US 484814D A US484814D A US 484814DA US 484814 A US484814 A US 484814A
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    • G06C7/00Input mechanisms
    • G06C7/02Keyboards
    • G06C7/08Keyboards with one set of keys for all denominations, e.g. ten-key board


(No Model.)
GALGULATING MACHINE. No. 484,814. Patented 001;. 25, 1892.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 484,814, dated October 25, 1892. Application filed June I8, 1891. Serial No. 396,678. (No model.)
To all whom t may concern:
Be it known that I, FRANCIS C. OSBORN, a citizen of the United States, residing at Detroit, in the county of WVayne and State of Michigan, have invented a new and useful Calculatilig-lvlachine, of which the following is a specification. Y This invention has relation to a calculating-machine, and has especial reference to a machine by which numbers may be added to or subtracted from a given number which the machine has been set to indicate or has been made to indicate before. I tis especially applicable to cash-registers or cash-recorders and machines of a similarnature in which it is desired to add consecutively one number after another and have the sum of all the additions indicated at a given line across the mechanism. The principal object of this invention,however,is to produce a calculatingmachine in which the gures representing the different orders of units that go to make up a number may appear in their proper order at a given line across the faces of the several registering-Wheels that are mounted on the same shaft and adapted to rotate around that shaft and in rotating present successively the figures which go to make up other or different sums, to provide each of these registering-wheels with its own independent actuating mechanism, by means of which it (ea ch independent registering-wheel) can be rotated or turned on its axis irrespective of the action of any otherone of the registering-wheels of the series, and in so rotating it will not. affect any other one of the series, except in so far as they ought to be rotated for the purpose of indicating the tens carried to them, and while each registering-wheel is thus adapted to be independ? ently rotated without affecting any other one of the series, except for the purpose of carrying, any two or more may be simultaneouslyrotated and the resulting number in-V dicated at the inspection-line will be precisely the same as though the register-wheels had been rotated at different times.
I employ a number of wheels upon which are printed or engraved the digits, and these wheels lie with respect to one anotherin such position that the figures are read on a line parallel with the shaft or arbor on which the numbered wheels revolve. Usually a case (which is not shown in the drawings) would conceal the mechanism, leaving exposed only those figures which are at the proper line at which the amount is to be read, and the exposure of the igures at those points being through an opening in the case the case would also form the supports for the ends of the arbor and for the mechanism chosen to operate the calculating-wheels. Inasmuch as it is possible to employ this calculating mechanism in connection with driving mechanism of various kinds or even possible to use it without any driving mechanism other than the hand or nger of the operator,I have not shown connected with it driving mechanism of any kind, but have preferred to describe my invention as 'separate and apart from any one of the various kinds of apparatus with which it maybe advantageously connected.
Figurel shows in elevation a series of three register-wheels and the mechanism to operate them. Fig. 2 shows a section of the same. Fig. 3 shows the gear employed as part of the mechanism. Fig. 4 shows an intermitting gear used in carrying.
I employ two parallel arbors A and B, both fixed to the su pportin g-framework. Upon the arbor A are a number of driving-wheels 1 2 ll 19 1315, each consisting of a pinion and large wheel,.as 1 2, as shown in the drawings. The pinion l is arranged with ten teeth, and the gear-wheel 2, which .is fast to the pinion l, meshes with gear-wheel 3 on the shaft B and is of equal diameter with that wheel. The gear-wheel 3 is fixed to and turns the register-vi-heel C and is also xed to and turns the wheel 4, which has at one part of its periphery two teeth having the same pitch as the intermitting wheel 5. The intermitting wheel 5 if full would have sixteen teeth, but
VAhas four teeth cut out, so that there are twelve teeth remaining in four sets of three teeth each. The peripheryof the wheellat its untoothed portion is carried out to the pitchline of the teeth.
The wheel 5 is fixed upon a small shaft supported by the standard D, and upon the same p small shaft to which the wheel 5 is fixed is also fixed the wheel (i, having sixteen teeth. The wheel 6 meshes into the wheel 7, which IOO has sixty teeth, and is journaled on the hub connecting the two parts 8 and 25 of a double wheel that is itself journaled on the arbor B. The wheel 7 carries two epicyclic wheels 9 9, which have a double motion, the one motion being a revolution on their own axes, which I will hereinafter call the motion of revolution of this wheel, and the second motion with the wheels 7 around its axis. This latter motion I will hereinafter call the motion of translation of the Wheel 9. The wheel 9 meshes into the wheel 25 and into the interiorly-geared wheel or circular rack 10.
y The moving parts from 10 onward are a repetition of the moving parts from C to 9, inclusive, except that O, being of the first order, is notvinternally geared, and the mechanism may be repeated indefinitely. On the arbor A is also journaled the wheel 19 and pinion 11, of which the pinion 11 has ten teeth, and the wheel 19, meshing with the wheel 8, has twice the number of teeth of wheel S.
The epicyclic wheel 9 has fourteen teeth and the annular wheel 10 has fifty-six teeth.
The proportions and relative number of teeth in the various wheels can of course be varied in accordance with the work desired to be performed. The proportions I have given will carry when one is using the decimal system. The same principle can be employed with wheels of dilt'erent proportion in carrying in accordance with any other system-as, for instance, the English monetary system.
In place of the form of epicyclic gear shown I can also employ readily the form in which the intermediate wheel is beveled and the driving and driven wheel are beveled.
The operation of the machine in calculating or in adding is as follows: A motionsay one revolution-ot` the pinion 1 produces one revolution of the register-wheel C, upon which is shown the ordinal numbers employed to indicate units of the first order. As the registerwheel C turns from 9 to 0 the teeth of the wheel 4 pass through their mesh with the teeth on the wheel 5 and turn the wheels 5 and 6 a quarter of a revolution. The wheel 6, turning a quarter of a revolution, or four teeth, turns the wheel 7 four teeth and carries the wheel 9 in translation over an arc equal to that occupied by four teeth on wheel 7. In its motionof translation wheel 9 has moved forward around the circumference of wheel25 and has carried with it the interiorly geared register-wheel 10. The four teeth that the wheel 7 has moved forward is one-iifteenth of a revolution,1 (the wheel 7 having sixty teeth.) Consequently the wheel 9 has moved over the wheel 25 one-fifteenth of a revolution; but while the epicyclic wheel 9 has moved in translation it has also rotated on its own axis, being compelled to do so because it meshes with wheel 25 and because wheel 25 is journaled so tightly on the journal B that the wheel 9 rolls upon it without carrying it forward, and inasmuch as wheel 25 has half as many teeth as register-wheel 19 the rotation of wheel 9 on its own axis will cause a forward movement of registerwheel 10 equal to one-half (in are) the distance it has moved on wheel 25, or while wheel 9 has progressed along wheel 25 oneiifteenth of a revolution it will have, besides carrying forward register-wheel 10 oneifteenth of a revolution, also driven it forward one-thirtieth of a revolution, the entire forward movement being the sum of the two motions or one-tenth of a revolution, and the ordinal numbers on it will have advanced one place. This result follows a motion of wheel 3 if the wheel 8 remains unmoved. If, however, the wheel 8 instead of remaining still is moved either at the same time with or at a ditferenttime from the movement of the wheel 3, it will produce a corresponding motion in the epicyclic wheel 9, and if its motion is in the same direction as that of the motion of the wheel 7 the motion due to both of wheels 7 and n will have been added together, and the resulting` motion of register-wheel 10 will be equal to the sum of the two motions, one of which has its origin from wheel 3 and the other of which has uits origin from the wheel 8. The motion having its origin from wheel 8, however, in this machine (which is arranged for a decimal system) is such that there is one complete revolution of the register-wheel10 for one complete revolution of the driving-wheel 19, `hut only one-tenth of a revolution for one complete revolution of the driving-wheel 2; but both the driving-wheels 2 and 19 may be operated either simultaneously or at different times and the result will be the same.
It will be noticed that the wheels 2, 19, and 15 are all driving-wheels, and are only necessary to the machine as an intermediate mechanism between the hand of the operator and the calculating mechanism proper. In place of them other equivalent device maybe used, such as racks act-ing directly on the wheels 3 S, or any equivalent method of turning the leading-wheels on the shaft B may be employed.
The wheel 2 is of the same diameter as the wheel 3 and contains the same number of teeth, and consequently the indicating-wheel C has the same amount of revolution as the wheel 2 or the pinion 1, because the engraved wheel C and the wheel 3 are in one piece or firmly connected together. The succeeding driving-wheel, however, as 19, is twice the diameter of the wheel 8, with which it meshes, because the wheel 8 is not connected directly to the engraved wheel 10, but through the epicyclic gear-wheels 9,1ying between the part 25, which has twenty-eight teeth, and the part 10, which has fty-six teeth, and this ratio will cause the indicating-wheel 10 to revolve once when the wheel 19 revolves once.
The wheel 3 may be termed the primary leading-Wheel andthe wheel 8 may be termed IOO purposes of addition; but it does not operate to move any of the registering-wheels of a lower order when the machine is used for purposes of addition. Then the machine is reversed and used for purposes of subtraction, each leading-wheel operates to move its own registering-wheeland all registering-wheels ot' a lower order, but does not move registeringwheels of a higher order.
The leading-wheels 3 8 are tightly iittedA upon the arbor B,so as not to slip or be moved except from the driving-wheels 2 19. The wheel 7, cbc., is loosely journaled on the hub of 8, so as to be readily moved around wheel S without causing any motion of that wheel.
In case it is desired to operate this calculating-machine by itself a very simple way of doing so would be to move the pinions 1, 11, and 13 by means ot rack-bars, or the operator may turn the wheels 2,19, and 15 with his `lingers, in which case it would be only necessary to add to them some indicating-marks by which the operator would know when he had moved them through the desired distance.
The apparatus is equally effective for subtracting by simply reversing the motion of the driving-wheels. i'
It will be seen that while the mechanism is extremly simple and the parts few in number it can be used for almost any form of calculation by connecting with it the proper driving mechanism. Ot' course the mechanism to be employed would dier with the result to be reached. Very simple mechanism or no mechanism at all beyond that shown will enable an operator to addor subtract, and very slight additions will enable the operator to multiply or divide.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as novel, and desire to have secured to me by Letters Patent,lis-
1.V A calculating-machine having for each order of units above the first aleading-wheel and a registering-wheel, an epicyclic gear actuated by said leading-wheel and actuating said registering-wheel, and atranslating-wheel carryin g said epicyclic wheel andarranged to be moved independently of the said leadingwheel and thereby to produce in said registering-wheel a motion due to the united motion of the two independent sources of motion, substantially as and for the purpose described.
2. In a calculating-machine, the combination of a registering-wheel for each order of units, gearing between the registering-wheels ofidiierent orders of units, adapted to carry from one order of units to another at each revolution of the registering-wheel carried from, and independent actuators for each vregistering-wheel carried to, adapted to operate in unison with said carrying-gear and to produce in said registering-wheels an aggregate movement equal to the combined movement of all of said actuators, all of said registeringwheels, gear wheels,y and actuators being adapted to movement in either direction, substantially as and for the purpose described.
3. In a calculating-machine, the combination of a registering-wheel with two independent actuating-wheels, one ot which is adapted to impart to said registering-wheel a constant motion continuous with its own motion and the other of which is adapted to impart to said registering-wheel an intermittin g motion equal to an aliquot part of its own motion, both of vsaid actuating-wheels being adapted to act simultaneously and to rotate in either direction and to impart to said registeringwheel an aggregate motion due to the continuous-motion of one wheel and the aliquot part of the motion of the other wheel.
4. In a calculating-machine, the combination of two or more registering-wheels, each operated by a leading-wheel, an epicyclic gear meshing with the leading-wheel directly actuating one of said registering-wheels and mounted on a moving wheel adapted to be actuated by the other of "said registeringwheels, substantially as and for the purpose described.
5. In a calculating-machine, the combination of a su pporting-arbor, a registering-wheel adapted to indicate one order of units, a leading-wheel and a registering-wheel for another order of units, all journaled on said arbor, and an epicyclic wheel meshing with said leadingwheel and with one of said registering-wheels and adapted to have motion of rotation from said leading-wheel and an intermittent motion of translation from theother of said registering-wheels and adapted to transmit to one of said registering-wheels the resultant of both its rotation and translation, substantially as and for the purpose described.
6. In a calculating-machine, a registeringdisk and an epicyclic pinion meshing therewith and driving said` registering-disk, said pinion receiving motionv of translation and motion or" rotation, respectively, from two independent actuators, one continuous, the other intermittent.
7. In a calculating-machine, two or more registering-disks registering units of orders higher than the rst, two or more epicyclic pinions, one for each disk, meshing with and driving said disks, each of said epicyclic pinions receiving a motion of translation and a motion of rotation from two independent actuators, one continuous and the other intermittent, and a carrying-pinion meshing with the first of said registering-disks and constituting the said intermittent actuator of the epicyclic pinion proper to the second or higher one of said registering-disks.
8. In a calculating-machine, a registeringdisk actuated by an intermittent carryingpinion and by its own proper actuating-wheel, neither of said actuators meshing directly with said registering-wheel, but each having IOC IIO
interposed between it and said registering- 'Wheel an epicyclic pinion, the saine pinion disk,both of said actuators transmitting their mot-ion to said second registering-disk through the same epicyclic pinion, one of said actuators giving said pinion a motion of rotation, the other giving it a motion of translation, substantially as and for the purpose described.
11. In a calcmating-machine, the registering-disk 10, epicyclic pinion 9,-engaging therewith,leading-Whee125,andintermittentwheel 7, both arranged to engage with said registering-Wheel indirectly, carrying-pinions 5 6, and registeringdisk C, all combined and operating as and for the purpose described.
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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2417074A (en) * 1940-08-02 1947-03-11 Armstrong Cork Co Counting device
US2528781A (en) * 1950-11-07 Tens-transfer device
US2638275A (en) * 1948-01-28 1953-05-12 Powers Samas Account Mach Ltd Accumulator for use in statistical machines
US2653766A (en) * 1953-09-29 Tens-transfer mechanism of the

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2528781A (en) * 1950-11-07 Tens-transfer device
US2653766A (en) * 1953-09-29 Tens-transfer mechanism of the
US2417074A (en) * 1940-08-02 1947-03-11 Armstrong Cork Co Counting device
US2638275A (en) * 1948-01-28 1953-05-12 Powers Samas Account Mach Ltd Accumulator for use in statistical machines

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