US1828180A - By edna b - Google Patents

By edna b Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US1828180A
US1828180A US1828180DA US1828180A US 1828180 A US1828180 A US 1828180A US 1828180D A US1828180D A US 1828180DA US 1828180 A US1828180 A US 1828180A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
wheel
gear
wheels
gearing
numeral
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Publication date
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US1828180A publication Critical patent/US1828180A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06MCOUNTING MECHANISMS; COUNTING OF OBJECTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06M1/00Design features of general application
    • G06M1/14Design features of general application for transferring a condition from one stage to a higher stage
    • G06M1/143Design features of general application for transferring a condition from one stage to a higher stage with drums
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06MCOUNTING MECHANISMS; COUNTING OF OBJECTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06M1/00Design features of general application
    • G06M1/04Design features of general application for driving the stage of lowest order
    • G06M1/047Design features of general application for driving the stage of lowest order for arithmetical operations

Description

Oct. 20, 1931. c. GARDNER CALCULTING MACHINE Cygnal Filed June '7, 1924 2 Sheets-Sheet l IIINHHIIHT Nlllll.
Umweg Oct. 20, 1931. C, GARDNER 1,828,180
CALCULATING MACHINE Criginal Filed June '7, 1924 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented oci. 2o, 1931 .UNITEDn STATES lPATENT OFFICE C CLYDE GARDNER, DECEASED, LATE 0F EBENSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA, BY EDNA B. GARDNER, ADMINISTRATRIX, OF EBENSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO GARDNER COMPANY, 0F EBENSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION 0F DELA- WARE CALCULATING MACHINE Original application led June 7, 1924, Serial No. 718,678. Divided and this application led December 5,
` 1930. Serial No. 500,201.
This invention relates to improvements in calculating machines and is illustrated in connection with a machine having one or more counters and wherein registrations of amounts set up on a single keyboard may be effected on any of the one or more counters.
Further the machine includes mechanism 'for accomplishing subtraction on one or more sets ot' counters simultaneously or successively during a single operation of the machine by simply turning the numeral wheels in the reverse direction and to accomplish this use diii'ereutial gearing, all necessary borrowing being effected through the medium of the `same ditferential gearing which 'in additive operations eliects carrying'.l
This carrying or borrowing between the successive numeral Wheels of the machine is accomplished by novel means involving the use of entocyclic gearing whichr is certain and positive in its action to eiiect such carry or borrow under all conditions of operation of the machine.
Another object is to produce a carrying or tens-transfer device which shall be simple of construction, comparatively inexpensive to manufacture, adapted to effect both additive and subtractive transfers, and highly efficient for the purpose for which it is designed.
This a 4division of the application of Clyde Gardner for calculating machine, filed June 7, 1924, Serial Number 718,678. The present case is limited to the tens-transfer or carrying mechanism and cooperating parts. Reference may be had to the parent application for a full description of the machine.
The foregoing and other objects and advantages will appear as the description proceeds. One embodiment of the invention is shown in the accompanying drawings, in which: f
F ig` 1 is a fragmentary vertical, front-to# rear sectional view of a machine embodying my invention and showing principally the relationship of the actuators and accumulators or numeral wheels.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged plan view of one set of numeral Wheels.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged vertical cross sectional view of the numeral wheels taken substantially on line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
The counter or accumulator operating; mechanism, Fig. 1, comprises pivoted threearmed rack levers 610, there' being one such provided for each denominational order which the machine is designed to handle. Each lever 610 includes an arm, 6100 which vterminates in an actuating rack for operatin the numeral wheels to be presently describen A second arm 610?) of each lever 610 is pivotally connected to a respective type-bar, for printing items, totals, sub-totals, etc., but as the printing mechanism forms no part of the invention herein claimed, details of these connections will not be set forth. A third arm 610@ extending upwardly and pivoted to an index blade 615 differentially stepped relatively to numeral keys 215. The keys are shown as are also the connections to the index blade7 but these will not be fully described, it being suiiicient for present purposes to know that by this means the extent of rotation of actuators 610 from normal for entering items is manually controlled.
Operating means for controlling excursions of the actuators, printing, and various other functions, are fully described in the said application but are not herein set forth in detail -as any suitable operating means could be used, as far as the present application is concerned.
Supported on the front tie bar 304 and accumulator lower support shaft 402, are ac cumulator end plates 410, in ixed relation to the machine side frame 310. The end plates 410 are provided with any desired number of slots 410e, providing a support of rods 403 on which the numeral wheel units are loosely mounted.
It may here be stated that the numeral wheels are devices in which the diiferent numbers accumulated are stored, no visual indication of such numbers appearing upon the wheels.
Referring now to Figs-2 to 6, inclusive, it will be seen that each rod 403 supports a series of numeral counter units arranged side by side thereon. Each unit includes a sleeve or hub 430, Fig. 6, mounted for rotation on the rod 403, which hub is provided with eccentric 430a at its left hand end (as viewed in Figs. 4, and 6,) a portion 4300 concentric with the bore, and a portion 4306 on the right ha'nd end also concentric with the bore. Mounted to rotate on the part 4300 is a nine toothed pinion 472 having a hub on which is rigidly secured an internal pin gear 471 the pins 471er of which project over the eccentric 430e. Rotatably mounted on the eccentric 430er is a nine-toothed gear 470, having 9 radial projections lying between the pins 471a of the nine-toothed gear 471, the teeth of gear 470 meshing with the ten-toothed adding gears 473, the teeth of which are formed as lateral pins 473a this gear 473 being the adding wheel which is .driven directly by the pinion 470 just described. Fixed on the other end of the sleeve 430 at 430?) is the adding gears 473 of the next lower order. The arrangement is such that the counter wheel 473 of any order drives its sleeve 430 and eccentric 430a upon which is mounted the gear 470 which transmitsmokn tion to the counter wheel 473 of the next higher order.
These parts form a single unit and will be more particularly described hereafter.
In the end plates 410 are slots 410?) Figs. 1 and 3, which hold the pinion detent strips 413. The pinion detents 413 hold the gears 472 when they are out of mesh with the segmental racks 6100. On the forward end of the rack arms 6100 are cut 26 teeth. The in and out movements of the numeral wheel shafts 403 are brought about by the backward and forward movement of accumulator control cams, as fully set forth in the parent application. It may, however, be stated generally that when a set of numeral wheels is to have matter added thereto the wheels are irinesh with the actuators 610 when the operator starts the forward stroke of the operating mechanism. Immediately upon starting such stroke, the numeral wheels are thrown out of the actuators until the racks have been set according to the keys or until l Y the start of the return of the operating handle, at which time numeral wheels en-l gage the actuators and are rotated thereby upon the return of the actuators to normal. In subtraction, the numeral wheels are engaged during the initial stroke of the operating handle and disengaged during the return stroke.
The gounters are illustrated more particularly in Figs. 2 to 6, inclusive, and comprise a series of groups of elements all arranged for rotation upon a shaft 403.
The counters are of a special type. They are so constructed that carrying 1s effected without the use of pawls, ratchets or springs. In place of these parts, a special type of gearing is used. The gearing here employed makes the carrying movement gradual; that is, it takes lace during the whole of the rotation of t e wheel which is' transmitting the carry to the next higher order; and is thus to be distinguished from those systems in which the carrying is eiected either during or after the last step of movement of the wheel below.
Each adding wheel (except the units) may be regarded as receiving movement in two ways, one directly from the actuators, and the other indirectly from the carrying devices. The special gearing functions during both movements somewhat in the mapto transmit the motion of the actuators to the adding wheels; while in the carrying movement it operates to transmit the carrying movement from the lower to the higher order. The special gearing employed is herein termed entocyclic gearing, to differentiate this form of eccentric gearing from that of the planetary type. Planetary gears are own as epicyclic gears. the term describing the movement of the planet gear upon the sun ear of the train. Similarly, the word epicyloid is defined as a curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls upon the convex circumference of another circle. Entocycloid suggests a circle rolling around within the circumference of a larger circle. While such an action is present in certain planetary gearing, ywherein a ring gear is employed, this is not however, the characteristic action of such gear ing, in which the epicyclic action is always present, whereas in the type of gearing illustrated herein no epicyclic action is present, and the entocyclic action becomes the characteristic of the gearing. 4
Whereas epicyclic and entocyclic gearing have certain broad principles of operation in common, whereby they are adapted for use in advancing a driven member upon movement of either one of two driving members, there are nevertheless marked distinctions in the characteristics of these two types of gearing. For instance, the internal gear of an entocyclic system is eccentrically mounted with relation to its cooperating gear, this eccentrically mounted gear having an operating connection with one of the driving elements of the system. If this driving connection does not provide for a compensating adjustment of the arts. the ar in rotating on its eccentric hu or the ub in rotating within the gear will impart a non-uniform advance to the driven member of the train, this characteristic not being present in epicyclic gearing.
o Structurally considered, each counter consists of a series of groups of elements mounted on the rod 403. Each group of the seriesinternal gear 471; and aten-toothed adding wheel 473 fixed to the hub at 4306 and having lateral pin teeth 473@ which arev adapted to mesh loosel with radial projections secured to the 2n lower order. This engagement between floating gear 470 and adding wheel 473 constitutes an equalizer connection, wherebyl the unequal advance of the adding Wheel is corrected, the projections of the gear 470 fitting 2. loosely between the pins 473e, and Contact ing with the same at two points about the circumference of the gear. As the gears rotate these points of contact will shift from projection to projection, so that the gears i' are always heldin definite relation to each other, but the oscillation of gear 470 in movement relative to the hub 430a is taken up in the play of theprojections between the adjacent pins 473@ without imparting said 65 oscillation to the driven member.
Referring to Fig. 2, the first wheel 473 on the right. while identical with the other adding wheels 473, does not in fact serve as an adding wheel at all. It is used Ito coh 40 operate with the aliner 413, one of the tines 413@ of which enters between pins 473e of the wheel and prevents the same from rotating; and it also serves to prevent movement of the hub 430 which carries the eccentric 430a upon which is rotatably mounted the floating gear 470 of the units order. Since no carrying ever takes place in the units order, it is essential that the eccentric be held 'from rotation. Since this first wheel is not w really an adding wheel at all, any other device which would serve the purposes described would suffice instead of the wheel shown.
In the figure referred to (Fig. 2), the second wheel 473 counting from the right, is
55 the units wheel of the counter; the ctens oating gear 470 of the nexty the nine-toothed gear 471 and having an equalizer coupling connection with the tentoothed adding gear 473. i'
When any adding Wheel 473 is receiving motion from its actuator 610 through its ninetoothed gears 472 and 471, its floating gear 470, merely rotates upon its eccentric as an axis and transmits to its adding wheel 473, the number of steps of movement which the pinion 472 receives from its actuator, modified however, by the difference in ratio between gears 470 and 473.
In carrying, the axis of the floating gear 470 moves in a circula-r path the radius of which is the eccentricity of the eccentric.
Vhen any lower adding wheel 473 shall have made one complete rotation, its eccentric 430e, and therefore the axis of its floating gear 470 will have made one rotation. The gear 471, is either held against rotation by its actuator 010, or its movement is controlled thereby; therefore, the fioating gear 470 of that order is either prevented from rotating, or else has its rotation controlled by the actuator 610; but its axis is free to rotate under the control of the next lower adding wheel and this rotation of the axis of the floating wheel will, because of the one tooth difference between gears 470 and 473, cause the adding wheel to gnumber, and the taking of a total or sub-totai,
will be given. For this purpose, some numberfof three figures, Vas for instance, 654, will be taken. A large number might be used, but with larger numbers analysis of the carrying becomes more involved; and the operau tion will be illustrated by a number of three figures just as weil as by a larger number.
A number on a counter may, of course, be entered all at once, or it may be introduced by the addition of smaller numbers the sum rof which equais thenumber under consideration. For illustration here, it will be assumed that the number 654 has been entered by the introduction of three amounts; 4, 50 and 600, in the order given. By using numbers of this kind, the explanation of the carry is simpler than if the amounts vbe so, selected thattwo or more of the Wheels move simultaneously, yet the principle will be just as apparent in one case as in the other.
Assume that the counter stands at zero. The 4 key of the units order is depressed and the machine operated. The units actuator 610 rotates the units wheel four steps, and this wheel will stand at 4, As the wheel turns, it rotates its eccentric 430a attached thereto but which stands in the tens order, and causes the floating gear 420 of that order to rotate the tens wheel four-tenths of one step, and this wheel will stand .4 of one step away from home. This movement of the tens wheel, in turn will move the floating gear of the hundreds wheel, and this hundreds wheel will stand at .04. i
To enter the 5 key in the tens order is depressed and the machine operated. The units actuator 610 does not move. The tens actuator 6l() moves the tens wheel five iteps, and adds 5 thereto. This wheel already stands four-tenths of one step awa-y from home, due to the operation of the units wheel, and the tens wheel will therefore stand at 5.4. Movement of the tens wheel five steps causes the hundreds Wheel to move five-tenths of one unit and this will be added to the fourliundredths of one stepwhich was put thereon by the units wheel, and this wheel will stand at .54,
To enter 600, the 6 key. in the hundreds order is depressed and the machine operated. Since nothing is entered in either the units or the tens wheel, these wheels do not move. The hundreds wheel moves six steps, and 6 will be placed on this wheel. This will `be added to the .54 already on the wheel, and this wheel will stand at 6.54.
The units wheel will now stand at 4; the tens wheel at 5.4; and the hundreds wheel at 6.54, The fractions are disregarded as ineffective, and in fact are automatically discarded in the total takingoperation.
Theoretically this fractional advance is carried from order to order, to the leftv hand wheel when a figlure is entered, but practically it is absorbed in the lost motion of the gearing beforeit is carried far to the left.
In taking a total or sub-totalfthat is to say in transferring the same from the wheels to other mechanism whereby it will be visually displayed), the wheels, asidescribed in the parent application, are run to zero one after the other, beginning with the units. As the actuator 610 moves the units wheel to zero, it rotates the wheel backward four steps and stops. The wheel in rotating backward withdraws from all ofthe upper wheels those fractions of one unit which stand on those Wheels by reason on the units wheel being four steps away from home. J Thus it withdraws from the tens wheel .4 of one unit and from the hundreds wheel .04. The tens wheel is then rotated to zero, and as it moves backward it withdraws from the hundreds wheel the .6 of one unit which it h as placed thereon, and from the higher wheels those diminishing fractions which it has puton these wheels. As the hundreds wheel goes to zero it withdraws from the wheels above those diminishing fractions which it has placed' on these upper wheels; and so on throughout the series.
In taking totals and sub-totals, the wheels are stopped at zero by pins 457, which are merely mentioned so as not to confuse the reader in contemplating Figs. 2, 4, and 6.
What is claimed is l. In a register having a series of numeral wheels and differentially movable actuators cooperating therewith; entocyclic gearing providing a constantly meshed ldirec-t gear connection between adjacent wheels, including an eccentrically mounted floating gear, and members connecting said entocyclic gearing to said actuators and adapted to equalize the movement imparted by said floating gear.
2. In a register having a series of numeral wheels and differentially movable actuators `cooperating therewith; entocyclic gearing including an eccentric hub integral with each wheel, a floating gear mounted upon each said hub, gear teeth upon each numeral wheel meshing with the floating gear related to the wheel of next lower order, a gear engaged by each actuator, and connecting members fast upon each actuator gear and each floating gear and adapted to equalize the movement imparted to the numeral wheel through said floating gear.
3. In a register having a series of numeral wheels and differentially movable actuators cooperating therewith; entocyclic gearing including an'ecccntric hub integral with each wheel, a floating gear mounted upon each said v hub, gear teeth upon each numeral wheel meshing with the floating gear related to the wheel of next lower order, a gear engaged by each actuator, and equalizer connections comprising a member fast upon each actuator gear and having angularly spaced lateral projections and a member fast upon each floating gear and having radial fingers projecting into the spaces between said lateral projec-` tions.
EDNA B. GARDNER, Admz'm'stmtri of the Estate of Ulli/de Gardner, Deceased.
US1828180D By edna b Expired - Lifetime US1828180A (en)

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US1828180A true US1828180A (en) 1931-10-20

Family

ID=3422730

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US1828180D Expired - Lifetime US1828180A (en) By edna b

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US1828180A (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2450787A (en) * 1948-10-05 fleming
US2518358A (en) * 1950-08-08 Crawl carry mechanism
US2567120A (en) * 1948-03-01 1951-09-04 Marchant Calculating Machine Value indexing mechanism
US3101896A (en) * 1963-08-27 Calcuating machine
US3887329A (en) * 1969-05-05 1975-06-03 Ciba Geigy Ag Hexamethyl phosphotriamide-dye compositions

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2450787A (en) * 1948-10-05 fleming
US2518358A (en) * 1950-08-08 Crawl carry mechanism
US3101896A (en) * 1963-08-27 Calcuating machine
US2567120A (en) * 1948-03-01 1951-09-04 Marchant Calculating Machine Value indexing mechanism
US3887329A (en) * 1969-05-05 1975-06-03 Ciba Geigy Ag Hexamethyl phosphotriamide-dye compositions

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US1828180A (en) By edna b
US2379877A (en) Calculating machine
US1349049A (en) William j
US1311373A (en) Computing machine
US2150578A (en) Calculating machine
US2297243A (en) Division mechanism
US1221318A (en) Calculating-machine.
US2206724A (en) Calculating machine
US1288333A (en) Combined type-writing and computing machine.
US2389182A (en) Listing calculator
US2378560A (en) Selecting mechanism for calculating
US2233912A (en) Calculating machine
US2518358A (en) Crawl carry mechanism
US1230928A (en) Cash-register.
US2177611A (en) Variable speed mechanism
US893724A (en) Calculating-machine.
US1794514A (en) Driving mechanism for calculating machines
US1185143A (en) Combined type-writing and computing machine.
US2063983A (en) Calculating machine
US1075073A (en) Calculating-machine.
US1263339A (en) Combined type-writing and computing machine.
US1842584A (en) Calculating machine
US2060703A (en) Calculating machine
US1949740A (en) frjden
US2130364A (en) Calculating machine