US482001A - Process of and apparatus for purifying - Google Patents

Process of and apparatus for purifying Download PDF

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US482001A
US482001A US482001DA US482001A US 482001 A US482001 A US 482001A US 482001D A US482001D A US 482001DA US 482001 A US482001 A US 482001A
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C1/00Refining of pig-iron; Cast iron
    • C21C1/02Dephosphorising or desulfurising

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  • My invention relates to the purification, refinlng, and carburization of metals While in a molten or liquid condition by oxidizing and deoxldizing them and eliminating their undesirable elements by the action of blasts of highly-heated oxidizingand deoxidizing gases and solids passing through them and adding desirable elements by forcing them into the liquid metal by blasts of highlyheated non-oxidizing gases.
  • the object is to eect the separation, reining, carburizing,.and combining of metals for industrial uses in a simple, inexpensive, and expeditious manner; and to this end my invention, generally stated, consists in a novel method of and apparatus for burning fuel With air, heating a body of refractory material to a high temperature, cutting off the supply of air and fuel, and supplying a charge of molten metal to an inclosed chamber, forcing an air-blast first through the body of hot refractory material and thence through the body of molten metal, shutting off the airblast and forcing blasts of non oxidizing gases first through the hot refractory material and 'thence through the body of molten metal, and from time to time reheating the body of refractory material, drawing off the treated metal, and supplying a fresh charge to be treated.
  • the refractory material may be reheated and blasts of non-oxidizing gases-such as hydrogen, hydrocarbon gases, dac., but preferably hydrogen-are passed first through the hot refractory material and thence through the body of molten metal, in order to eliminate the oxides bydeoxidation, and also to eliminate any other remaining impurities Which will be absorbed by or combine with hydrogen, such as sulphur, phosphorus, uc.
  • non-oxidizing gases such as hydrogen, hydrocarbon gases, dac.
  • the hydrogen-blast is shutoff and the metal may be withdrawn, but if it should be desired to add to or combine with the molten metal some other element, such as carbon, manganese, apt, te., as for the purpose of making steel, such element or elements are introduced into the apparatus and are forced into the body of molten metal by blasts of highlyheated non-oxidizing gases, as hydrogen or nitrogen, preferably nitrogen, for the reason that it is more inert and is less liable to be occluded in the metal when passing through it, the gas-blasts leaving the desired elements in the body of molten metal.
  • the blasts of highly-heated gas which introduce and incorporate the added element or elements into and with the body of metal maintain the latter in a state of fluidity until the end of the operations without exerting any external oxidizing influences which would interfere therewith.
  • Figure l is a vertical longitudinal section through an apparatus adapted to the practice of my invention
  • Fig. 2 a plan or top view of the same.
  • I provide a chamber or casing 1,which is formed of iron lined with fire-brick and Which is divided g refractory material, and is provided at top.
  • a chamber 5 adapted to contain a IOO .ping-gate or valve 5l.
  • a charge of liquid metal is located adjacent to the combustion-chamber 4 and communicates therewith by a passage 5, which extends through the wall of the chamber 5, and is controlled at its outer end by a suitable tap-
  • the metal-chamber is provided with a side cleaning-opening closed by a door 5c and has an outlet-passage 5d, controlled by a valve 5 in its top.
  • a hopper G having a cover G closing an opening in its top and a valve G controlling an opening in its bottom, is located above the metal-chamber 5 and communicates below the valve 6b through a passage G with the passage 5, which connects the combustion-chamber and the metal-chamber.
  • a pipe 7, controlled by a suitable valve or valves leads from the top of the metal-chamber to a gas-holder.
  • a pipe 8 is connected at its top by a branch 9, controlled by a valve 9, with the regeneratorchamber 3 and is connected at its bottom by a branch 10, controlled by a valve 10, with the combustion-chamber il.
  • the following connections are made to the pipe S between the valves 9 and 10, viz: a pipe 11, leading to an air-pump or pressureblower and controlled by a valve 11, a pipe 12, leading to a receptacle containing hydrocarbon oil or hydrogen or other non-oxidizing gas and controlled by a Valve 12, a pipe 13, leading from a source of supply of nitrogen gas and controlled by a pipe 13, and a pipe 14 for steam and oil supply, said pipe being controlled by a Valve 14.
  • the metal-chamber 5 hhs connected at its top an oil or gas supply pipe 1,5, controlled by a valve 15, and a pipe 16, leading to an air-pump or pressureblower and controlled by a valve 1G.
  • the outlet-valve 3b of the regenerator-chamber 3 the valve 11 of the air-blast pipe 1l., the valve 12 of the gas-supply pipe 12, and the valve 10 of the pipe 10, leading into the combustionchamber 4, are opened.
  • the blast of air and gas entering the combustion-chamber ft is ignited and burned therein.
  • rlhe metal-chamber 5 is heated preparatory to charging it with molten metal by opening the valves 15 and 1G of the oil or gas and the air-supply pipes 15 and 16.
  • a charge of molten metal is then introduced into the metal-chamber 5 from any suitable source of supply--as, say, a blast-furnace-throu gh the passage 5, and the door 5e of said passage being left open the valve 11 of the air-blast pipe 11 and the valve 9 of the pipe 9, leading into the regenerator-chamber 3, are opened.
  • any suitable source of supply--as say, a blast-furnace-throu gh the passage 5
  • the door 5e of said passage being left open the valve 11 of the air-blast pipe 11 and the valve 9 of the pipe 9, leading into the regenerator-chamber 3, are opened.
  • the air-blast entering the regenerator-chamber is forced downward through the highlyheated refractory material therein into the combustion-chamber it, and thence through the passage 3 and upwardly through the molten metal in the chamber 5, the air-blast in its passage through the body of molten metal burning, oxidizing, and eliminating therefrom the contained impurities-such as silicon, sulphur, phosphorus, antimony, lead, dac-and, together with the separated impurities, passing off through the open outlet 51,
  • impurities- such as silicon, sulphur, phosphorus, antimony, lead, dac-and
  • oxidizing gases such as carbonio acid or steam
  • they may be introduced and forced through the hot refractory material in the regenerator 3, either separately or mingled with the airblast, and thence through the molten metal.
  • the oxidizing-blast having to a certain eX- tent oxidized the desirable metal or elements, they are deoxidized by shutting oft' the air or oxidizing blast, closing the valve 5 and opening the valve (not shown) which controls the pipe 7, the valve 12 of the hydrogen-supply pipe 12, and the ⁇ valve 9 of the pipe 9, leading into the regenerator-chamber 3.
  • a blast of hydrogen then enters the regeneratorchamber and is forced downward through the hot refractory material therein into the combustion-chamber 4, and thence through the passage 5 into the metalchamber' 5 and through the molten metal therein, in its passage deoxidizing the latter by combining with the oxygen therein, and also taking up and carrying off such impurities as sulphur, arsenic, phosphorus, die.
  • the gas which passes out at the pipe 7 is delivered to a holder. Then desired, hydrocarbon gases may be used in the same manner, either separately or mingled with the l'iydrogen-blast.
  • the nitrogen-blast and oil entering the regenerator-chamber 3 are forced downward through the heated refractory material, the heat thereof carbonizing the oil.
  • the nitrogen aud carbon pass into the chamber 4t, and thence through the passage 5 into and through the molten metal in the chamber 5, the carbon being taken up by the metal and the nitrogen passing olf through the pipe 7 to a holder.
  • Hydrocarbon gas may be introduced with or without the nitrogen, if preferred, or, if it be desired, use solid carbon, such as pow- IOO IOS
  • dered charcoal or to introduce spiegel, manganese, aluminium, &c., these materials are charged either separately or together into the hopper 6, and by means of the valve 6b are passed into the pipe 6, and thence into the passage 5.
  • the hot nitrogen-blast entering the passage 5 forces the solid element or elements forward and into the molten metal, the nitrogen at .the Sametime by its mechanical action expelling any occluded gases that may be in the body of metal and thereafter passing 0E, as before stated. Any other desired elements may be introduced in like manner.
  • all open valves are closed and the metal may be drawn olf at the tapping-gate 5b. A fresh charge of molten metal is thereafter introduced into the chamber 5.
  • the refractory material in the chamber 3 is heated as often as necessary by buring oil or gaseous' fuel; or solid carbonaceous fuel may be employed, if preferred. It is important that the temperature of the refractory material in the chamber 3 should be kept fully as high as that of the charge of metal under treatment, in order that the air and gas blasts maybe highly heated, so as to keep the molten metal in a limpid or liquid state to the end of the operation.
  • the chamber 5 may be cleaned, as from time to time required,through the opening controlled by the door 5C.
  • the improvement in the method of purifying and refining metals which consists in introducing molten metal into an inclosed chamber, highly heating a mass of refractory material in a separate chamber, passing an air-blast first through the hot refractory material and thereafter through the molten metal, shutting off the air-blast and forcing a blast of hydrogen first through the hot refractory material and thereafter through the molten metal, and shutting oif the hydrogenblast and forcing a blast of nitrogen gas and a hydrocarbon first through the hot refractory material and thereafter through the molten metal, substantially as set forth.
  • the combination substantially as set forth, of a combustion-chamber, a valve controlling an outlet therefrom, a regeneratorchamber communicating therewith and containing a body of loose refractory material, a metal-chamber communicating by a passage With the combustion-chamber and having a charging-opening and a lower tapping-gate, air and gas and hydrocarbon pipes leading into the upper portion of the metal-chamber, air, gas, and steam, and oil pipes controlled by valves and leading into a connecting-pipe which communicates at its ends with the regen erator-chamber and the combustion-chamber, respectively, and valves controlling communication between said connecting-pipe and said chambers.
  • an apparatus for purifying and refining metals the combination, substantially as set forth, of a combustion-chamber, a valve controlling an outlet therefrom, a regeneratorchamber communicating therewith and containing a body of loose refractory material, a metal-chamber communicating by a passage with the combustion-chamber, a charginghopper for solid material, a valve-controlled pipe leading therefrom to the passage leading to the metal-chamber, an upper chargingopening and a lower tapping-gate on the metal-chamber, air and gas and hydrocarbon pipes leading into the upper portion of the metal-chamber, air, gas, and steam and oil pipes controlled by valves and leading into a connecting-pipe which communicates at its ends with the regenerator-chamber and the combustion-chamber, respectively, and valves controlling communication between said pipe and said chambers.

Description

(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 1. B. BRAZBLLB. PROGESS 0F AND APPARATUS POR PURIFYING, REFINING, AND UARBURIZING METALS.
' (No Model.)
. 2 Sheets-Sheet 2. B. BRAZELLB. PROCESS 0F AND APPARATUS FOR PURIFYING, REFINING, AND
CARBURIZING METALS.
Patented Sept. 6,v 1892.
.SVI
IN1@ L iINrrnn STATES PATENT OFFICE.
BENJAMIN BRAZELLE, OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI.
PROCESS 0F AND APPARATUS FOR PURIFYING, REFINING, AND CARBURIZING METALS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 482,001, dated September 6, 1892.
Application lecl March 3l, 1892.
To all zz/hom, t may concern,.-
Be it known that I, BENJAMIN BRAZELLE, of the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Processes of and Apparatus for Purifying, Refining, and Oarburizing Metals, of which improvement the following is a specification.
My invention relates to the purification, refinlng, and carburization of metals While in a molten or liquid condition by oxidizing and deoxldizing them and eliminating their undesirable elements by the action of blasts of highly-heated oxidizingand deoxidizing gases and solids passing through them and adding desirable elements by forcing them into the liquid metal by blasts of highlyheated non-oxidizing gases.
The object is to eect the separation, reining, carburizing,.and combining of metals for industrial uses in a simple, inexpensive, and expeditious manner; and to this end my invention, generally stated, consists in a novel method of and apparatus for burning fuel With air, heating a body of refractory material to a high temperature, cutting off the supply of air and fuel, and supplying a charge of molten metal to an inclosed chamber, forcing an air-blast first through the body of hot refractory material and thence through the body of molten metal, shutting off the airblast and forcing blasts of non oxidizing gases first through the hot refractory material and 'thence through the body of molten metal, and from time to time reheating the body of refractory material, drawing off the treated metal, and supplying a fresh charge to be treated.
The improvement claimed is hereinafter fully set forth.
The subordinate details of my improved process may be preliminarily stated as embodying the heating of a body of refractory vmaterial to a high degree by burning fuel, (in
this case oil or gas with air,)"supplying abody or charge of molten metal to a closed chamber, and forcing blasts of oxidizing gasessuch as air, carbonio acid, or steam-together or separately, first through the heated body of refractory material and thence through the body of molten metal, in order to eliminate by burning or oxidizing the impurities or un- Serial No. 427,224. (No model.)
desirable elements, such as silicon, carbon, sulphur, phosphorus, antimony, arsenic, lead, dac. If oxides remain in the metal after the removal of impurities, as stated, the refractory material may be reheated and blasts of non-oxidizing gases-such as hydrogen, hydrocarbon gases, dac., but preferably hydrogen-are passed first through the hot refractory material and thence through the body of molten metal, in order to eliminate the oxides bydeoxidation, and also to eliminate any other remaining impurities Which will be absorbed by or combine with hydrogen, such as sulphur, phosphorus, uc. The metal having been deoxidized and the impurities eliminated, the hydrogen-blast is shutoff and the metal may be withdrawn, but if it should be desired to add to or combine with the molten metal some other element, such as carbon, manganese, spiegel, te., as for the purpose of making steel, such element or elements are introduced into the apparatus and are forced into the body of molten metal by blasts of highlyheated non-oxidizing gases, as hydrogen or nitrogen, preferably nitrogen, for the reason that it is more inert and is less liable to be occluded in the metal when passing through it, the gas-blasts leaving the desired elements in the body of molten metal. The blasts of highly-heated gas which introduce and incorporate the added element or elements into and with the body of metal maintain the latter in a state of fluidity until the end of the operations without exerting any external oxidizing influences which would interfere therewith.
In the accompanying drawings,Figure l is a vertical longitudinal section through an apparatus adapted to the practice of my invention, and Fig. 2 a plan or top view of the same.
In the practice of my invention I provide a chamber or casing 1,which is formed of iron lined with fire-brick and Which is divided g refractory material, and is provided at top.
with an outlet 3, controlled by a valve or door 3b. A chamber 5, adapted to contain a IOO .ping-gate or valve 5l.
charge of liquid metal, is located adjacent to the combustion-chamber 4 and communicates therewith by a passage 5, which extends through the wall of the chamber 5, and is controlled at its outer end by a suitable tap- The metal-chamber is provided with a side cleaning-opening closed by a door 5c and has an outlet-passage 5d, controlled by a valve 5 in its top. A hopper G, having a cover G closing an opening in its top and a valve G controlling an opening in its bottom, is located above the metal-chamber 5 and communicates below the valve 6b through a passage G with the passage 5, which connects the combustion-chamber and the metal-chamber. A pipe 7, controlled by a suitable valve or valves, leads from the top of the metal-chamber to a gas-holder. A pipe 8 is connected at its top by a branch 9, controlled by a valve 9, with the regeneratorchamber 3 and is connected at its bottom by a branch 10, controlled by a valve 10, with the combustion-chamber il.
The following connections are made to the pipe S between the valves 9 and 10, viz: a pipe 11, leading to an air-pump or pressureblower and controlled by a valve 11, a pipe 12, leading to a receptacle containing hydrocarbon oil or hydrogen or other non-oxidizing gas and controlled by a Valve 12, a pipe 13, leading from a source of supply of nitrogen gas and controlled by a pipe 13, and a pipe 14 for steam and oil supply, said pipe being controlled by a Valve 14. The metal-chamber 5 hhs connected at its top an oil or gas supply pipe 1,5, controlled by a valve 15, and a pipe 16, leading to an air-pump or pressureblower and controlled by a valve 1G.
In the operation of an apparatus provided with the above-described or equivalent means for practicing my improved process the outlet-valve 3b of the regenerator-chamber 3, the valve 11 of the air-blast pipe 1l., the valve 12 of the gas-supply pipe 12, and the valve 10 of the pipe 10, leading into the combustionchamber 4, are opened. The blast of air and gas entering the combustion-chamber ft is ignited and burned therein. rlhe metal-chamber 5 is heated preparatory to charging it with molten metal by opening the valves 15 and 1G of the oil or gas and the air-supply pipes 15 and 16. The blast of air and gas entering' the metal chamber 5 isignited and burned therein, and the heated products of combustion which escape through the passage 5 into the combustion-chamber at thence pass, together with those of the combustion which takes place therein, through the openings 2 of the arch 2 into and through the regenerator-ch amber 3, escaping therefrom through the outlet 3, the refractory material in said chamber being highly heated by the products of conibustion from both the chambers 4 and 5. All the valves are then closed. A charge of molten metal is then introduced into the metal-chamber 5 from any suitable source of supply--as, say, a blast-furnace-throu gh the passage 5, and the door 5e of said passage being left open the valve 11 of the air-blast pipe 11 and the valve 9 of the pipe 9, leading into the regenerator-chamber 3, are opened. The air-blast entering the regenerator-chamber is forced downward through the highlyheated refractory material therein into the combustion-chamber it, and thence through the passage 3 and upwardly through the molten metal in the chamber 5, the air-blast in its passage through the body of molten metal burning, oxidizing, and eliminating therefrom the contained impurities-such as silicon, sulphur, phosphorus, antimony, lead, dac-and, together with the separated impurities, passing off through the open outlet 51,
When it is desired to use other oxidizing gases, such as carbonio acid or steam, they may be introduced and forced through the hot refractory material in the regenerator 3, either separately or mingled with the airblast, and thence through the molten metal. The oxidizing-blast having to a certain eX- tent oxidized the desirable metal or elements, they are deoxidized by shutting oft' the air or oxidizing blast, closing the valve 5 and opening the valve (not shown) which controls the pipe 7, the valve 12 of the hydrogen-supply pipe 12, and the `valve 9 of the pipe 9, leading into the regenerator-chamber 3. A blast of hydrogen then enters the regeneratorchamber and is forced downward through the hot refractory material therein into the combustion-chamber 4, and thence through the passage 5 into the metalchamber' 5 and through the molten metal therein, in its passage deoxidizing the latter by combining with the oxygen therein, and also taking up and carrying off such impurities as sulphur, arsenic, phosphorus, die. The gas which passes out at the pipe 7 is delivered to a holder. Then desired, hydrocarbon gases may be used in the same manner, either separately or mingled with the l'iydrogen-blast.
The objectionable or undesirable elements of the metal having been removed, all the valves are closed, and the purified metal may be drawn olf at the tapping-gate 5b; or if it is desired to produce steel the metal may be carbonized by opening the valve 12 of the pipe 12 and putting said pipe in communication with a hydrocarbon oil-receptacle,opening the valve 13 of the nitrogen-supply pipe, the valve 9 of the inlet-pipe 9, and the valve of the pipe 7. The nitrogen-blast and oil entering the regenerator-chamber 3 are forced downward through the heated refractory material, the heat thereof carbonizing the oil. The nitrogen aud carbon pass into the chamber 4t, and thence through the passage 5 into and through the molten metal in the chamber 5, the carbon being taken up by the metal and the nitrogen passing olf through the pipe 7 to a holder.
Hydrocarbon gas may be introduced with or without the nitrogen, if preferred, or, if it be desired, use solid carbon, such as pow- IOO IOS
IIO
dered charcoal, or to introduce spiegel, manganese, aluminium, &c., these materials are charged either separately or together into the hopper 6, and by means of the valve 6b are passed into the pipe 6, and thence into the passage 5. The hot nitrogen-blast entering the passage 5 forces the solid element or elements forward and into the molten metal, the nitrogen at .the Sametime by its mechanical action expelling any occluded gases that may be in the body of metal and thereafter passing 0E, as before stated. Any other desired elements may be introduced in like manner. After these operations have been effected all open valves are closed and the metal may be drawn olf at the tapping-gate 5b. A fresh charge of molten metal is thereafter introduced into the chamber 5.
The refractory material in the chamber 3 is heated as often as necessary by buring oil or gaseous' fuel; or solid carbonaceous fuel may be employed, if preferred. It is important that the temperature of the refractory material in the chamber 3 should be kept fully as high as that of the charge of metal under treatment, in order that the air and gas blasts maybe highly heated, so as to keep the molten metal in a limpid or liquid state to the end of the operation. The chamber 5 may be cleaned, as from time to time required,through the opening controlled by the door 5C.
I claim as my invention and desireto secure by Letters Patentl. The improvement in the method of purifying and refining metals, which consists in introducing molten metal into an inclosed chamber, highly heating a mass of refractory material in a separate chamber, passing an air-blast first through the hot refractory material and thereafter through the molten metal, and shutting off the air-blast and forcing a blast of hydrogen first through the hot refractory material and thereafter through the molten metal, substantially as set forth.
2. The improvement in the method of purifying and refining metals, which consists in introducing molten metal into an inclosed chamber, highly heating a mass of refractory material in a separate chamber, passing an air-blast first through the hot refractory material and thereafter through the molten metal, shutting off the air-blast and forcing a blast of hydrogen first through the hot refractory material and thereafter through the molten metal, and shutting oif the hydrogenblast and forcing a blast of nitrogen gas and a hydrocarbon first through the hot refractory material and thereafter through the molten metal, substantially as set forth.
3. The improvement in the method of purifying and refining metals, which consists in introducing molten metal into an inclosed chamber, highly heating a mass of refractory material in a separate chamber, passing an oXidizing-blast-such as steam or carbonio acid, or both-first through the hot refractory material and thereafter through the molten metal, shutting off the oxidizing-blast and forcing a non-oxidizing blast-such as hydrogen or hydrocarbon gas-first through the hot refractory material and thereafterthrough the molten metal, and shutting off the non-oxidizing blast and forcing a solid material-such as charcoal, coke, spiegel, manganese, aluminium, &c.-into the body of molten metal by means of a blast of nitrogen gas previously heated by passing it through the hot refractory material, substantially as set forth.
4. In an apparatus for purifying and relining metals, the combination, substantially as set forth, of a combustion-chamber, a valve controlling an outlet therefrom, a regeneratorchamber communicating therewith and containing a body of loose refractory material, a metal-chamber communicating by a passage With the combustion-chamber and having a charging-opening and a lower tapping-gate, air and gas and hydrocarbon pipes leading into the upper portion of the metal-chamber, air, gas, and steam, and oil pipes controlled by valves and leading into a connecting-pipe which communicates at its ends with the regen erator-chamber and the combustion-chamber, respectively, and valves controlling communication between said connecting-pipe and said chambers.
5. In an apparatus for purifying and refining metals, the combination, substantially as set forth, of a combustion-chamber, a valve controlling an outlet therefrom, a regeneratorchamber communicating therewith and containing a body of loose refractory material, a metal-chamber communicating by a passage with the combustion-chamber, a charginghopper for solid material, a valve-controlled pipe leading therefrom to the passage leading to the metal-chamber, an upper chargingopening and a lower tapping-gate on the metal-chamber, air and gas and hydrocarbon pipes leading into the upper portion of the metal-chamber, air, gas, and steam and oil pipes controlled by valves and leading into a connecting-pipe which communicates at its ends with the regenerator-chamber and the combustion-chamber, respectively, and valves controlling communication between said pipe and said chambers.
BENJAMIN BRAZELLE.
Witnesses:
CHRISTIAN F. SCHNEIDER, INIoRRIs H. HoLzMAN.
IIO
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2874038A (en) * 1955-09-19 1959-02-17 Ruhenbeck Adalbert Method of treating molten metals

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2874038A (en) * 1955-09-19 1959-02-17 Ruhenbeck Adalbert Method of treating molten metals

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