US4609255A - Liquid crystal display with twist angle less than 80 degrees - Google Patents

Liquid crystal display with twist angle less than 80 degrees Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US4609255A
US4609255A US06/626,196 US62619684A US4609255A US 4609255 A US4609255 A US 4609255A US 62619684 A US62619684 A US 62619684A US 4609255 A US4609255 A US 4609255A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
liquid crystal
orientation
crystal display
display
cell
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
US06/626,196
Inventor
Frans Leenhouts
Maarten de Zwart
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
US Philips Corp
Original Assignee
US Philips Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to CH362583 priority Critical
Priority to CH3625/83 priority
Application filed by US Philips Corp filed Critical US Philips Corp
Assigned to U.S. PHILIPS CORPORATION, 100 EAST 42ND STREET, NEW YORK, N.Y., 10017, A CORP OF DELAWARE reassignment U.S. PHILIPS CORPORATION, 100 EAST 42ND STREET, NEW YORK, N.Y., 10017, A CORP OF DELAWARE ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: VIDELEC AG, HARDSTR. 5 5600 LENZBURG, SWITZERLAND
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US4609255A publication Critical patent/US4609255A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/137Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells characterised by the electro-optical or magneto-optical effect, e.g. field-induced phase transition, orientation effect, guest-host interaction or dynamic scattering
    • G02F1/13725Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells characterised by the electro-optical or magneto-optical effect, e.g. field-induced phase transition, orientation effect, guest-host interaction or dynamic scattering based on guest-host interaction
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1335Structural association of cells with optical devices, e.g. polarisers or reflectors
    • G02F1/133528Polarisers

Abstract

A liquid crystal display wherein in order to obtain an improved contrast without diminishing the brightness of the display, the angle of twist is reduced in the case of a liquid crystal display according to the rotating cell principle, polarizers with greater extinction power are used and up to 3% by weight of a suitable dye is added. Thus, a largely achromatic display is also obtained.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

This invention relates to a liquid crystal display formed by a nematic liquid crystal contained between opposed support plates, which have formed thereon successive electrode and orientation coatings, and further including front and back polarizers.

2. Description of the Prior Art

Such a liquid crystal display as above noted is known, for example, from DE-B-31 38 518, which discloses a based on the rotating cell principle and consisting of parallel support plates which, with a frame, form a cell. A nematic liquid crystal with positive dielectric anisotropy is filled into the cell. Orientation coatings are provided on the electrode coatings applied to the inner surfaces of the support plates. The orientation coatings orient the adjacent liquid crystal molecules uniformly at a slight tilt. The privileged directions of the orientation coatings form an angle of about 70° with one another. A front polarizer, whose polarization axis runs parallel to the privileged direction of the adjacent orientation coating, is provided on the front plate. A back polarizer, whose polarization axis runs perpendicular to the privileged direction of the adjacent orientation coating, is provided on the back plate. The distance between the support plates is 10 μm and the anisotropy of the index of refraction of the liquid crystal is about 0.13.

The brightness of the display in comparison with an ordinary rotating cell display, with the same contrast ratio, is less. It can be gathered from FIG. 3 of this specification that, in spite of everything, the display exhibits a light coloring which becomes greater with decreasing coating thickness of the liquid crystal.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, the objects of the invention are to provide a novel liquid crystal display which improves upon the liquid crystal display mentioned above in such a way that it exhibits less coloring and an enhanced contrast without the brightness being greatly diminished.

The invention is based on the knowledge that by a greater extinction power of the polarizers in combination with a reduction of the angle between the orientation directions and addition of a small portion of dye, especially with a spectral color complementary to the display color, a display having a largely neutral color is obtained.

One of the most important advantages of the invention is the improved contrast with the brightness remaining approximately the same, so that such a display is particularly suitable for the constant displays in a motor vehicle, which must be perfectly readable under variable light conditions.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

A more complete appreciation of the invention and many of the attendant advantages thereof will be readily obtained as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a liquid crystal display according to the invention;

FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating the color diagrams of two different displays with d·Δn as parameters; and

FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating the transmission curves for different spectral colors in the case of a display according to the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Referring now to the drawings, a liquid crystal display according to the invention is shown in FIG. 1. The display cell consists of two support plates 1, 2 of glass and an edge 3 which, as usual, is formed from glass fibers enclosed in hardened epoxy resin adhesive. A nematic liquid crystal 4 with positive dielectric anistropy, especially the liquid crystal mixture ZLI 1694 of the Merck company, Darmstadt (FRG) is filled in the cell. Two percent by weight of a dichroic dye are added to this liquid crystal. To support plates 1 and 2 are applied electrode coatings 5 and 6 which, in this case, consist of strips so that a dot matrix display is formed. Of course, other forms of electrode coatings 5 and 6 could be selected as, for example, those in a seven-segment display. Orientation coatings 7 and 8 of silane are applied to electrode coatings 5 and 6. The orientation directions of the orientation coatings enclose an angle α less than or equal to 80°. Front polarizer 9 and back polarizer 10, which consist of Polaroid films Q 12--35 of the Nitto company, Japan, are glued to the outer surfaces of support plates 1 and 2. The polarization direction of front polarizer 9 runs parallel to the orientation direction of orientation coating 7; the polarization direction of back polarizer 10 runs perpendicular to the orientation direction of orientation coating 8. The polarization directions of the polarizers therefore form an angle β=90°-α, which is greater than or equal to 10°. The polarizers have an extinction power of at least 100 and perhaps greater than 1000, which is defined as the ratio between the transmission with parallel polarizers and the transmission with crossed polarizers. In this way, a considerably improved contrast ratio is obtained in comparison with the usual rotating cells.

The differences in the operational data of four different display cells can be gathered from the table below. The liquid crystal mixture ZLI 1694 is filled in the four cells I-IV, with 2% by weight of a dichroic dye being added, in addition, to cell IV. The individual parameters in the table have the following meaning:

α: the angle between the orientation directions of the orientation coatings (angle of twist of the liquid crystal),

d: the thickness of the liquid crystal coating,

To : the transmission of the display cell in the unactuated state,

Tv : the transmission of the display cell in the actuated state, the extinction power or contrast ratio of the display cell, which is equal to the ratio Tv /To,

U10,40 : the operating voltage at a temperature of 293 K., a transmission of 10% and a viewing angle of 40° to the perpendicular,

U50,0 : the operating voltage at a temperature of 293 K., a transmission of 50% and a viewing angle of 0° to the perpendicular,

M: the ratio U50,0 /U10,40, that is a measurement for multiplexing capability (cf IEEE Trans. on El. Dev. Vol. ED-21, No. 2 (Feb. 1974), pp 146-155).

______________________________________    Cell    I    II          III    IV    90°         90°  60°                            60°______________________________________d          11     9           9    9T.sub.o    1.0    1.1         0.7  0.4T.sub.v    24.3   24.3        17.7 15.8      24     22          25   40U.sub.10, 40      1.68   1.60        1.59 1.60U.sub.50, 0      2.68   2.48        2.59 2.61M          1.60   1.55        1.63 1.63______________________________________

As is immediately evident from the above table, the fourth display cell, which meets the conditions according to the invention, has a considerably improved contrast ratio over the other three display cells I to III without the brightness in relation to III being greatly reduced.

The condition according to the invention for the product of the coating thickness and the anisotropy of the index of refraction d·Δn can be deduced directly from FIG. 2. As is well known, colors can be characterized by the x and y coordinates on the CIE [International Commission on Illumination] color diagram (1964). Details in this regard can be obtained from the book "Color in Business and Industry" by Judd and Wyszecki. The so-called uncolored point for average daylight, indicated by D 65 in FIG. 2, thus has the coordinates x=0.313 and y=0.329. The farther a point on this diagram is from point D 65, the greater the matching coloring. FIG. 2 now shows the relation between d·Δn and color of the display in the CIE color diagram. Curve A relates to a cell with a twist of the liquid crystal of 90°, curve B a cell with a twist of 45°. The product d·Δn therefore goes through values of 0.28 μm (A1, B1), 0.70 μm (A2, B2), 0.98 μm (A3, B3) and 1.26 μm (A4, B4). As can be immediately gathered from FIG. 2, the cell with a twist of 45° (curve B) is less colored than the cell with a twist of 90° (curve A). By an optimal choice of the product d·Δn and of the angle of twist of the liquid crystal as achromatic a display as possible is first obtained. Closer studies have shown that the angle α enclosed by the orientation directions is preferably between 60° and 40°. In this connection, it should be considered that a smaller angle of twist reduces the degree of multiplexing (see table). To obtain a completely neutral colored display, in addition, a dye up to 3% by weight is added, which exhibits the complement of the spectral color of the display. The color point of the dye (point B4 ' in FIG. 2) is determined by the connecting line between the color point of the display (point B4) and the uncolored point D 65, with the distance from points B4 and B4 ' being equal to this point.

FIG. 3 shows the transmission curves in the case of three different spectral colors with the product d·Δn as a variable. The transmission coefficient To (in %) of the unactuated display cell (dark) is given on the ordinate. In this connection, it should be noted that the transmission coefficient in the actuated state (bright) amounts to about 25%. The first curve C1 is plotted in the case of illumination with blue light (450 nm), the second curve C2 with green light (550 nm) and the third curve C3 with red light (650 nm). It is evident from this figure that in the case of a specific produce d·Δn the display absorbs a specific spectral color more poorly. By addition of a dye with the complementary spectral color the absorption of the total beamed light is improved and thus the contrast ratio is enhanced. Moreover, the display appears clearer, even if the brightness in the actuated state is approximately unchanged.

Obviously, numerous modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described herein.

Claims (5)

What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A liquid crystal display comprising:
two parallel support plates separated by a peripheral border to form a cell in the space between said plates and said border;
a layer of nematic liquid crystal with positive dielectric anisotropy filled in said cell;
electrode coatings formed on inside surfaces of said plates;
first and second orientation coatings formed on respective of said electrode coatings, said orientation coatings defining orientation directions enclosing an angle (α) less than 80°,
a first polarizer associated with said first orientation coating and having a polarization direction which runs parallel to the orientation direction of said first orientation coating;
a second polarizer associated with said second orientation coating and having a polarization direction which runs perpendicular to the orientation direction of the second orientation coating;
said polarizers having an extinction power greater than 100;
said liquid crystal layer having a thickness (d) and defining an anisotropy of an index of refraction (Δn) the product of which is less than 1.3 μm; and
a dichroic dye of up to 3% by weight added to the liquid crystal layer.
2. A liquid crystal display according to claim 1, wherein said dichroic dye has a spectral color forming the complement of a spectral color for the product of the thickness (d) and the anisotropy of the index of refraction (Δn) of the liquid crystal.
3. A liquid crystal display according to claim 2, wherein the angle (α) enclosed by the orientation directions in between 60° and 40°.
4. A liquid crystal display according to claim 2, wherein the extinction power of the polarizers is greater than 1000.
5. A liquid crystal display, according to claim 2, wherein said liquid crystal layer comprises less than 2% by weight of said dichroic dye.
US06/626,196 1983-07-01 1984-06-29 Liquid crystal display with twist angle less than 80 degrees Expired - Fee Related US4609255A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH362583 1983-07-01
CH3625/83 1983-07-01

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US4609255A true US4609255A (en) 1986-09-02

Family

ID=4260000

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US06/626,196 Expired - Fee Related US4609255A (en) 1983-07-01 1984-06-29 Liquid crystal display with twist angle less than 80 degrees

Country Status (3)

Country Link
US (1) US4609255A (en)
EP (1) EP0130492A3 (en)
JP (1) JPS60104920A (en)

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4693562A (en) * 1984-12-07 1987-09-15 Hitachi, Ltd. Liquid crystal display device
US4952030A (en) * 1987-09-04 1990-08-28 Asahi Glass Company, Ltd. Liquid crystal display device with a 50°-80° twist angle
US5035490A (en) * 1990-01-09 1991-07-30 Hewlett-Packard Company Fiber optic
US5044735A (en) * 1985-11-29 1991-09-03 Konishiroku Photo Industry Co., Ltd. Liquid crystal display device for providing sufficiently high contrast ratio and excellent response time
US5056905A (en) * 1986-12-16 1991-10-15 Kaj B. Jensen Control system for automatic adjustment of the rearview mirror of a vehicle
US5130834A (en) * 1988-02-19 1992-07-14 Alps Electric Co., Ltd. Liquid crystal display including a dye complementary to the liquid crystal's bright state color
US5181130A (en) * 1990-01-09 1993-01-19 Hewlett-Packard Company Fiber optic faceplate liquid crystal display
US5519523A (en) * 1991-11-08 1996-05-21 Hitachi, Ltd. Liquid crystal display device with residual retardation compensated for in liquid crystal layer
US5555113A (en) * 1990-03-23 1996-09-10 U.S. Philips Corporation Liquid crystal display device with twist angle φ of 70° to 90°and alignment to polarization direction angle between φ/2+30°and φ/2+60°
US5726723A (en) * 1996-01-31 1998-03-10 Technology Research International Corporation Sub-twisted nematic liquid crystal display
US5870164A (en) * 1997-06-20 1999-02-09 International Business Machines Corporation Polarization dependent twisted nematic liquid crystal devices for reflective spatial light modulators
US6091477A (en) * 1997-03-25 2000-07-18 The Hong Kong University Of Science & Technology Single polarized LCD consisting of particular twist angle and thickness-birefringence product
US6151094A (en) * 1995-10-23 2000-11-21 Hughes Electronics Corporation Reflective liquid crystal display and transmissive dye-doped liquid crystal display
WO2002086608A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2002-10-31 Vladimir Alexeevich Brezhnev Passive-matrix liquid crystal screen and method for controlling said screen
US20050128405A1 (en) * 2003-12-11 2005-06-16 Lg.Philips Lcd Co., Ltd. In-plane switching mode liquid crystal display device and method of fabricating the same
US20070273811A1 (en) * 2003-05-16 2007-11-29 Janez Pirs High Contrast Viewing Angle Lcd Light-Switching Element
US20080068521A1 (en) * 2006-09-19 2008-03-20 Sperian Welding Protection Ag Electro-optical glare protection filter and glare protection unit for a portable glare protection device
WO2016102492A1 (en) 2014-12-22 2016-06-30 Optrel Ag Electro-optical glare-protection filter

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS61193129A (en) * 1985-02-22 1986-08-27 Casio Comput Co Ltd Liquid crystal optical shutter
JPS63298220A (en) * 1987-05-29 1988-12-06 Toshiba Corp Liquid crystal display device
JPS63301022A (en) * 1987-05-30 1988-12-08 Ricoh Co Ltd Liquid crystal display element
JPH02165126A (en) * 1988-12-20 1990-06-26 Sanyo Electric Co Ltd Liquid crystal display device

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3787110A (en) * 1972-06-23 1974-01-22 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Liquid crystal devices
US3914022A (en) * 1974-07-02 1975-10-21 Gen Electric Quasi-homeotropic twisted nematic liquid crystal device
US3977767A (en) * 1974-07-23 1976-08-31 Dai Nippon Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha Electro-optical cell
US4039252A (en) * 1972-12-13 1977-08-02 Energy Systems, Ltd. Field-effect liquid crystal-type display device
US4398803A (en) * 1980-06-19 1983-08-16 Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Liquid crystal display element
US4427741A (en) * 1980-07-31 1984-01-24 Nitto Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Polarizing film
US4552436A (en) * 1982-07-28 1985-11-12 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Liquid crystal display having uniform transmittance

Family Cites Families (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5468263A (en) * 1977-11-10 1979-06-01 Stanley Electric Co Ltd Liquid crystal indicator
GB1579480A (en) * 1977-12-22 1980-11-19 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Liquid crystal displays
WO1981000463A1 (en) * 1979-07-27 1981-02-19 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Display device with dynamic internal polarizer
JPS57171321A (en) * 1981-04-15 1982-10-21 Hitachi Ltd Liquid crystal display element
JPS5846327A (en) * 1981-09-14 1983-03-17 Hitachi Ltd Liquid crystal display device
DE3138518C1 (en) * 1981-09-28 1983-02-24 Siemens Ag Field effect liquid crystal cell
GB2108698B (en) * 1981-10-26 1985-08-21 Secr Defence Liquid crystal displays
US4506956A (en) * 1983-03-29 1985-03-26 Xerox Corporation Multicolor liquid crystal display with a dead front

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3787110A (en) * 1972-06-23 1974-01-22 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Liquid crystal devices
US4039252A (en) * 1972-12-13 1977-08-02 Energy Systems, Ltd. Field-effect liquid crystal-type display device
US3914022A (en) * 1974-07-02 1975-10-21 Gen Electric Quasi-homeotropic twisted nematic liquid crystal device
US3977767A (en) * 1974-07-23 1976-08-31 Dai Nippon Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha Electro-optical cell
US4398803A (en) * 1980-06-19 1983-08-16 Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Liquid crystal display element
US4427741A (en) * 1980-07-31 1984-01-24 Nitto Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Polarizing film
US4552436A (en) * 1982-07-28 1985-11-12 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Liquid crystal display having uniform transmittance

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4693562A (en) * 1984-12-07 1987-09-15 Hitachi, Ltd. Liquid crystal display device
US5044735A (en) * 1985-11-29 1991-09-03 Konishiroku Photo Industry Co., Ltd. Liquid crystal display device for providing sufficiently high contrast ratio and excellent response time
US5056905A (en) * 1986-12-16 1991-10-15 Kaj B. Jensen Control system for automatic adjustment of the rearview mirror of a vehicle
US4952030A (en) * 1987-09-04 1990-08-28 Asahi Glass Company, Ltd. Liquid crystal display device with a 50°-80° twist angle
US5130834A (en) * 1988-02-19 1992-07-14 Alps Electric Co., Ltd. Liquid crystal display including a dye complementary to the liquid crystal's bright state color
US5035490A (en) * 1990-01-09 1991-07-30 Hewlett-Packard Company Fiber optic
US5181130A (en) * 1990-01-09 1993-01-19 Hewlett-Packard Company Fiber optic faceplate liquid crystal display
US5555113A (en) * 1990-03-23 1996-09-10 U.S. Philips Corporation Liquid crystal display device with twist angle φ of 70° to 90°and alignment to polarization direction angle between φ/2+30°and φ/2+60°
US5519523A (en) * 1991-11-08 1996-05-21 Hitachi, Ltd. Liquid crystal display device with residual retardation compensated for in liquid crystal layer
US6151094A (en) * 1995-10-23 2000-11-21 Hughes Electronics Corporation Reflective liquid crystal display and transmissive dye-doped liquid crystal display
US5726723A (en) * 1996-01-31 1998-03-10 Technology Research International Corporation Sub-twisted nematic liquid crystal display
US6091477A (en) * 1997-03-25 2000-07-18 The Hong Kong University Of Science & Technology Single polarized LCD consisting of particular twist angle and thickness-birefringence product
US5870164A (en) * 1997-06-20 1999-02-09 International Business Machines Corporation Polarization dependent twisted nematic liquid crystal devices for reflective spatial light modulators
WO2002086608A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2002-10-31 Vladimir Alexeevich Brezhnev Passive-matrix liquid crystal screen and method for controlling said screen
US20070273811A1 (en) * 2003-05-16 2007-11-29 Janez Pirs High Contrast Viewing Angle Lcd Light-Switching Element
US7420631B2 (en) * 2003-05-16 2008-09-02 Institut Jozef Stefan High contrast, wide viewing angle LCD light-switching element
US20050128405A1 (en) * 2003-12-11 2005-06-16 Lg.Philips Lcd Co., Ltd. In-plane switching mode liquid crystal display device and method of fabricating the same
US7339645B2 (en) * 2003-12-11 2008-03-04 Lg.Philips Lcd. Co., Ltd. In-plane switching mode liquid crystal display device including field generating electrodes having a curved shape and method of fabricating the same
CN100432804C (en) 2003-12-11 2008-11-12 乐金显示有限公司 In-plane switching mode liquid crystal display device and method of fabricating the same
US20080068521A1 (en) * 2006-09-19 2008-03-20 Sperian Welding Protection Ag Electro-optical glare protection filter and glare protection unit for a portable glare protection device
EP1956411A2 (en) 2006-09-19 2008-08-13 SPERIAN Welding Protection AG Electro-optical glare shield filter and glare shield unit for a portable glare shield device
WO2016102492A1 (en) 2014-12-22 2016-06-30 Optrel Ag Electro-optical glare-protection filter

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP0130492A2 (en) 1985-01-09
JPS60104920A (en) 1985-06-10
EP0130492A3 (en) 1987-07-15

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
JP2924055B2 (en) Reflective liquid crystal display element
US5493430A (en) Color, reflective liquid crystal displays
JP3406242B2 (en) The liquid crystal display device
US4610507A (en) Color liquid crystal display device having multicolor polarizers
EP0372973B1 (en) Liquid crystal display device comprising improved viewing angle characteristics
EP0246842B1 (en) A liquid crystal display device
CA1242784A (en) Liquid crystal display
US6750928B2 (en) Multi-color display device
KR940002194B1 (en) Liquid crystal display devices
US5519523A (en) Liquid crystal display device with residual retardation compensated for in liquid crystal layer
US7791694B2 (en) Transflective liquid crystal displays with sequentially flashing light sources
US6137560A (en) Active matrix type liquid crystal display apparatus with light source color compensation
US6504588B1 (en) Reflection-type color liquid crystal display device having absorbing member containing fluorescent material
US4832461A (en) Projection-type multi-color liquid crystal display device
EP0089493A1 (en) Display device having organic polymer film as substrate
US4097128A (en) Liquid crystal color display devices
KR100792854B1 (en) Color display element, method for driving color display element, and color display apparatus
Crooker et al. Polymer‐dispersed chiral liquid crystal color display
US5119220A (en) Liquid crystal display device with a phase plate for shadow compensation
KR920009824B1 (en) Liquid crystal display device
KR920006928B1 (en) Liquid crystal display device
KR0158072B1 (en) Color liquid crystal display device
US5179457A (en) Liquid crystal display device with birefringent film between the substrates of the liquid crystal
CN1300629C (en) Liquid crystal display element
US20080137168A1 (en) Display device

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: U.S. PHILIPS CORPORATION, 100 EAST 42ND STREET, NE

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:VIDELEC AG, HARDSTR. 5 5600 LENZBURG, SWITZERLAND;REEL/FRAME:004491/0068

Effective date: 19851014

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed
LAPS Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
FP Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee

Effective date: 19980902

STCH Information on status: patent discontinuation

Free format text: PATENT EXPIRED DUE TO NONPAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEES UNDER 37 CFR 1.362