US457337A - besson - Google Patentsbesson Download PDF
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- US457337A US457337A US457337DA US457337A US 457337 A US457337 A US 457337A US 457337D A US457337D A US 457337DA US 457337 A US457337 A US 457337A
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- G10—MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
- G10D—STRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
- G10D9/00—Details of, or accessories for, wind musical instruments
- G10D9/04—Valves; Valve controls
8 Sheets-'Sheet 1. F. BESSON. VALVED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
No. 457,337. Patented Aug. 11, 1891.
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8 Sheets Sheet 2.
VALVBD MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
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8 Sheets-Sheet 3.
VALVED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
Patented Aug. 11,1891.
HHHwUnnHllluUV (No Model.) 8 Sheets-Sheet 4. F. BESSON. VALVED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
No. 457,337 Patented Aug 11, 1891 -fl f.. L?. 771/ l ,E i. l @im F Y JLM 8 Sheets-Sheet 5.
VALVBD MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
Patented Aug. 11, 1891.
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P. BESSON. VALVBD MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
No. 457,337. Patented Aug. 11,1891.
8 Sheets-Sheet 7.
VALVBD MUSIGAL INSTRUMENT.
No. 457,337. Patented Aug. 11,1891.
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(No Model.) 8 Sheets- Sheet 8. I'. BESSON.
VALVBD MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
No. 457,337. Patented Aug. 11,1891.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
FONTAINE BESSON, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.
VALVED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 457,337, dated August 1 1, 1891.
Application filed June 7, 18%. Serial No.354,674 (No model.) Patented in England April 30, 1890, No. 6,649.
` To all whom t may concern:
Be it known that I, FONTAINE BESSON, musical-instrument maker, of the firm of F. Besson & Co., a subject of the Queen of Great Britain, residing at Euston Road, London, in the county of London, England, have invented certain new and useful Valved Musical Instruments, (forwhich a patent has been granted to me in Great "Britain, bearing date April 30, 1890, No. 6,649,) of which the following is a specification.
My invention has for its object to give a perfect chromatic scale to all valve wind-instruments. I obtain this object with a new system of valves, as hereinafter described, with what I call a registre combination, giving my instruments two distinct internal sets of air-passages, as well as double internal effect. These improved valves and new registre are applicable to all wind-valved instruments and can be played without change of fingering. There is a lever which gives rapidity tothe action and is applicable to all valves and slides of' any system whatever. In the usual mode of constructing wind, piston, or valve instruments the combinational valvenotes (especially the lower ones) are more or less sharp. Attempts have been made to obviate and rectify this, but the remedies hitherto applied, destroying the proportionate ratio and not being strictly clear bore, either muflie the tone or affect the upper notes, or sacrifice air-tightness, or necessitate a change of fingering. My invention rectifies the chromatic scale throughout, gives lequality and great brilliancy to the tone, facilitates the emission of sound, while reserving the usual fingering', and my instruments being true clear boreare therefore perfectly air-tight.
My invention will be best understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, as hereinafter described.
Figures 1, 2, 3, and et represent an instrument-constructed according to one modification of my invention. Figs. 5, (5, and 7 show a lever for actuating or giving rapidity to the movement of any kind of valves, registres, slides, keys, &c. Figs. 8, 9, 10, and 11 show examples of various arrangements of instruments constructed according to my invention.
Description of Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Fig. 1 represents in elevation, and Fig. 2 in vertical section through the valves, my valve registre attached to an instrument, which valve system has two distinct air-passages and two distinct eects, the registre being the third valve regulating the two others. I employ three cylinders, marked 1 2 3. The main air-passages connecting these cylinders areindicated by the letters a b c. The letters d c f indicate the main air-passage when the third valve, hereinafter called registre, is in use. ation of the main passage wh en the third valve is pressed down or in use. The letters k Z m indicate the continuation of the main passage to connect it with the lengthening-slides of' the registre valves. The second valve 2 is a half-tone, the valve 1 a full tone, and the valve 3 one tone and a half. Slides are provided on each of the cylinders for the purpose of tuning these notes. Thus n o represents a slidel for the third valve, p q represents one of the slides for the valve 2, and r s represents the other slide for the valve 2, p q being put into action bythe valve 3. t u and r w are the slides for the valve 1, t u being put into action by the valve 3 and c 1U simultaneously cut off. The first effect is produced without using the valves. The open air-passage or corps sonore a b c passes through the first piston or valve 1.l The second effect is obtained by lowering lthe first piston or valve l. The first effect is hereby done away with and the passage or corps sonore is through (Z c f, through the third valve or piston, and on through the bell. There are thus two effects produced, but not simultaneously, since there are two distinct air columns or passages, and the third valve acts for two purposes-as a slide to lengthen the tubing and as a column dair or main airpassage.
My registre, as before described, maybe placed after any number of valves, more or less, in any position-horizontal, vertical, or otherwise-and applied to any size or kind of wind-valved musical instrument.
Fig. 3 represents a simplified arrangement of valve action, with double air-passages and two effects. The passages d c f are dispensed with. The slides p q and 1' s are not shown in the drawings.
Fig. l represents an arrangement on the same principle as the preceding, but in which there is a fourth valve to extend the The letters g h t' indicate the continucompass of the instrument to show that my registres may be applied to any other valve; also any number of registres according to the instrument, arranged either -horizontally, vertically, or otherwise, may be used.
Fig. 5 represents a lever adapted to valves, registres, slides, or keys to giveI rapidity to the movement of either, which I may place in any position, vertical, horizontal, or other- Wise.
Description with reference to .Fig/8.1 cmd 2. An instrument with three @al1/'es and double afir-pdssages.-As will be observed by reference to Figs. l and 2, this instrument has air-passages-that is to say, two distinct airpassages, as before described.
The rst set of slides v w and r s of the open-air passage is marked in dotted lines. By lowering each valve separately there is obtained, as in the usual cornet, as follows: Bb exactly by the first valve, Bbl exactly by the second valve, and Ai; exactly by the third valve.
The second set of slides is brought into action by the third valve, which forms my registre. When this is lowered, it creates thus for the sound-waves a new direction. (Represented by the black line.) This new direction has for its object to remedy the faulty notes which exist on the usual valved instruments each time that the player lowers more than one valve. These defects and want of justesse (and by the term want of justesse I mean notes not in perfect pitch or tune, and these are regulated or tuned by my new system of registre or regulator aided by the new lever) are specially noticeable in the low D and G, iirst and third valves; C# and Ef, first, second, and third valves; Eb and Ab, second and third valves, and their harmonics, which are out of tune in the usual three-valved instruments, but are rendered perfect by my invention herein described. It will be understood that if previously I arrange the slides of the second set proportionately longer than those of the first set I obtain an Eb, a Dlq, and a C# absolutely correct, as well as the corresponding First set. I obtain, therefore, with the first set the following notes perfectly:
First valven a -u :ai n l u 6 gv l Hf] l j 'tra Third valven Q 6' I L1 IJ. Hfs- --a-Prn- H I bl) 51 l n E I IL u 'U' Third registre valve and second valve- Third registre valve and first and second valves- .e tai* The harmonics of the open notes give- My invention therefore gives a perfect chromatic scale throughout, as per following examples, and in order that players may well understand the superiority of my system I also give the fingering of the enharmonics harmonics. and sensiblesz I 0 I I I I I I I I I l I I I I I LL I I I I I I I l I I I I L I I L'mr 11 i i i i i t i i l i i 9 1 Q Lz gis ad d Weary-1a.
- -g t0 h6 '6* o :1n 311 .111 3 1 1 3R 2 an o '9 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 -11 311 311 3 2 1 1 A A n Il L I3 lu 1 l lu u n.- 1,. lwmhrllrb a JLvL-Gw-La-l-iZ-q hr1 l Hf; 1 I O Q I W w 'Lfd l I I I if V I r| L L I I I a #I V" L H" I I I Tl Tl Tl L I L L I I I I m I L l L L L I I I I I an 31 :111,1 23r311o u3112 131123110311 23110311311 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 n .61 ,9 .6152 ha .a U L I 1 l I I l L I L l L I L l u 3 an 1 2 3P. 0
The starting and ending points of the two air-passages (marked in chain and black lines) are respectively indicated by the letters A and B.
Second arrangement: This arrangement, Fig. 3, embraces the arrangement Figs. l and 2, of which it is the specification.
Remark. The slide of the third valve is arranged in such manner that there may be added a small additional valve-such as is shown at Figs. 4, 8, and 9, marked 4- which increases' the length to obtain Gl# by the simultaneous lowering of the third valve and also of the small additional valve. By lowering the third valve ofthe instrument and this small additional valve there is obtained low Bb. The player therefore can obtain at will by my invention the following' enharmonics: X small additional valve.
W #-9 3R 3 an 3R an 2 Third arrangement: This arrangement of instrument with four valves has also for object Fig. 4 to show that my registre can be employed at will to compensate or transpose in conjunction with any number of valvesthat may be used, either by increasing or diminishing their number. Thus: in an instrument having two valves, one of which being a registre valve is employed to regulate the other.
Bass lustrumcitta- According to my invention I may add to any desired number of ordinary valves one of my registref that is, making one of the ordinary valves a registre with the object of giving extension to the descending scale. Thus to a bass instrument constructed according to my invention, having three valves, I may also add a fourth valve, in this case the third valve being the registre, whereby can be obtained a chromatic descent absolutely in tune down to the pedal.
Q It# lz6L v 12vL u; Description of Figs. 5, 6, and 7, which show a lever working one of my registres placed across the instrument, and this lever for working all valves, slides, keys, or rotary cylinders is a special feature of my invention. Fig. 6 shows one side of an instrument with this valve-lever applied, and Fig. 7 shows the the other side of the saine instrument with the same valve-*lever applied.
Description of Figs. 8, 9, l0, and ll. Vhen examining Figs. 8 and 9, it should be remarked that besides the two air-passages mentioned with reference to Figs. l, 2, 3, and 4 I also construct a third (represented First chain line S C open note.`
First air-passages Bit second valve.
Figures l, 2, 3, and 4 2 B17 first valve.
Second black line Ah third valve.
Ab second and third Second air-passage valves. Figuresl,2,3,and4 G first and third valves.
Fg first, second, and
Third dotted line Fit fourth valve alone.
El; fourth and third valves. Air passage of Eb second, third, and
D5, first, third, and fourth valves.
fourth valve It will be remarked that in order to obviate making the valves of too great a length I may arrange the valves as shown in Fig. 3, as previously described. Thereby I am able to dispense with two holes in each valve l and 2. According to my invention the two first valves each have eight holes, including the two distinct air-passages of Figs. l, 2, 3, and 4. The third valve in its two uses of registre and ordinary valve has only seven holes. The fourth valve in its two uses of registre and ordinary valve has only four holes.
It is to be understood that the description concerning Figs. 8, 9,10, and 'il applies to bass instruments; but the principle, however, could also be applied to small instruments.
I claim as my inventionl. In valved musical instruments, the registres having two distinct internal sets of airpassages, whereby a perfect chromatic scale is obtained in such instruments.
2. In valved musical instruments, the registres having two distinct internal sets of airpassages, in combination with the actuatinglever, as set forth.
3. In valved musical instruments, the combination, with the two distinct internal sets of air-passages, of the cylinders, bored as specified, whereby a true clear bore is obtained, as set forth.
FONTAINE BESSON. lfitnesses:
THOMAS W. ROGERS, GRIFFITH BREWER, 4
Both of 33 Chancery Lome, London.
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|US457337A true US457337A (en)||1891-08-11|
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|US457337A Expired - Lifetime US457337A (en)||besson|
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