US4048364A - Post-drawn, melt-blown webs - Google Patents

Post-drawn, melt-blown webs Download PDF

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US4048364A
US4048364A US05651328 US65132876A US4048364A US 4048364 A US4048364 A US 4048364A US 05651328 US05651328 US 05651328 US 65132876 A US65132876 A US 65132876A US 4048364 A US4048364 A US 4048364A
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fibers
ribbon
melt
drawn
precursor
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US05651328
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John W. Harding
James P. Keller
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ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co
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ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H3/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length
    • D04H3/08Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length characterised by the method of strengthening or consolidating
    • D04H3/16Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length characterised by the method of strengthening or consolidating with bonds between thermoplastic filaments produced in association with filament formation, e.g. immediately following extrusion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S264/00Plastic and nonmetallic article shaping or treating: processes
    • Y10S264/75Processes of uniting two or more fibers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10S428/903Microfiber, less than 100 micron diameter
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10S428/91Product with molecular orientation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24058Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.] including grain, strips, or filamentary elements in respective layers or components in angular relation
    • Y10T428/24124Fibers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24802Discontinuous or differential coating, impregnation or bond [e.g., artwork, printing, retouched photograph, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24826Spot bonds connect components
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T442/00Fabric [woven, knitted, or nonwoven textile or cloth, etc.]
    • Y10T442/60Nonwoven fabric [i.e., nonwoven strand or fiber material]
    • Y10T442/68Melt-blown nonwoven fabric

Abstract

A novel nonwoven article useful as a scrim support for other materials, such as paper toweling and wiping cloths, or as porous, nonadsorbent coverings for adsorbent packaging such as bandages or sanitary napkins, or a ribbon for packaging and decorative applications, is produced by post drawing certain melt-blown thermoplastic mats under defined conditions of draw ratios and temperatures. A moderate strength yarn or twine can be produced by twisting the post-drawn, melt-blown thermoplastic web.

Description

Related Applications

This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 534,835, filed Dec. 20, 1974, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 261,875, filed June 12, 1972, both now abandoned.

This application is not formally related to any other application, but it is an improvement over inventions described in other copending, commonly assigned applications.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention is directed to the process and articles resulting therefrom of post drawing certain melt-blown thermoplastic mats which must be produced under selected process conditions so as to give a highly self-bonded web of essentially continuous, relatively large thermoplastic fibers.

2. Description of the Prior Art

A melt-blowing process for producing mats of polymer fibers is disclosed in an article entitled "Superfine Thermoplastics," by Van A. Wente, in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol 48, No. 8 (1956), Pages 1342-1346. Similar disclosures are found in two Naval Research Reports.

British Pat. No. 1,055,187 discloses a blowing process used in the formation of nonwovens of melt spun fibers.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to the process of post drawing a web which has been produced by melt blowing a thermoplastic polymer under controlled conditions so as to produce a highly self-bonded, preferably nonwoven mat, made of essentially continuous, relatively large diameter thermoplastic fibers. This mat is subsequently drawn within defined ranges of temperature and draw ratios. The resulting product of the present invention is a soft, glossy ribbon having substantially uniform, parallel, fine fibers in a substantially longitudinal direction interspersed with coarse fiber junction points. The ribbon product is much stronger in its longitudinal direction than in its transverse direction and will have a tenacity in the order of 2 grams per denier.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view of the overall melt blowing process;

FIG. 2 is a detailed view in longitudinal cross section of a die which may be used in the melt-blowing process;

FIGS. 3-7 are photo micrographs of the article of the invention as well as the web from which it is formed; and

FIG. 8 is a graph showing how strength increases with increased draw ratios.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Although the melt-blowing process per se is not a part of the present invention, sufficient descriptive background is included to understand the process without the necessity for extensive referrals to extraneous material.

Referring to FIG. 1 of the drawings, in standard operation a thermoplastic polymer is introduced into a pellet hopper 1 of an extruder 2. The thermoplastic polymer is forced through the extruder 2 into a die head 3 by a drive 4. The die head 3 may contain heating means 5 which may control the temperature in the die head 3.

The thermoplastic polymer is then forced out of a row of die openings 6 in the die head 3 into a gas stream which originates from orifices contiguous to the die openings. This stream attenuates the thermoplastic polymer into fibers 7 which are collected on a moving collecting device 8 such as a drum 9 or a screen to form a continuous mat 10.

The gas stream which attenuates the thermoplastic polymer is supplied through gas jets 11 and 12, respectively, which are more clearly seen in FIG. 2. The gas slots 11 and 12 are supplied with a hot gas, preferably air, by gas lines 13 and 14, respectively.

In FIG. 2, the die head 3 is formed of upper die plate 15 and lower die plate 16. The thermoplastic polymer is introduced in the back of the die plates 15 and 16 through an inlet 17 as a result of the forcing action of extruder 2 at the back of the die plate 3. The thermoplastic polymer then goes into a chamber 18 between the upper and lower die plates 15 and 16 respectively. The facing of the die plate 16 can have milled grooves 19 which terminate in the die openings 6. It is understood, of course, that the milled grooves can be in the lower die plate 16 or the upper die plate 15, or that grooves can be milled in both plates 15 and 16. Vertically divided die heads can also be used.

Still further, if a single plate is used in place of the upper and lower die plates, the grooves can be drilled to produce the die openings 6. An upper gas cover plate 20 and a lower gas cover plate 21 are connected to the upper die plate and lower die plate 15 and 16, respectively, to provide an upper air chamber 22 and a lower air chamber 23 which terminate in the gas slots 11 and 12, respectively.

The hot gas is supplied through inlet 24 and upper gas cover plate 20 and inlet 25 and lower gas cover plate 21. Suitable baffling means (not shown) may be provided in both the upper air chamber 22 and the lower air chamber 23 to provide a uniform flow of air through the gas slots 11 and 12, respectively. The die head 3 can contain heating means 5 for heating both the thermoplastic polymer and air in the die head 3.

In general, the detailed melt-blowing process is carried out in accordance with the procedures described in Ser. No. 227,769 filed Feb. 22, 1972, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

The particular operating conditions chosen in the melt blowing process will control the characteristics of the nonwoven thermoplastic polymer mats produced by that process.

In accordance with this invention, the thermoplastic resin is melt blown in the melt-blown apparatus as is described hereinbefore so as to produce a nonwoven mat having particularly well bonded fibers having average diameters of from about 10 to about 40 microns, preferably from about 15 to about 25 microns.

In operating the melt-blowing process to produce a nonwoven mat having fibers with average diameters in the range between about 10 to about 40 microns, the gas flow rates for a given molten polymer flow rate are adjusted to obtain the desired fiber.

The polymer flow rate, the rate at which the thermoplastic resin is forced through the die openings 6 in the die head 3, is dependent upon the specific design of the die head 3 and extruder 2.

However, for polypropylene suitable polymer flow rates from about 0.07 to about 0.5 or more gm/min/opening. The polymer flow rate is controlled not only by the speed of the extruder, but by other factors discussed at length in Ser. No. 227,769. In general, for the process of this invention, the lower air rates described in Ser. No. 227,769 are preferred. The gas flow rate is limited by the design of the die head 3.

Suitable products, for instance, have been obtained at air rates from about 0.2 to about 6 lbs/min. or greater for a four inch, 80 hole die, and up to about 15 lbs/min. for a 10 inch, 200 hole die, and up to about 60 lbs/min. for a 40 inch, 800 hole die.

Air rates of this magnitude attenuate the molten thermoplastic resin extruded through the die openings 6 into relatively large fibers as melt-blown fibers go, having average diameters in the range of from about 10 to about 40 microns.

When the air rates for a given polymer flow rate are too low, large coarse fibers are formed which entwine into coarse, ropey bundles, or "rope," that produce a coarse, nonpliable, brittle, irregular mat structure. As the air flow rate is increased and passed out of the air flow rate range which produces the large coarse fibers, precursor nonwoven mats are produced having essentially continuous fibers.

When the air rates for a given polymer flow rate are too large, the attenuated fibers break and become discontinuous and produce large, objectionable shot in the nonwoven mat. The shot may be as large as 1 millimeter in diameter. Articles of the invention will tend to tear at points where shot forms.

In another air regime, with even higher air rates, relative to the polymer flow rate, the shot gets much smaller and acceptable nonwoven mats composed of very fine fibers from about 1 about 10 microns are formed, but having very different physical characteristics. Mats comprised of these short, fine fibers are not suitable for the process and articles of the invention.

Herein, polypropylene resin is used as a specific embodiment to illustrate the present invention. However, other fiber-forming thermoplastic resins can be used in the present invention.

Examples of other suitable resins include other polyolefins such as polyethylene, polybutene, polymethylpentene, ethylene-propylene copolymers, polyesters such as poly(methylmethacrylate) and poly(ethyleneterephthalate), polyamides such as poly(hexamethylene adipamide), or poly(α-caproamide) or poly(hexamethylene sebacamide), polyvinyls such as polystyrene, and other thermoplastic polymers such as polytrifluorochloroethylene and mixtures thereof.

In operating the melt-blowing process to produce the nonwoven mat desired, the control of the appropriate combination of die tip temperature, resin flow rate, and resin molecular weight is made so as to give an apparent viscosity of the thermoplastic resin in the die holes of from about 10 to about 800 poise, preferably within the range of from about 50 to about 300 poise.

For a particular thermoplastic resin, the apparent viscosity is calculated from the geometry of the die by methods well known in polymer rheology by measuring the pressure upstream of the die holes, and by measuring the polymer flow rate. See, e.g., both H. V. Boenig, Polyolefins, p 264 (1966), and Chemical Engineering Handbook (Perry Ed. 1950) at p. 375. The apparent viscosity can usually be adjusted into the operable range by varying the die tip temperature. See Ser. No. 227,769 for details.

To be melt blown into fibers, polypropylene, it has been found, must be thermally treated at temperatures in excess of 550° F., and preferably, within the range of from about 575° to about 800° F. The degree of thermal treatment necessary varies with the melt index of the particular polypropylene resin employed and with the polymer rates used in the melt-blowing process. The thermal treatment of the polypropylene may be carried out in the extruder 2 alone, or partially in the extruder 2 and partially in the die head 3.

After rate of air flow relative to the rate of molten polymer flow, the next single most important factor in producing a suitable precursor nonwoven mat for making the present inventive article is the rate of cooling of the fibers as they are extruded, attenuated, and matted.

In short, rapid cooling (i.e., quenching) of the fibers is necessary. This is conveniently accomplished by a two-fold approach. First, the distance separating the collecting device 8 from the die openings 6 in the die head 3 must be carefully controlled. If the distance is too small between the collecting device 8 and the die openings 6, the rate of cooling may be too slow. On the other hand, if the distance is too great, while sufficient cooling may be obtained there may be no bonding between fibers as the nonwoven mat is produced.

Self-bonding of the fibers in the nonwoven mat so produced is according to the present invention a very desirable physical characteristic and is the third process characteristic in importance, with respect to affecting the final characteristics of the article of the invention. It has been found that for obtaining satisfactory self-bonded products from a 4 inch die, the distance between the collecting device 8 and the die openings 6 should range between 3 and 12 inches.

Supplementary cooling to obtain the proper amount and extent of bonded fibers in the nonwoven mat is preferably used in conjunction with proper die to collector distances used. Such secondary cooling can be accomplished with a water quench or preferably with dry ice within the collecting device 8 or associated with it. Of course, refrigerant coils could also be built into the collection device.

The nonwoven mat produced by the special, above-described process has continuous fibers of low crystallinity. (Rapid cooling inhibits formation of spherulites and crystallites in the fibers.) Thus, a great deal of attention must be given to critical process detail in order to produce nonwoven mats which will be satisfactory precursors for the nonwoven article of the invention.

The precursor nonwoven mat is then drawn while being subjected to heating.

Drawing can be done in a hot air oven or the nonwoven mat may be drawn over a heated draw bar. The drawing operation may be in line or a separate operation wherein the nonwoven mat is collected on a roll at a higher rate of speed than that feeding the drawing means. In any event, the nonwoven mat is drawn at draw ratios from about 2:1 to about 10:1 and preferably between about 5:1 and about 7:1. The temperature will be from slightly below the softening point of a given polymer down to a temperature where the precursor mat is pulled apart rather than drawn. For polypropylene, the temperature will be from about 200° to 375° F. preferably 230° to 350° F., and most preferably 250° to 310° F.

The resulting nonwoven article is a soft, glossy ribbon. It is useful as a scrim support for use in paper toweling, wiping cloths, other nonwovens, or as a porous, non-absorbent coating for absorbent packaging such as bandages or sanitary napkins, or as a ribbon or packing and in decorative applications.

The article of the invention can be twisted into yarns which can be used for tufted carpets and twine. In its ribbon form, it can be used decoratively or to weave carpet backing and containers such as sand bags and vegetable bags. It also can be used for netting, such as mosquito netting, filter paper, etc. Furthermore, it can be used for surgical implantations.

The process and resin should be chosen to prepare a precursor web which can be characterized as having:

a. a breaking length of from 600 to 2000, preferably 700 to 1500, and most preferably 900 to 1300 meters; (Breaking length is the length of a particular nonwoven structure which will cause breaking at any place because of the weight of the structure itself.)

b. at least 50, preferably at least 70, and most preferably at least 110 percent elongation before break while being pulled; and the ability to break sharply at such elongation, as contrasted to simply being pulled apart.

The elongation and tensile tests on the precursor web as well as the ones on the resultant article are carried out on an Instron testing machine with the jaws set 4 inches apart. This is a standard technique. The Instron apparatus and test is described in ASTM D76-67 and ASTM D 2256-69. The test apparatus is obtainable from: Instron Corp., 2500 Washington St., Canton, Mass. 02021.

After elongation, the fibers in the longitudinal direction will have an average diameter of about 1 to 8, and most preferably 3 to 8 microns. The transverse fibers will essentially retain their average diameters before elongation, i.e., about 10 to 40 microns on the average.

Self-bonded refers to the phenomenon of two fibers crossing each other at at least one junction point and being bonded to each other by their ability to fuse thermoplastically to each other at temperatures which soften them and under drawing tensions.

The invention is further illustrated by the following specific examples, which should not be taken as limitations on the scope of the invention.

EXAMPLE 1

A 20 MFR (melt flow rate) polypropylene resin was used in an apparatus similar to that of FIGS. 1 and 2.* It was thermally treated to 56 MFR in one extruder and then fed to the melt-blowing extruder. The particular melt-blowing die used had 80 holes along a 4-inch nose and 0.010 inch air slots on either side of the polymer holes.

A web was blown under the following conditions:

______________________________________Melt-blowing extruder temperature                 450°  F.Die Temperature       680° F.Polymer Rate          6.7 gms./min.                 (total)Die to Collector Distance                 4 inchesAir Rate              0.6 lbs./min.                 (total)______________________________________

Crushed dry ice was put in the collector screen to help quench the web.

The resulting precursor nonwoven web was then drawn in an oven 6 feet long maintained at 250° F. The web was fed at 40 feet/minute and withdrawn at 260 feet/minute. The entering web was about 4.5 inches wide and fairly stiff. The final drawn web was about 1-1/4inches wide, extremely flexible and glossy in appearance. This drawn article had a denier of 3320 and a tenacity of 1.5 gms/denier. FIGS. 3 to 7 which are photomicrographs (200×) of the precursor web and drawn web article of this invention indicate the profound changes which take place in the precursor webs. These figures are described in detail as follows:

FIG. 3 Transmitted light passed through the undrawn web; shows random directions and loops in fibers. Fiber diameters are about 8 to 15μ.

Fig. 4 transmitted light through the drawn web; shows thin drawn fibers (about 4 to 8μ) aligned with the machine direction, and thicker less drawn fibers looped generally in the cross direction of the web.

Fig. 5 polarized transmitted light through the undrawn web; shows the lack of orientation within the fibers. The small Maltese cross patterns show that small domains are partially crystallized. There was about 22% crystallinity found by X-ray in this sample.

Figs. 6 and 7 Polarized transmitted light through the drawn web. FIG. 6 is with the machine direction of the web parallel to the polarizer and perpendicular to the analyzer for minimum brightness of the drawn machine direction fibers.

This shows the small maltese cross pattern on some undrawn segments at bonded points.

Fig. 7 is with the machine direction of the web at 45° to the polarizer and analyzer for maximum brightness of the drawn machine direction fibers. This shows that the fiber morphology is highly oriented along the fiber longitudinal axis as well as the fact that the majority of the fibers are parallel. The X-ray crystallinity of the drawn web was 47%.

The undrawn webs had about 15-22% monoclinic crystallinity by X-ray and microscope. After drawing at 6 or 7/1 the crystallites went up to 48-57% monoclinic. Based on drawing of monofilament or film it would be advantageous to have the paracrystalline structure in the undrawn webs. Attempts to obtain this by putting solid CO2 in the collector screen to try for a quick quench gave no change in the X-ray pattern. It is noted in passing that the dry ice allowed the collection of a good web 2 inches from the die. However, the web collected 4 inches away with all other variables constant was stronger.

As can be seen by the photomicrographs, drawing affects the web and the individual fibers. First, it changes the random network of fibers into an array of fibers which run predominantly in the machine direction. This is observed also by the narrowing of the web. Secondly, the individual fibers are drawn down to smaller diameter and the crystalline structure is developed and oriented. Those fibers which remain perpendicular to the machine direction are neither drawn nor oriented.

In a sample which was drawn at 6.6/1, the average fiber diameter was reduced from 16 μ to 5.7 μ. The undrawn web showed spherulitic structure or almost zero birefringence on the main strands. After drawing, the birefringence averaged 41 × 10-3. Based on the usual birefringence of drawn fibers (20 to 35 × 10-3), this sample had very high orientation. There is, however, no unique correlation of birefringence with strength to allow an absolute value to be put on the strength of these fibers. The upper limit on birefringence of polypropylene is reported to be somewhere between 15 and 67 × 10-3.

Unless otherwise indicated, draw ratios are machine draw ratios.

EXAMPLE 2

The procedure of Example 1 was repeated exactly except that the withdrawal rate was 260 ft./min.

A twisted piece of the resulting ribbon had a tenacity of 1.84 grams per denier and a denier of 2860. (All samples in these examples were tested in standard monofilament instruments using a twisted portion of sample.)

EXAMPLE 3

To further illustrate the effect of drawing on the strength of the resulting articles, a series of precursor webs produced from polypropylene resin of different shear stress and die swells were drawn at various machine draw ratios (MDR) between 2 and 7 and at different temperatures.

The feed was held at 40 feet/minute and the take-up speed varied to vary the draw ratio. The results were plotted and are schematically shown in the graph of FIG. 8.

The results of these series are shown as tenacity plotted against mass draw ratio instead of the more usual machine draw ratio. The mass draw ratio (undrawn/drawn web weight per unit length) was used to give a smooth curve. Since only short lengths (˜100-200 feet) were drawn and were not collected under tension there may have been transient conditions during the draw or variations in relaxation. Most data showed the two ratios differing by less than 15%, but 4 points showed the mass draw to be up to 34% lower than the MDR but using mass draw ratio still gave essentially smooth linear relationships.

The low swell, 14.4 shear stress polymer gave increases in tenacity up to 2 grams per denier at 6:1 mass draw ratio. It is also seen that drawing oven temperatures of 250° F. and 300° F. had no effect on the strength. Initial screening had shown that temperatures between 200° and 300° F. had no effect on strength. Also the webs could not be drawn at room temperature or at 350° F.

When the low swell resin was degraded further to 11.5 standard shear stress, the product strength and slope of strength versus draw ratio decreased. This indicates that it is worthwhile directionally to increase the molecular weight in the web as measured by shear stress. Increase in viscosity average molecular weight, i.e., Mv, does not result in additional strength.

The single point shown for the high swell resin is the average of 6 different webs drawn between 6:1 and 6.8:1. These webs were made during an attempt to melt blow a higher molecular weight high swell resin. By running the extruder at 590° F. and the die at 550°-600° F. it was possible to form acceptable webs. The results of the drawing were 1.93 grams/denier, 26% elongation at an average of 6.35:1 mass draw ratio.

Most good webs could be run fairly well at 6/1 MDR but broke fairly often at 7/1. This appeared to be caused by uneven points in the web or the contacting of the fluttering web with oven parts.

EXAMPLE 4

A series of webs were made from polypropylene resin to determine the effect of basis weight. Basis weight is a measure of mass and is calculated from the formula ##EQU1## Basis weight is related to denier. And the object of this example was to determine whether denier influenced strength. Denier is the weight of 9,000 meters of a particular fabric. These webs were made of varying basis weights by running the collector at varying speeds while holding all other conditions constant. The conditions were chosen to result in satisfactory precursor webs according to the criteria set forth above. The webs were drawn in a drawing oven at 310° F. and the results were set forth in Table I below:

              TABLE I______________________________________Effect of Basis Weight on Drawn Tenacity        Drawn Web CalculatedUndrawn Web     Machine  Mass   Tenacity                            Tenacity at 6/1Denier IV     DR       DR   g.p.d. Mass DR, g.p.d.______________________________________ 9,550 0.95   7        0.05 1.64   1.6217,200 1.00   7        4.86 1.69   2.1431,600 0.98   7        5.96 2.28   2.3053,400 1.07   7        4.45 1.48   2.09______________________________________ DR = draw ratio IV = inherent viscosity g.p.d. = grams per denier

The results of drawing at 310° F. are shown in Table I. To compare tensiles at the same mass draw ratio the experimental values were corrected to a 6/1 mass draw ratio by assuming that the slope from FIG. 8 for this resin would apply to each data point. In the last column it is seen that the tenacity rises sharply between 9,500 and 17,000 undrawn denier and remains above 2.09 up to 53,400 denier. There is apparently a maximum between 17,000 and 50,000 denier.

Thus, the special melt-blown webs can be drawn to about 6 or 7/1 to yield a product with a machine direction tenacity of 2 grams per denier or more. Tenacity increases with (1) shear stress of the base resin, (2) with draw ratio within the operable limits and (3) with denier at low deniers (10-17,000). Temperature of draw has no appreciable effect on strength between the operating ranges.

Claims (1)

We claim:
1. A soft, glossy ribbon having substantially uniform, parallel, fine polypropylene fibers in a substantially longitudinal direction interspersed with coarse fiber junction points wherein said ribbon is much stronger in its longitudinal direction than in its transverse direction and is much stronger in said longitudinal direction as compared to a precursor, non-woven polypropylene, melt-brown article made from a melt-blowing process, which precursor article comprises
a. a mass of self-bonded, polypropylene fibers in a random network with said fibers
i. having an average diameter of 10 to 40 microns
ii. with little or no crystallinity and orientation,
b. having a breaking length of from 600 to 2,000 meters,
c. an elongation before break of at least 50%, and an ability to break sharply at said elongation, and
d. a tenacity of less than 0.4 grams per denier, said ribbon having
a. fibers in the longitudinal direction having an average diameter of 1 to 8 microns and being relatively strong, fine, oriented and crystalline, and
d. fibers in the transverse direction having an average diameter of 10 to 40 microns and being relatively coarse, weak and with little or no crystallinity and orientation, said transverse fibers being essentially of the same physical characteristics of those of said precursor non-woven article before conversion to said ribbon, and
c. said ribbon having a tenacity of at least 1.6 grams per denier in the longitudinal direction
wherein the improved properties of said ribbon as compared to said precursor article are obtained by drawing said precursor article at a draw ratio of from 2:1 to 10:1 at a temperature of 200° to 370° F.
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US4187343A (en) * 1975-10-08 1980-02-05 Toyobo Co., Ltd. Process for producing non-woven fabric
US4223059A (en) * 1975-03-31 1980-09-16 Biax Fiberfilm Corporation Process and product thereof for stretching a non-woven web of an orientable polymeric fiber
US4279979A (en) * 1978-11-09 1981-07-21 The Dexter Corporation Nonwoven fibrous substrate for battery separator
US4443513A (en) * 1982-02-24 1984-04-17 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Soft thermoplastic fiber webs and method of making
US4486161A (en) * 1983-05-12 1984-12-04 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Melt-blowing die tip with integral tie bars
US4517714A (en) * 1982-07-23 1985-05-21 The Procter & Gamble Company Nonwoven fabric barrier layer
US4526733A (en) * 1982-11-17 1985-07-02 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Meltblown die and method
US4554207A (en) * 1984-12-10 1985-11-19 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Stretched-and-bonded polyethylene plexifilamentary nonwoven sheet
FR2588285A1 (en) * 1985-10-07 1987-04-10 Kimberly Clark Co Multilayer nonwoven textile
FR2588286A1 (en) * 1985-10-07 1987-04-10 Kimberly Clark Co Nonwoven tissue with improved softness
US4988560A (en) * 1987-12-21 1991-01-29 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Oriented melt-blown fibers, processes for making such fibers, and webs made from such fibers
US5075161A (en) * 1988-03-29 1991-12-24 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Extremely fine polyphenylene sulphide fibres
US5141699A (en) * 1987-12-21 1992-08-25 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Process for making oriented melt-blown microfibers
US5143679A (en) * 1991-02-28 1992-09-01 The Procter & Gamble Company Method for sequentially stretching zero strain stretch laminate web to impart elasticity thereto without rupturing the web
US5156793A (en) * 1991-02-28 1992-10-20 The Procter & Gamble Company Method for incrementally stretching zero strain stretch laminate web in a non-uniform manner to impart a varying degree of elasticity thereto
US5160686A (en) * 1990-06-04 1992-11-03 National Starch And Chemical Investment Holding Corporation Method of producing a non-tacky hot melt adhesive containing package
US5167897A (en) * 1991-02-28 1992-12-01 The Procter & Gamble Company Method for incrementally stretching a zero strain stretch laminate web to impart elasticity thereto
US5201420A (en) * 1990-06-04 1993-04-13 National Starch And Chemical Investment Holding Corporation Non-tacky hot melt adhesive containing package
US5238733A (en) * 1991-09-30 1993-08-24 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Stretchable nonwoven webs based on multi-layer blown microfibers
US5244482A (en) * 1992-03-26 1993-09-14 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of nonwoven webs
US5292389A (en) * 1991-03-12 1994-03-08 Idemitsu Petrochemical Co., Ltd. Process for producing nonwoven fabric
US5324580A (en) * 1991-09-30 1994-06-28 Fiberweb North America, Inc. Elastomeric meltblown webs
WO1995003114A1 (en) * 1993-07-22 1995-02-02 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of laminated nonwoven cellulosic fiber webs
US5431829A (en) * 1993-12-16 1995-07-11 Pall Corporation Polymethylpentene filtration medium
US5441550A (en) * 1992-03-26 1995-08-15 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of laminated nonwoven cellulosic fiber webs
US5459219A (en) * 1990-02-22 1995-10-17 Yamamoto; Shigeru Polymer material improved in its electric insulation properties
US5486411A (en) * 1992-03-26 1996-01-23 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Electrically charged, consolidated non-woven webs
EP0695383A1 (en) * 1993-03-26 1996-02-07 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of nonwoven webs
US5492753A (en) * 1992-12-14 1996-02-20 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Stretchable meltblown fabric with barrier properties
USRE35206E (en) * 1992-03-26 1996-04-16 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of nonwoven webs
US5582907A (en) * 1994-07-28 1996-12-10 Pall Corporation Melt-blown fibrous web
US5592357A (en) * 1992-10-09 1997-01-07 The University Of Tennessee Research Corp. Electrostatic charging apparatus and method
US5645790A (en) * 1996-02-20 1997-07-08 Biax-Fiberfilm Corporation Apparatus and process for polygonal melt-blowing die assemblies for making high-loft, low-density webs
US5686050A (en) * 1992-10-09 1997-11-11 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Method and apparatus for the electrostatic charging of a web or film
EP0844323A1 (en) 1996-11-22 1998-05-27 Flexus Specialty Nonwovens L.t.d. Thermo-mechanical modification of non-woven webs
US5773375A (en) * 1996-05-29 1998-06-30 Swan; Michael D. Thermally stable acoustical insulation
US5895558A (en) * 1995-06-19 1999-04-20 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Discharge methods and electrodes for generating plasmas at one atmosphere of pressure, and materials treated therewith
US5955174A (en) * 1995-03-28 1999-09-21 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Composite of pleated and nonwoven webs
US5964742A (en) * 1997-09-15 1999-10-12 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Nonwoven bonding patterns producing fabrics with improved strength and abrasion resistance
US5993943A (en) * 1987-12-21 1999-11-30 3M Innovative Properties Company Oriented melt-blown fibers, processes for making such fibers and webs made from such fibers
EP0962605A1 (en) * 1998-06-01 1999-12-08 Clark-Schwebel Tech-Fab Company Glass fiber facing sheet and method of making same
US6017834A (en) * 1991-03-07 2000-01-25 Btg International Limited Monoliyhic polymeric product
US6051177A (en) * 1996-03-11 2000-04-18 Ward; Gregory F. Thermo-mechanical modification of nonwoven webs
US6054205A (en) * 1997-05-29 2000-04-25 Clark-Schwebel Tech-Fab Company Glass fiber facing sheet and method of making same
US6074869A (en) * 1994-07-28 2000-06-13 Pall Corporation Fibrous web for processing a fluid
US6163943A (en) * 1997-10-24 2000-12-26 Sca Hygiene Products Ab Method of producing a nonwoven material
US6238767B1 (en) 1997-09-15 2001-05-29 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Laminate having improved barrier properties
US6277773B1 (en) 1991-03-07 2001-08-21 Btg International Limited Polymeric materials
US6312638B1 (en) 1996-10-04 2001-11-06 Btg International Process of making a compacted polyolefin article
US6328923B1 (en) 1996-10-04 2001-12-11 Btg International Limited Process of making a compacted polyolefin article
US6342283B1 (en) * 1999-03-30 2002-01-29 Usf Filtration & Separations, Inc. Melt-blown tubular core elements and filter cartridges including the same
US6368024B2 (en) 1998-09-29 2002-04-09 Certainteed Corporation Geotextile fabric
EP1194626A1 (en) * 1999-06-16 2002-04-10 First Quality Nonwovens, Inc. Improved method of making media of controlled porosity and product thereof
US6423227B1 (en) * 1997-02-07 2002-07-23 Nordson Corporation Meltblown yarn and method and apparatus for manufacturing
US20030119410A1 (en) * 1999-06-16 2003-06-26 Hassan Bodaghi Method of making media of controlled porosity and product thereof
US20040224584A1 (en) * 2003-05-08 2004-11-11 Techfab, Llc - Anderson, Sc Facing sheet of open mesh scrim and polymer film for cement boards
US20040239002A1 (en) * 2001-11-27 2004-12-02 Ward Ian M Process for fabricating polypropylene sheet
US6849324B2 (en) 1998-11-06 2005-02-01 Bba Nonwovens Simpsonville, Inc. Undirectionally cold stretched nonwoven webs of multipolymer fibers for stretch fabrics and disposable absorbent articles containing them
WO2005042819A2 (en) 2003-10-31 2005-05-12 Sca Hygiene Products Ab A hydroentangled nonwoven material and a method of producing such a material
US7049251B2 (en) 2003-01-21 2006-05-23 Saint-Gobain Technical Fabrics Canada Ltd Facing material with controlled porosity for construction boards
US20060121097A1 (en) * 2004-11-12 2006-06-08 Lodge Richard W Treatment articles capable of conforming to an underlying shape
US20070062886A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2007-03-22 Rego Eric J Reduced pressure drop coalescer
US20070062887A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2007-03-22 Schwandt Brian W Space optimized coalescer
US20070107399A1 (en) * 2005-11-14 2007-05-17 Schwandt Brian W Variable coalescer
US20070131235A1 (en) * 2005-11-14 2007-06-14 Janikowski Eric A Method and apparatus for making filter element, including multi-characteristic filter element
US20070299418A1 (en) * 2004-12-29 2007-12-27 Sca Hygiene Products Ab Fastening means in the form of a belt for an absorbent article
EP2009162A2 (en) 2003-12-05 2008-12-31 Phoenix Intellectuals and Technologies Management, Inc. Process for preparing an elastic nonwoven web
US7828869B1 (en) 2005-09-20 2010-11-09 Cummins Filtration Ip, Inc. Space-effective filter element
US7846278B2 (en) 2000-01-05 2010-12-07 Saint-Gobain Technical Fabrics America, Inc. Methods of making smooth reinforced cementitious boards
US7959714B2 (en) 2007-11-15 2011-06-14 Cummins Filtration Ip, Inc. Authorized filter servicing and replacement
US20110147976A1 (en) * 2007-11-09 2011-06-23 Hollingsworth & Vose Company Meltblown filter medium
US8052913B2 (en) 2003-05-22 2011-11-08 Propex Operating Company Llc Process for fabricating polymeric articles
WO2012020053A1 (en) 2010-08-12 2012-02-16 Galliano Boscolo Process and apparatus for spinning fibres and in particular for producing a fibrous-containing nonwoven
DE102011014202A1 (en) * 2011-03-16 2012-09-20 Sandler Ag Filter media for making pleated filter
WO2018091453A1 (en) 2016-11-17 2018-05-24 Teknoweb Materials S.R.L. Triple head draw slot for producing pulp and spunmelt fibers containing web

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US4223059A (en) * 1975-03-31 1980-09-16 Biax Fiberfilm Corporation Process and product thereof for stretching a non-woven web of an orientable polymeric fiber
US4187343A (en) * 1975-10-08 1980-02-05 Toyobo Co., Ltd. Process for producing non-woven fabric
US4279979A (en) * 1978-11-09 1981-07-21 The Dexter Corporation Nonwoven fibrous substrate for battery separator
US4443513A (en) * 1982-02-24 1984-04-17 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Soft thermoplastic fiber webs and method of making
US4517714A (en) * 1982-07-23 1985-05-21 The Procter & Gamble Company Nonwoven fabric barrier layer
US4526733A (en) * 1982-11-17 1985-07-02 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Meltblown die and method
US4486161A (en) * 1983-05-12 1984-12-04 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Melt-blowing die tip with integral tie bars
US4554207A (en) * 1984-12-10 1985-11-19 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Stretched-and-bonded polyethylene plexifilamentary nonwoven sheet
FR2588285A1 (en) * 1985-10-07 1987-04-10 Kimberly Clark Co Multilayer nonwoven textile
FR2588286A1 (en) * 1985-10-07 1987-04-10 Kimberly Clark Co Nonwoven tissue with improved softness
US4988560A (en) * 1987-12-21 1991-01-29 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Oriented melt-blown fibers, processes for making such fibers, and webs made from such fibers
US5141699A (en) * 1987-12-21 1992-08-25 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Process for making oriented melt-blown microfibers
US5993943A (en) * 1987-12-21 1999-11-30 3M Innovative Properties Company Oriented melt-blown fibers, processes for making such fibers and webs made from such fibers
US5075161A (en) * 1988-03-29 1991-12-24 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Extremely fine polyphenylene sulphide fibres
US5459219A (en) * 1990-02-22 1995-10-17 Yamamoto; Shigeru Polymer material improved in its electric insulation properties
US5160686A (en) * 1990-06-04 1992-11-03 National Starch And Chemical Investment Holding Corporation Method of producing a non-tacky hot melt adhesive containing package
US5201420A (en) * 1990-06-04 1993-04-13 National Starch And Chemical Investment Holding Corporation Non-tacky hot melt adhesive containing package
US5167897A (en) * 1991-02-28 1992-12-01 The Procter & Gamble Company Method for incrementally stretching a zero strain stretch laminate web to impart elasticity thereto
US5156793A (en) * 1991-02-28 1992-10-20 The Procter & Gamble Company Method for incrementally stretching zero strain stretch laminate web in a non-uniform manner to impart a varying degree of elasticity thereto
US5143679A (en) * 1991-02-28 1992-09-01 The Procter & Gamble Company Method for sequentially stretching zero strain stretch laminate web to impart elasticity thereto without rupturing the web
US6017834A (en) * 1991-03-07 2000-01-25 Btg International Limited Monoliyhic polymeric product
US6277773B1 (en) 1991-03-07 2001-08-21 Btg International Limited Polymeric materials
US5292389A (en) * 1991-03-12 1994-03-08 Idemitsu Petrochemical Co., Ltd. Process for producing nonwoven fabric
US5316838A (en) * 1991-09-30 1994-05-31 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Retroreflective sheet with nonwoven elastic backing
US5324580A (en) * 1991-09-30 1994-06-28 Fiberweb North America, Inc. Elastomeric meltblown webs
US5238733A (en) * 1991-09-30 1993-08-24 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Stretchable nonwoven webs based on multi-layer blown microfibers
US5599366A (en) * 1992-03-26 1997-02-04 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of laminated nonwoven cellulosic fiber webs
US5443606A (en) * 1992-03-26 1995-08-22 The University Of Tennessee Reserch Corporation Post-treatment of laminated nonwoven cellulosic fiber webs
US5486411A (en) * 1992-03-26 1996-01-23 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Electrically charged, consolidated non-woven webs
US5441550A (en) * 1992-03-26 1995-08-15 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of laminated nonwoven cellulosic fiber webs
US5747394A (en) * 1992-03-26 1998-05-05 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of laminated nonwoven cellulosic fiber webs
USRE35206E (en) * 1992-03-26 1996-04-16 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of nonwoven webs
US5244482A (en) * 1992-03-26 1993-09-14 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of nonwoven webs
US5592357A (en) * 1992-10-09 1997-01-07 The University Of Tennessee Research Corp. Electrostatic charging apparatus and method
US5686050A (en) * 1992-10-09 1997-11-11 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Method and apparatus for the electrostatic charging of a web or film
US5492753A (en) * 1992-12-14 1996-02-20 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Stretchable meltblown fabric with barrier properties
EP0695383A1 (en) * 1993-03-26 1996-02-07 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of nonwoven webs
EP0695383A4 (en) * 1993-03-26 1997-12-17 Univ Tennessee Res Corp Post-treatment of nonwoven webs
WO1995003114A1 (en) * 1993-07-22 1995-02-02 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Post-treatment of laminated nonwoven cellulosic fiber webs
US5431829A (en) * 1993-12-16 1995-07-11 Pall Corporation Polymethylpentene filtration medium
US5586997A (en) * 1994-07-28 1996-12-24 Pall Corporation Bag filter
US6074869A (en) * 1994-07-28 2000-06-13 Pall Corporation Fibrous web for processing a fluid
US5582907A (en) * 1994-07-28 1996-12-10 Pall Corporation Melt-blown fibrous web
US5652050A (en) * 1994-07-28 1997-07-29 Pall Corporation Fibrous web for processing a fluid
US5846438A (en) * 1994-07-28 1998-12-08 Pall Corporation Fibrous web for processing a fluid
US5955174A (en) * 1995-03-28 1999-09-21 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Composite of pleated and nonwoven webs
US6416633B1 (en) 1995-06-19 2002-07-09 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Resonant excitation method and apparatus for generating plasmas
US5895558A (en) * 1995-06-19 1999-04-20 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Discharge methods and electrodes for generating plasmas at one atmosphere of pressure, and materials treated therewith
US6059935A (en) * 1995-06-19 2000-05-09 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Discharge method and apparatus for generating plasmas
US5645790A (en) * 1996-02-20 1997-07-08 Biax-Fiberfilm Corporation Apparatus and process for polygonal melt-blowing die assemblies for making high-loft, low-density webs
US6051177A (en) * 1996-03-11 2000-04-18 Ward; Gregory F. Thermo-mechanical modification of nonwoven webs
US5773375A (en) * 1996-05-29 1998-06-30 Swan; Michael D. Thermally stable acoustical insulation
US5961904A (en) * 1996-05-29 1999-10-05 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Co. Method of making a thermally stable acoustical insulation microfiber web
US20040113324A1 (en) * 1996-10-04 2004-06-17 Btg Internationl Limited Olefin polymers
US7279441B2 (en) 1996-10-04 2007-10-09 Btg International Limited Compacted olefin fibers
US6458727B1 (en) 1996-10-04 2002-10-01 University Of Leeds Innovative Limited Olefin polymers
US6328923B1 (en) 1996-10-04 2001-12-11 Btg International Limited Process of making a compacted polyolefin article
US6312638B1 (en) 1996-10-04 2001-11-06 Btg International Process of making a compacted polyolefin article
US20060178069A1 (en) * 1996-10-04 2006-08-10 Btg International Limited Compacted olefin fibers
EP0844323A1 (en) 1996-11-22 1998-05-27 Flexus Specialty Nonwovens L.t.d. Thermo-mechanical modification of non-woven webs
US6423227B1 (en) * 1997-02-07 2002-07-23 Nordson Corporation Meltblown yarn and method and apparatus for manufacturing
US6054205A (en) * 1997-05-29 2000-04-25 Clark-Schwebel Tech-Fab Company Glass fiber facing sheet and method of making same
US6391131B1 (en) 1997-05-29 2002-05-21 Clark-Schwebel Tech-Fab Company Method of making glass fiber facing sheet
US6238767B1 (en) 1997-09-15 2001-05-29 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Laminate having improved barrier properties
US5964742A (en) * 1997-09-15 1999-10-12 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Nonwoven bonding patterns producing fabrics with improved strength and abrasion resistance
US6163943A (en) * 1997-10-24 2000-12-26 Sca Hygiene Products Ab Method of producing a nonwoven material
EP1408171A1 (en) * 1998-06-01 2004-04-14 Clark-Schwebel Tech-Fab Company Glass fiber facing sheet and method of making same
EP0962605A1 (en) * 1998-06-01 1999-12-08 Clark-Schwebel Tech-Fab Company Glass fiber facing sheet and method of making same
US6368024B2 (en) 1998-09-29 2002-04-09 Certainteed Corporation Geotextile fabric
US6849324B2 (en) 1998-11-06 2005-02-01 Bba Nonwovens Simpsonville, Inc. Undirectionally cold stretched nonwoven webs of multipolymer fibers for stretch fabrics and disposable absorbent articles containing them
US6342283B1 (en) * 1999-03-30 2002-01-29 Usf Filtration & Separations, Inc. Melt-blown tubular core elements and filter cartridges including the same
US6662842B2 (en) 1999-03-30 2003-12-16 Pall Corporation Apparatus for making melt-blown filter cartridges
US20020031629A1 (en) * 1999-03-30 2002-03-14 Usf Filtration & Separations, Inc. Method and apparatus for forming melt-blown filter cartridges having melt-blown core elements, and the filter cartridges formed thereby
EP1194626A1 (en) * 1999-06-16 2002-04-10 First Quality Nonwovens, Inc. Improved method of making media of controlled porosity and product thereof
US20030119410A1 (en) * 1999-06-16 2003-06-26 Hassan Bodaghi Method of making media of controlled porosity and product thereof
EP1194626A4 (en) * 1999-06-16 2002-12-04 First Quality Nonwovens Inc Improved method of making media of controlled porosity and product thereof
US9017495B2 (en) 2000-01-05 2015-04-28 Saint-Gobain Adfors Canada, Ltd. Methods of making smooth reinforced cementitious boards
US7846278B2 (en) 2000-01-05 2010-12-07 Saint-Gobain Technical Fabrics America, Inc. Methods of making smooth reinforced cementitious boards
US20040239002A1 (en) * 2001-11-27 2004-12-02 Ward Ian M Process for fabricating polypropylene sheet
US20050064163A1 (en) * 2001-11-27 2005-03-24 Ward Ian M. Process for fabricating polypropylene sheet
US20070196634A1 (en) * 2001-11-27 2007-08-23 Btg International Limited Process for fabricating polypropylene sheet
US8021592B2 (en) 2001-11-27 2011-09-20 Propex Operating Company Llc Process for fabricating polypropylene sheet
US20100178486A1 (en) * 2001-11-27 2010-07-15 Btg International Limited Process for fabricating polypropylene sheet
US7049251B2 (en) 2003-01-21 2006-05-23 Saint-Gobain Technical Fabrics Canada Ltd Facing material with controlled porosity for construction boards
US7300892B2 (en) 2003-01-21 2007-11-27 Saint-Gobain Technical Fabrics Canada, Ltd. Facing material with controlled porosity for construction boards
US7300515B2 (en) 2003-01-21 2007-11-27 Saint-Gobain Technical Fabrics Canada, Ltd Facing material with controlled porosity for construction boards
US20040224584A1 (en) * 2003-05-08 2004-11-11 Techfab, Llc - Anderson, Sc Facing sheet of open mesh scrim and polymer film for cement boards
US8268439B2 (en) 2003-05-22 2012-09-18 Propex Operating Company, Llc Process for fabricating polymeric articles
US9873239B2 (en) * 2003-05-22 2018-01-23 Propex Operating Company, Llc Process for fabricating polymeric articles
US8052913B2 (en) 2003-05-22 2011-11-08 Propex Operating Company Llc Process for fabricating polymeric articles
US9403341B2 (en) 2003-05-22 2016-08-02 Propex Operating Company Llc Interlayer hot compaction
US20160303835A1 (en) * 2003-05-22 2016-10-20 Propex Operating Company, Llc Process For Fabricating Polymeric Articles
US8871333B2 (en) 2003-05-22 2014-10-28 Ian MacMillan Ward Interlayer hot compaction
WO2005042819A2 (en) 2003-10-31 2005-05-12 Sca Hygiene Products Ab A hydroentangled nonwoven material and a method of producing such a material
EP2009162A2 (en) 2003-12-05 2008-12-31 Phoenix Intellectuals and Technologies Management, Inc. Process for preparing an elastic nonwoven web
US20060121097A1 (en) * 2004-11-12 2006-06-08 Lodge Richard W Treatment articles capable of conforming to an underlying shape
US20070299418A1 (en) * 2004-12-29 2007-12-27 Sca Hygiene Products Ab Fastening means in the form of a belt for an absorbent article
US20110094382A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2011-04-28 Cummins Filtration Ip, Inc. Reduced pressure drop coalescer
US7828869B1 (en) 2005-09-20 2010-11-09 Cummins Filtration Ip, Inc. Space-effective filter element
US8114183B2 (en) 2005-09-20 2012-02-14 Cummins Filtration Ip Inc. Space optimized coalescer
US8545707B2 (en) 2005-09-20 2013-10-01 Cummins Filtration Ip, Inc. Reduced pressure drop coalescer
US20070062887A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2007-03-22 Schwandt Brian W Space optimized coalescer
US20070062886A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2007-03-22 Rego Eric J Reduced pressure drop coalescer
US8231752B2 (en) 2005-11-14 2012-07-31 Cummins Filtration Ip Inc. Method and apparatus for making filter element, including multi-characteristic filter element
US7674425B2 (en) 2005-11-14 2010-03-09 Fleetguard, Inc. Variable coalescer
US20070131235A1 (en) * 2005-11-14 2007-06-14 Janikowski Eric A Method and apparatus for making filter element, including multi-characteristic filter element
US20070107399A1 (en) * 2005-11-14 2007-05-17 Schwandt Brian W Variable coalescer
US20110147976A1 (en) * 2007-11-09 2011-06-23 Hollingsworth & Vose Company Meltblown filter medium
US8114182B2 (en) 2007-11-15 2012-02-14 Cummins Filtration Ip, Inc. Authorized filter servicing and replacement
US7959714B2 (en) 2007-11-15 2011-06-14 Cummins Filtration Ip, Inc. Authorized filter servicing and replacement
EP2845936A1 (en) 2010-08-12 2015-03-11 Boma Engineering Srl Process and apparatus for spinning fibres
US9617658B2 (en) 2010-08-12 2017-04-11 Boma Engineering Srl Apparatus for spinning fibres and producing a fibrous-containing nonwoven
WO2012020053A1 (en) 2010-08-12 2012-02-16 Galliano Boscolo Process and apparatus for spinning fibres and in particular for producing a fibrous-containing nonwoven
DE102011014202A1 (en) * 2011-03-16 2012-09-20 Sandler Ag Filter media for making pleated filter
WO2018091453A1 (en) 2016-11-17 2018-05-24 Teknoweb Materials S.R.L. Triple head draw slot for producing pulp and spunmelt fibers containing web

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