US395306A - andre - Google Patents

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US395306A US395306DA US395306A US 395306 A US395306 A US 395306A US 395306D A US395306D A US 395306DA US 395306 A US395306 A US 395306A
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    • E04D3/00Roof covering by making use of flat or curved slabs or stiff sheets
    • E04D3/36Connecting; Fastening
    • E04D3/361Connecting; Fastening by specially-profiled marginal portions of the slabs or sheets
    • E04D3/362Connecting; Fastening by specially-profiled marginal portions of the slabs or sheets by locking the edge of one slab or sheet within the profiled marginal portion of the adjacent slab or sheet, e.g. using separate connecting elements


I (No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 2. 0. ANDR.
No. 395,306. Patented Jan. l, 1889.
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Pte-ted Jan. 1,1889.
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SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 395,306, dated January 1, '1889.
Application led November 3, 1887. Serial No. 254,236. (No model.) Patented in France February 26, 1887, No. 181,841.
To @ZZ whom it may concern:
Be it known that l, OSCAR ANDR, a citizen of the French Republic, residing' in Paris, France, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Skylights, of which the following is a speciiication.
This invention is the subject of FienchPatent No. 181,841, dated l `ebruary 2V, 1887.
This invention is designed to improve the construction of glass roofs or skylights.
1t relates chiefly to the construction of the frame-work for supporting the glass. The rafters and purlins comprising the framework are arranged to cross each other and are fastened together by suitable clamps or otherwise, the sheets of glass being' arranged in the preferred construction in a plane beneath and separated from the purlins. 1n a moditied construction the sheets are arranged in a plaire above the purlins. In either ease double rafters are employed, consisting each of two parallel beams, one above the other and spaced apart by the purlins, which are arranged to cross the rafters between the upper and lower beams. The spaces between the double rafters are subdivided by the arrangement of single'rafters or glazing-bars between them, the sheets of glass being supported by the sing'le rafters and by the corresponding beams of the double rafters. At the intersection of the rafters and purlins clamps are applied engaging the respective flanges. An improved means is also provided for suspending' drainage-gutters beneath the rafters for carrying off the water of comlensation and discharging it at the eaves.
My system will be easily understood by referring to the accompanying' drawings, which show it both when applied to a skylight with its frame e work on top and to one whose framework is beneath.
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic transverse section of a roof, showing the slope. Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic plan of the roof. Fig. 31s a fragmentary perspective view of the roofframing for a skylight having the framing above the glass. Fig'. e is a plan of two of Vthe glass panes, showing the method of cutting the grooved glass. Fig. 5 is a fragmentary perspective showing the means for connecting' two crossed beams at their intersection. Fig. (i is a similar fragmentary view, showing the method of uniting' the twin rafters. Fig. 7 is afragmentary perspective view showing' the construction of the gutters and 55 the eaves. Fig. 8 is a fragmentary perspective view showing the means for hanging the gutters beneath the rafters, and Fig'.
9 is a perspective view of one of the hangers. Figs. 10 and 11 are longitudinal sections of 6o the g'lass panes, showing their overlapping joints. Fig. 12 is a perspective view showing the completed and glazed roof. The remaining views illustrate the construction wherein the roof-framing is mainly beneath the glass. Fig'. 13 is a perspective of a part of the roof. Fig. 14 is a perspective view on a larger scale, showing' the details of construction. Fig. 15, 16, and 17 are cross-sec tions of different shapes of glazing bars or 7o rafters. Fig. 18 is a fragmentary section cut down the slope of the roof.
I will first describe, with reference to Figs. 1 to 12, the application of my invention to a skylight with exterior framing.
Let us suppose that it is required to con struct agass 'roof of any length whatever and of a' width of, say, six meters and a height of, say, two meters, (see Fig. 1,) giving' a slope of about one in three, more or less. The length should 8o be divided into equal spaces of about two or three meters by laying rafters A A, which are double rafters, at about that distance apart, (see Fig. 2,) and the width should be divided into three spaces by laying two (more or less) 8 5 purlins, B B, Fig. 2, crossing the rafters A.
The spaces of two or three meters between the rafters A A are subdivided by laying single rafters P P midway between each two double rafters A A, and the spaces of about 9o one and a half meter thus formed are again subdivided by laying rafters or glazing-bars D D, all as indicated in FiO'. 2. As shown in Fig. 3, the main orbdouble rafters A A are of -beams of rolled iron, laid in pairs one above 95 the other, spaced apart by the passage of the purlins B B between them. These purlins are also I-beams, and at their intersection with the rafters A A they are united to the latter by bent clamps or clips C C, of iron, roo
which are bent down at opposite sides to embrace the fiange of 4one of the I-beams, and have a nose or lip which takes over the flange en the intersecting beam, as shown in Fig. 3. The twin beams A A are held together by clamps s s, consisting each of two plates engaging the fianges of the beams from opposite sides and drawn together and into firm contact with the beams by a bolt, as shown in Figs. 3 and G. The single rafters P P are also I-beams and are fastened to the lower flange of the purlins B B at their intersection therewith by means of clamps C C, as shown in Fig. 5. The rafters DD maybe of angle-iron or I-beams, as preferred, and these also are connected to the purlins B .I3 by clamps C', as shown in Fig. The rafters A, I), and D rest on ledges or supports at their upper and lowerl ends. In Figs. 3 and 0 is shown a false sill, E, consisting of an I-beam, to which the rafters are fastened by clamps (.1 C.
I Fig. 7 shows the construction at the eaves. Un the top of the wall is a sheet of lead 0r zinc, z, turned up inside, and on this rests the false sill E. The web of this beam is pierced with curved holes o 0. (Seen in Figs. 3, 6, and 7 A bifurcated clamp, a, Fig. 7 engages the fian ge of the lower rafter, A, and its hooked end serves to support the gutter Z, of galvanized sheet-iron, zin c, or other material. After the completion of the metallic framing, as thus described, there is hooked on under each rafter a zinc gutter, g, from .050 t0 .055 millimeter wide and from .015 to .025 millimeter deep, fianged interiorly, Figs. 7 and 3.
A hanger, I), bent from galvanized sheetiron, engages the fian ge of the I beam or rafter, and, extending d own hooks, into the turned-in :lian ges of the gutter, thereby holding the latter in place. This hanger Z) is of inverted- U sh ape, with a flat plate, b, lying againstthe under side of the bottom flange ofthe I-beam rafter, and havingli ps or ears b2 projecting upwardly and inwardly over the rafter-tlange, while its side portions, b3, extend downwardly and are forined with hooks if* h4, or other fastenings, for engagement with the gutter, all as shown in Figs. S and 0. The lower ends of the respective gutters project through the holes 0 o and discharge their water beyond the roof.
The glass should be of the kind which is transversely grooved or tinted on its under side, preferably five millimeters thick, and is cut in the manner shown in Fig. 4, which is a planv of two laterally-adjoining panes, V V. The side edges of the glass are cnt at such an angle that the .tintes will cross the pane obliquely-preferably at an angle of approximately sixty degrees with the sides, as shown .in Fig. 4L. The angle should be such that the length of the grooves will not exceed one and one-quarter time the width of the pane, so that the drops of condensed water in running along the grooves will not run far enough to accumulate sufficient weight to cause them te lose their capillary hold and drop off into the apartment. This, however, will be governed somewhat by the slope of the root'. YThe panes should be cut with inclined top and bottom ends,(with the exception of the first and last, which have only one end thus inclined,) the inclination of the endsbeing in the same direction as that of the grooves, but ofaless pitchsay at an angle of from seventy-tive to eightythree degrees with the sides. In Fig. 4 the panes are shown with a width of 0.74 meter, and a length of 0.20 to 2.00 meters. The ends have an inclination of 0.15 to a base of 0.7 4, and the grooves have an inclination ot 0.38 to 0.74. These proportions are suitable for the slope of roof shown in Fig. 1-namely, an'elevation of 2.00 meters for a base of t300-and for the subdivision of panes shown in Fig. 2, where a length of 0.00 meters is subdivided by eleven rafters or glazing-bars into spaces of equal width. These proportions are given merely as examples. V
The packing between the overlapping ends of the glass is effected by means of a cord covered with white lead or by putty or any other substance, as shown at c in Figs. 10 and 11, only a very slight lap-say, .010 to .015 millimeter for example, varying according to the incline of the roof-being necessary.
The panes of glass are laid with then-lateral edges resting on the lowermost Hang-es of the 1afters A, I), and D, so that almost the entire roof frame-work is above the plane of the glass, as shown in Fig. 12. The edges of the glass may be laid in a bed of putty, and be puttied over, or any Vother suitable packing may be used, such as india-rubber or lead.
As the entire frame-work is outside, the condensation that may take place on its exterior surface will run eff from the outside ot the glass. The gutters themselves being suspended by means merely of thin strips of metal, substantially no condensation takes place in them. In very severe climates all that is necessary is to render them porous on the outside, in which event they would convey the merely infinitesimal quantities ot' condensed water that would collect.
I will n ow, with reference especially to Fi 13 to 1S, describe the application of my invention to a skylight with interior framing.
Although from an economical and technical point of view the external frame-work presents a good many advantages, this method of construction has some drawbacks, among which maybe mentioned that in certain cases they do not look well architecturally; that the iron has to be periodically painted to prevent rust, &c. By making use of the same method of distributing the material I construct an internal frame-work combining all the more important advantages which my system offers.
I take the main rafters F of any length desired, from two to four meters apart, or more. On these main rafters I secure, by means of gripping-clamps or otherwise, purlins G of I-beam, having wide flanges, with a space between these purlins of 1.50 to 3 meters, the same as in Figs. l, 2, and 3, according to the IOO- IIO
space between the iron supports, and in the axis of each of them I secure a chair, c, of malleable galvanized iron or any other suitable material. These chairs are fastened to the purlins by means of two bent clamps, II Il, holding fast frictionally the two feetp p of the chair. (See Figs. 13 and la.) The clamping-faces of the chair c are inverse reproductions of the glazing-bars L which I employ, and which must have a bead, d, bcneath, but are otherwise ot' any dimension or shape that may be desired, Figs. l5, i113, and 17. The chair is made in halves te facilitate the insertion of the glazing-bars in their respective places, and the clamps II Il, driven onto their teetpjp, secure at the same time the chair on the purlin and the bar I, in the chair by drawing tightly together the two halves.
rllhe upper rib of the bar IL may be constructed with a flanged head, (see Fig. 17,) whereby it will be possible to apply a clamp, M, which will prevent the wind from lit'ting the panes of' glass.
Between. the two feet oil' the chair is inserted the gutter g, which measures between .O and .O millimeters in width, of any material or shape-for instance, zinc. The drops of water will follow the incline ot' the girder until they reach the lower projections of the chairs, which come together beneath the bead, when they Afall into t-he gutter, and will run down the gutter and fall fronrits lower end into a transverse gutter, N, Fig. 13, which conducts the water away to any convenient place. In other respects the construction is the same as first described. In this construction the rat'ter F and glazing-bar L,being fastened together with the purlin G between them, con stitute a twin rafter substantially like that first described. i
It should be mentioned that since the surface of' the glass is from fifty to seven1y-five millimeters higher than the iron framework F G, the latter is inV an atmosphere which is warm, or at any rate not as cold as the temperature off the outside air, so that the cooling process through conductibility cannot take place except through the f'eet of the chairs, and as the amount of' metal there congregated is a mere trifle in comparison with the metallic mass olf the roof' the inconvenience otl having a .trame-work underneath, so f'ar as the condensathm of' water is concerned, does not exist, and all the ad vantanges ot' the system are preserved. This system may be applied to all sorts of' roofs, galleries, halls, museums, concert-halls, studios, offices,
schools, artists and photographers studios, winter-gardens, hot-houses, verandas, &c.
In the construction first described the lower rafter A to which the glass panes are connected, constitutes the glazing-bar, whereas in the construction last described this glazii'lg-bar is specially constructed and mounted above the rafter. In either case the rafters are double, of two beams one above the other, and one of which serves also as a glazing-bar- In either case the purlins cross between the tworaf'ters, so that they serve to hold them apart.
I claim as my invention the following-de fined improvements in skylights or glazed roots, substantially as hereinabova specified, namely;
1. A roof-framing consisting` of rafters and purlins crossing each other and fastened together, in combination with the sheets of glass secured to said vframing and arranged in a plane beneath and separated from the purlins.
2. The combination, to form a glazed-roof structure, of double rafters at intervals consisting each of' two parallfbeams, one above t-he other, purlins crossing said rafters and embraced between the upper and lower beams thereof, single rafters arranged parallel with and subdividing the spaces between said double rafters and crossing said purlins, and the glass panes supported by said single rafters and the corresponding beams of said double rafters, all :fastened together..
3. In a glaZed-ro0f structure, the combination of a double rafter consisting of the anged iron beams, one above the other, a flanged purlin crossing said rafter between the upper and lower beams thereof, with clamps for fastening together the upper and lower beamsof the double rafter and embracing the purlin between them, and clamps engaging the .flan ges ot' the respective beams at their intersection.
et. In a glazed-roel' structure, the combination, with a flanged ra'f'ter of Ibeam and a `gutter extending longitiulinally beneath it, oi a hanger for said gutter et inverted-U shape having a iiat plate against the bottom `fiange ot' the -beam and lips turned upwardly and inwardly from said plat-e over the flange on the raiter, and said hanger extending down at both sides and fastened to the gutter` In witness whereotI I have hereunto signed my name in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
oscila ANDR.
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3001333A (en) * 1956-05-05 1961-09-26 Edit Di Ing Renato Piana & C S Roof covering comprising structural members made from plastics
US3065574A (en) * 1957-02-07 1962-11-27 Edit Dell Ing Renato Piana & C Plastic strip for roof
US7797905B1 (en) * 2007-02-26 2010-09-21 David L. Smalley Roofing system and members

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3001333A (en) * 1956-05-05 1961-09-26 Edit Di Ing Renato Piana & C S Roof covering comprising structural members made from plastics
US3065574A (en) * 1957-02-07 1962-11-27 Edit Dell Ing Renato Piana & C Plastic strip for roof
US7797905B1 (en) * 2007-02-26 2010-09-21 David L. Smalley Roofing system and members

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