US3929433A - Process and apparatus for removing ions from fluids - Google Patents

Process and apparatus for removing ions from fluids Download PDF

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US3929433A
US3929433A US37629573A US3929433A US 3929433 A US3929433 A US 3929433A US 37629573 A US37629573 A US 37629573A US 3929433 A US3929433 A US 3929433A
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magnetic field
gas
process
ions
apparatus
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Ronald Ray Lucero
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Ronald Ray Lucero
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B03SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS; MAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS
    • B03CMAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS
    • B03C1/00Magnetic separation
    • B03C1/02Magnetic separation acting directly on the substance being separated
    • B03C1/023Separation using Lorentz force, i.e. deflection of electrically charged particles in a magnetic field
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D43/00Separating particles from liquids, or liquids from solids, otherwise than by sedimentation or filtration
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D49/00Separating dispersed particles from gases, air or vapours by other methods
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/30Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by irradiation
    • C02F1/32Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by irradiation with ultra-violet light
    • C02F1/325Irradiation devices or lamp constructions
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/4604Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods for desalination of seawater or brackish water
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/48Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage with magnetic or electric fields
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2201/00Apparatus for treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • C02F2201/32Details relating to UV-irradiation devices
    • C02F2201/322Lamp arrangement
    • C02F2201/3221Lamps suspended above a water surface or pipe
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2201/00Apparatus for treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • C02F2201/32Details relating to UV-irradiation devices
    • C02F2201/328Having flow diverters (baffles)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2301/00General aspects of water treatment
    • C02F2301/02Fluid flow conditions
    • C02F2301/024Turbulent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2301/00General aspects of water treatment
    • C02F2301/02Fluid flow conditions
    • C02F2301/026Spiral, helicoidal, radial

Abstract

A fluid, including a gas or a liquid, is flowed through a cylindrical enclosure and subjected to ultraviolet radiation to make predetermined ions more susceptible to a magnetic field established within the fluid by a magnet positioned around or within the enclosure. The ions are moved in a vortex motion within the magnetic field so that like ions converge at a focal point from which fluid containing a higher concentration of these ions is removed.

Description

United States Patent 11 1 Lucero *Dec. 30, 1975 [541 PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR 3,129,173 4/1964 Schulze 210/512 R REMOVING IONS FROM FLUIDS 3,207,684 9/1965 Dotts, Jr. 204/309 3,444,077 5/1969 Finch 210/512 R [7 In ento R nald R y L r 1 7 3,511,776 5/1970 Avampato.... 210/42 Monterey, Anaheim, Calif. 92801 3,767,545 10/1973 Lucero 204/155 Notice: The portion of the term of this patent subsequent to Oct. 23, 1990, has been disdaimed Primary ExammerT. M. Tufarlello Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Edmund M. Jaskiewicz [22] F1led: July 5, 1973 [21] App]. No.: 376,295

. Related U.S. Appllcation Data ABSTRACT [63] Contmuation-m-part of Ser. No. 150,599, June 7,

1971 Pat. No. 3,767,545.

A fluid, including a gas or a liquid, is flowed through a 52 us. (:1. 55/3; 55/100; 204/155; cylindrical enclosure and Subjected to ultraviolet radi- 210 222; 21 /512 R ation to make predetermined ions more susceptible to 51 lm. c1. B03C 1/00; BOlK 1/00 a magnetic field established Within the fluid y a [58] Field of Search 210/42, 222, 512 R; net positioned around or Within the enclosure- The 204/155 309 1 133491 193; 250 419; ions are moved in a vortex motion within the magnetic 55 3 100 137 13 field so that like ions converge at a focal point from which fluid containing a higher concentration of these [56] References Cited ions is removed- UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,622,735 12/1952 Criner 210/512 M 9 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures U.S. Patent Dec. 30, 1975 3,929,433

1? I4 1 3. g m II F/az 23 Ha PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR REMOVING IONS FROM FLUIDS.

RELATED APPLICATION The present application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 150 599 filed on June 7, 1971 by the samcnamcd applicant, now US. Pat. No. 3,767,545.

The present invention relates to the separation and removal of materials from fluids, more particularly, to the separation of ions from gases and liquids including sea water, petroleum hydrocarbons, molten metals, and exhaust gases discharged into the atmosphere, e.g. sulfur, gaseous hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, etc.

One of the most basic and common functions in present day refinery and petrochemical plants is fractionation or separation. This is accomplished by a process known as the distillation method which is based upon the different boiling points or vaporization temperatures of each fraction. Crude oil, when brought into the refinery, must first be fractionated into its basic components before refining of these various parts can take place. After refining or processing for color, octane,

removal of sulfur, and other impurities; these basic fractions are often again separated, sometimes mixed again, and/or processed again for subsequent fractionation. This cyclic processing takes place through as many stages as are necessary, according to the number of units contained in the refinery or petrochemical complex.

A mixture of various hydrocarbons of differing boiling ranges and gravities are separated in a tower having an overhead receiver and a heat source, which vaporizes portions of the mixture to be extracted or fractionated. Rising vapors in the tower cool and condense at some designed area, since a temperature gradient will exist, according to height of tower. As long as heat energy is applied to the tower at some lower point, the construction is such that heated vapors are rising constantly and condensed liquid pouring downward; unless it reaches a lower, hotter point, at which point it will return to the vapor state and again rise. Since the tower is hottest at the bottom and coolest at the top, material is drawn off as liquid at the desired level. Some material, the lightest or most volatile portions, does not condense and thus passes out at the top of the tower, in a vapor state, to be further cooled by a condensing cooler such as a heat exchanger or a fan, and is then collected in a vessel known as an overhead receiver, to be carrier away as product, returned to the tower as reflux or both. Reflux is one method employed to control heat gradient in the tower.

The energy source for this method of separation is heat, usually applied at some low point on the tower; for example, in the form of an actual burner or burners, sometimes as an heat exchanger or reboiler. Most often the incoming material is heated in advance, largely by gas or oil burning furnaces. Occasionally combination methods are used. In the Crude Unit, where the entirety of the incoming crude oil must be fractionated into basic components huge furnace-heaters are employed to bring the many thousands of barrels per day of crude oil to the temperature of 600 to 800 Fahrenheit, before fractionation can be effectively achieved. Such furnace-heaters are dangerous, energy wasting, and air pollutant. They are dangerous because the combustible material burned as fuel, such as various gases and atomized oils cause fires and explosions. Also the tubes which carry the material to be heated can rupp ture and create very large and difficult to control fires. They are energy wasting, since a large part of the heat produced passes out of the furnace unused. This unused heat, together with combustion by-products, passes out of the stack, and acts as an air pollutant.

Most of the material carried off, as product or material to be refined, must be cooled below a dangerous temperature for handling. This results in an expenditure of energy for cooling fans, heat exchangers, and pumps. The above, in addition to the fact that, in an ordinary Crude Unit, many refluxes are used which results in a great complexity of structure, increases the possibility of leaks line ruptures, and equipment breakdowns thusly increasing the likelihood of fire and explosion, since most of the flows are at combustion temperatures and often under high pressure. The same complexity and likelihood of equipment breakdown results in higher maintenance costs and greater requirement of operational watchfulness.

It has also been proposed to purify sea water by removing ions from the water as the water flows through a pipe. However, this process was unsatisfactory since in operation the various concentrations of ions were not distinctly defined and tended to overlap each other so that difficulties were encountered in removing like ions from the water. Further, the varying rates of flow of like ions throughout the cross sectional area of the pipe introduced difficulties since the like ions positioned adjacent the walls of the pipe tended to flow at slower rates of speed than the ions in the center of the pipe and this resulted in problems in the separation of like ions.

Difficulties were also encountered in the purification of sea water by the removal of ions from the water as the water flows through a pipe since the charge on the ions lasts for a very short duration of time. A large number of ions lost their charge by the time they arrived in the magnetic field since it has been proposed to radiate the water with electromagnetic energy and then pass the water through a magnetic field. The magnetic field, however, was not sufficient length to concentrate a sufficient quantity of like ions. As a result, such a low proportion of ions were removed that the results of such a process were extremely unfavorable.

It is known that hydrocarbons, gaseous as well as liquid, and other substances including water and gaseous mixtures, if subjected to an ionizing potential so that they are ionized or broken into charged submolecular fragments, then directed through a magnetic field, will separate according to mass. Each species of molecule under this influence produces a unique mass-distribution pattern, and permitting separation and removal of undesirable species.

The use of this method of separation to replace the distillation method of fractionation offers improvement such as economy of energy, lower maintenance cost, safety of operation, simplicity of operation, and an improved fractionation.

Economy of energy would be improved through the elimination of the waste of powerful heaters and through the elimination of heat exchangers, reflux, and their attendant requirements of pumping energy. A cryomagnet, employing the principles of superconductivity, once energized, needs no input of electrical energy to maintain magnetic flux indefinitely. Therefore,

3 the only large amount of energy required in the present process is the necessary ionizing energy in the formof electric potential to charge the hydrocarbons to be fractionated.

Lower maintenance cost would be achieved by applicants process through simplification of apparatus such as reduction or elimination of the following: heaters, heat exchangers, smoke stacks, reflux, complexity of exhaust structure, many pumps, and pressure requirements. All of these require constant repair, care, and attention.

Safety of operation would be offered by the present process by the reduction of the possibility of explosion, in that it requires neither heater nor pressure. Through simplicity of structure, the possibility of leaks and line rupture are also reduced. Further, this method would decrease air pollution by the elimination of furnaceheaters.

Simplicity of operation is improved in the present process through simplification of structure. The basic proposed operation of the present process is adjustment of ionizing potential, adjustment of magnetic flux density, and configuration, and adjustment of velocity of flow of the fluid being treated.

The present process utilizes the principle, that, if the material to be separated is first acted upon by electrical potential so that it, the material, is either ionized or broken into charged submolecular fragments and then directed through a magnetic field, such species of molecule, i.e., each component will manifest a unique distribution pattern in the magnetic filed, depending on its mass. The present process would then draw off these components or fractions by vents placed according to the distribution pattern. Therefore, an improvement in fractionation itself would be achieved by the use of molecular separation, since it is a finer and more discriminate separation than boiling range.

It is known that the conductivity of certain hydrocarbons can be increased up to by exposure to intense ultraviolet radiation. This is considered as useful to this process to aid in ionization. Also laser application of radiation is considered as an ionization source.

A solenoid-type magnet is believed to be of best use to the present process, since its magnetic flux lines arrange in concentric formation throught bore of the magnet; thus arranging concentric separation rings from which the fractions of material could be drawn off as a continuous flow by the properly arranged flow path. Also, a spinning magnet and/or spinning magentic flux would cause the magnetic flux lines to pass through more material to a given amount of time as well as add a slight centrifugal force to the remainder of the material. A rotation of magnetic flux alone can be achieved by an arrangement of switches.

The imposition of a second magnetic field designed to pulse and thus direct or drag material into position is considered a possible application of flux configuration.

A multi-stage application of ionization and subsequent magnetic field offers to the present process advantages of efficiency.

It is therefore the principal object of the present invention to provide a novel and improved process and apparatus for the removal of electrically charged materials from gases and liquids.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a process and apparatus for the purification of sea water by removing ionized salt particles therefrom.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a process and apparatus for removing pollutants from gases discharged into the atmosphere by the ionization of the pollutants as the gases flow through an exhaust stack.

It is further object of this invention to provide a process and apparatus for removing air pollutants from automobile exhaust gases.

The objects of the present invention can be obtained and the disadvantages of the prior art as discussed above can be eliminated by the disclosed process and apparatus. The present invention essentially discloses a process for removing like substances from a fluid wherein there is radiated into the fluid electromagnetic energy of wave lengths substantially within the spectrum of ultraviolet and up to the visible range to make like materials in the fluid more susceptible to a magnetic field. A vortex motion is induced in the fluid to recycle the ionized particles therein. The radiated fluid while undergoing a vortex motion is passed through a substantially cylindrical magnetic field so that like charged particles converge at a focal point within the magnetic field. This convergence is known as the magnetic lens effect. Fluid is then removed at the focal point whereby fluid of higher ion concentration is separated from fluid of lower ion concentration.

The process of the present invention may be carried out by an apparatus which comprises means for establishing a substantially cylindrical magnetic field such as that established by a solenoid magnet and means for flowing a fluid through the magnetic field. There are means for radiating the fluid within the cylindrical magnetic field with energy of wave lengths substantially within the spectrum of ultraviolet and up to the visible range to make like materials in the fluid more susceptible to a magnetic field. Means are provided for inducing a vortex motion in the radiated fludi whereby the like materials converge at a focal point within the magnetic field. At the focal point there is provided means for removing fluid having a higher like material concentration.

The fluid may be flowed through an enclosure and an annular magnet may be positioned around the enclosure or within the enclosure to establish the toroidal magnetic field therein.

The fluid may also be in the form of gases which are passed through a tubular member, such as a stack or exhaust, with the stack containing an enlarged chamber in which the fluid is moved in a vortex motion through a magnetic field while being radiated with electromagnetic energy.

Other objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent upon reference to the accompanying description when taken in conjunction with the following drawings, which are exemplary, wherein;

FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view of one embodiment of the apparatus according to the present invention;

FIG. 1a and 1b are diagrammatic views of portions of the disclosed apparatus showing other positions and shapes of the magnet;

FIG. 1c is a diagrammatic view showing the appara-' tus of the present invention incorporated in a stack or exhaust;

FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic sectional view taken along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1 and showing in a top plan view the vortex motion of the particles within the enclosure; and

FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic vertical sectional view of the apparatus of FIG. 1 and showing in an elevational view the vortex motion of ions within the enclosure.

Proceeding next to the drawings wherein like reference symbols indicate the same parts throughout the various views a specific embodiment and modifications of the present invention will be described in detail.

In FIG. 1 there is shown one embodiment of the apparatus of the present invention indicated generally at and comprising a cylindrical permanent magnet 11 whose height is about twice that of its outer diameter and mounted upon a base 12 supported upon suitable legs 13. The magnet 11 may be permanent, such as an Alnico 5-7, or may be an electromagnet. The magnet should generate a high magnetic field strength through the bore thereof such as in an example of the present apparatus wherein a permanent cylindrical magnet 11, 7 inches long has a magnetic field strength of 750 gauss through its bore. However, it is apparent that different magnetic field strengths can be obtained by different sizes and types of magnets.

Within the bore of the magnet there is positioned a cylindrical container 14 of polystyrene for containing a liquid which for illustrative purposes may be salt water. The bottom of the container 14 is provided with a central opening 15 within which are positioned an outer concentric drain member 16 and an inner concentric drain member 17. The top of the container 14 may be convered by a removable lid 18.

The inner concentric drain tube 17 is mounted for vertical sliding movment with respect to the enclosure and is provided with a valve 19. The outer drain 16 has an outlet 20 which may be connected to a suitable reservoir.

Mounted within the enclosure 14 is a surce of electromagnetic energy which may comprise an ultraviolet hydrogen discharge lamp 21 of about -60 watts connected to a suitable source of electrical energy by leas 22. The wave lengths of the electromagnetic energy may range from that of ultraviolet light at about 1800 angstrom units A up to the visible range (4000-7000 A units).

Liquid is introduced into the container 14 through a tangentially arranged inlet 23 which is more clearly shown in FIG. 2.

An agitator or stirrer 50 having blades 51 may be positioned within the enclosure 14 adjacent the cylindrical surface to stir the water to initiate a vortex action therein. In a small scale apparatus the vortex motion may be induced by manual stirring of the liquid.

As may be seen in FIG. 1a, a cylindrical magnet 11' may be positioned within the enclosure 14' to establish a cylindrical or toroidal shaped magnetic field as indicated at 30. Such a cylindrical magnetic field will also be established through the enclosure 14 of FIG. 1 by the cylindrical magnet 11.

The cylindrical magnet may be also have its outer surface curved outwardly so as to have a cross section as seen in 11' in FIG. 1b. In such an arrangement the magnet is also placed within the enclosure 14". The magnet 11" will also establish a cylindrical magnetic field which is essentially toroidal shaped but there will be a greater concentration of magnet flux in a relatively small area within the bore of the cylindrical magnet 11" which will assist the movement of the ions to their focal point.

The following examples illustrate how the invention may be practiced:

EXAMPLE 1 In carrying out the process of the present invention, for example, to remove salt ions from a saline water utilizing the apparatus as described above, saline water having a salt concentration of 3 /2% which is approximately equal to sea water is introduced into the container 14 through the tangential inlet 23 to form a vortex and substantially fill the container which is maintained at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. the circulation of the sea water will establish a vortex motion in the direction of the arrow 31 as shown in FIG. 2. The vortex motion also includes a vertical eliptical movement of the water as shown in FIG. 3 which is characteristic or vortex motion. In effect, there is obtained a toroidal shaped body of sea water moving downwardly at the center thereof while at the same time moving circumferentially, i.e., along a circular path. In the event a tangential inlet is not employed the vortex motion can be initiated by agitating or stirring the water with a suitable agitator, by introducing the liquid as a jet into the enclosure along its central longitudinal axis, or by rotating of the container.

After the container has been filled, about one quarter to one third of the contents of the water is drained through the drain 17. This draining of the water from the center of the enclosure will also assist in establishing the vortex movment of the water within the container as indicated by the direction arrows in FIG. 3. Where the magnet is of sufficient length a plurality of vortex movements may be established within the bore of the magnet such as indicated at 33 in FIG. 3.

The water within the enclosure is then subjected to electromagnetic radiation which can be in the ultraviolet or the X-ray spectrum up to the range ofvisible light. The wave length may be somewhat beyond the spectrums in either direction and may constitute a bank embracing a number of wave lengths. Theoretically there is a preferred wave length for the ions of each substance that is to be removed from the water or that is to be concentrated. However, if desired, the radiant energy can be applied to a number of substances simultaneously.

The radiation into the fluid of the electromagnetic energy changes the charge on the ions in the water by stripping electrons from the ions and reducing the ions to a higher degree of ionization potential. The intensity of the radiant energy must be controlled to prevent electrons which have been removed from attaching themselves to the more positively charged ions. The movement of the electrons will be opposite in direction to that the ions and a suitable structure may be included in the enclosure to remove the electrons. By varying the charge on the ions in the water being treated, these ions in the salt will be more susceptible to a magnetic field.

Where salt is being removed from the water a wave length of radiant energy of 1800-2500 A would be selected to make the sodium and chloride ions more susceptible to magnetic attraction.

Concurrently with the radiation of the ions within the sea water the ions are circulated in a vortex motion as illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3 within a substantially cylindrical magnetic field established within the water by the magnet 11. The like ions traveling through the bore of a cylindrical magnetic field as established'by a solenoid magnet will periodically pass through focal points along the approximate center of the magnetic field.

Such a focal point is indicated at 32 in FIG. 3. In the event the magnetic field is sufficiently long the ions will also focus at a subsequent point 32'. Each ion will follow a spiral or helical path as it travels between focal points along the center of the magnetic field. As the ions circulate within the enclosure as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 they will tend to focus at the focal point 32 as the charge on each ion is sufficiently varied. Where the ion is located at a point remote from the focal point 32 it is possible that the ion will lose its charge before arriving at the focal point. In such an event the ion will then continue to be recycled as shown in FIG. 3 until the ion receives a sufficient charge to cause it to pass through the focal point 32.

The inner drain 17 which is slideable within the enclosure is then positioned so that its upper end is at the focal point 32. Accordingly, the water having the higher ion concentration will be removed from the enclosure through the drain 17 as the ionized particles pass through the focal point 32. The water of lower concentration may be removed through the outer concentric drain 16 either continuously or periodically.

The liquid level within the container remains substantially constant by adjusting the rate of outflow to be substantially constant to the rate of in flow. Maintaining the liquid level constant will fix the focal point of the ions within the liquid and will facilitate the positioning of the drain 17 at the focal point.

Based upon preliminary experiments conducted with the apparatus as described above the sea water and carrying out the present process approximately 2-7% of the salt has been removed from the sea water while the water is moving continuously through the enclosure as described above at a rate of about 0.33 gal/min. The quantity of salt removed was determined by measuring the salt content in the water at the top of the enclosure and in the water removed through the drain 17.

The efficiency of the process can also be increased to the point where 30-45% of the salt is removed by closely regulating the flowof water through the enclosure, by selecting a wave length of electromagnetic energy which produces the maxiumum change in charge on the ions of the material which is sought to be removed, by the use of lasers, microwaves or other radiation sources, and by positioning and structuring the movable drain for the most effective removal of the ions.

While only two drains have been shown in the apparatus in FIG. 1 it is pointed out that additional drains may be used with these drains being positioned at the different focal points of several different ions which are being removed from a fluid.

The process as described above may also be carried out with the apparatus of FIG. 1 as a batch process wherein a quantity of liquid is introduced into the enclosure and recirculated within the container until all of the possible ions have been removed. Such a process would require the gradual downward movement of the drain 17 to coincide with the changing focal point of the ions resulting from the lowering of the level of liquid of the enclosure.

The apparatus of FIG. 1 may also be used for the removal of ions from gases. A form of apparatus particularly adapted for the removal of ions from such as impurities and pollutants from stack gases, is illustrated in FIG. 1c. A stack as indicated at 40 has an enlarged portion 41 around which is positioned a magnet 42. Sources of electromagnetic radiation are positioned at 43 and baffles 44 may be provided within the stack to induce a vortex motion of the gases as indicated in FIG. 10. Ions would be removed through a removable tube 45 positioned substantially as shown in FIG. 1c. The undesirable or pollutant gaseous components, such as hereinbefore mentioned, are thus removed from the main stream of exhaust gases. If desired, the pollutant gaseous material is suitable condensed to liquid form for separate removal from the remaining stack gases, the latter being discharged into the atmosphere substantially free of pollutants,

EXAMPLE 2 A gaseous mixture comprising approximately 50 by volume mixture of sulfur dioxide and argon was treated as described in Example 1, utilizing to apparatus illustrated in FIG. 1c. The enclosure is subjected to electromagnetic radiation using ultraviolet rays of 1800-2300 A. After one pass through the apparatus approximately 23% of the S0 was removed from the gaseous mixture. Recycling of the gaseous mixture results in further and substantial removal of the sulfur dioxide present in the mixture.

EXAMPLE 3 Automobile exhaust gas comprising sulfer dioxide, hydrocarbon gas, nitrogen oxides and carbn monixide as pollutants is treated as described in Example 2 using ultraviolet radiation in the range of 2400-3200 A. by varying the ultraviolet ionization treatment approximately 15-28% of the pollutants are reduced in one pass such that the exhause gas is not objectionable.

EXAMPLE 4 Gasoline fuel is treated as described in Example 1 for the removal of residual catalytic particles commonly found in refined petroleum liquids. One pass through the apparatus removes approximately -80% of the catalytic pollutants.

EXAMPLE 5 A batch of the gaseous mixture comprising approximately 30-70 by volume mixture of gaseous benzene and argon is treated as described in Example 1 utilizing the apparatus illustrated in FIG. 1c. The mixture is at atmospheric pressure and is at a temperature of 83C at which point benzene is a gas. The enclosure is subjected to electromagnetic radiation using ultraviolet rays of a wave length of 2300-2700 A. after one pass of the gaseous mixture through the enclosure approximately 15-20 of the benzene was removed from the gaseous mixture.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a principal pollutant of both automobile and industrial exhaust gases. The nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust gases consist of approximately 99% nitric oxide and 1% nitrogen dioxide. The nitric oxide can be removed by using ultraviolet radiation of approximately 2250-2300 A.

Mercury compounds can also be removed from waste materials, preferably upon being mixed with water and subjected to ultraviolet radiation of approximately 2500-4400 A.

The apparatus as shown in FIG. 10 may be applied to a wide variety of tubular conduits such as exhausts including exhaust pipes for automobiles and stacks through which are discharged gaseous products of manufacturing processes. The removal of various ions from these gaseous discharges would be effective in reducing pollution of the atmosphere. When the exhaust gases are moving at a relatively high speed it would be preferred to add a second stage similar to the apparatus of FIG. 1c downstream in the stack to remove a second kind of particle. However, where the gases are moving at a relatively low speed and in a large container then the particles can be moved to the center and the different particles i.e. particles of different substances, can be removed at the same focal point.

The present invention can also be applied to the purifying of water wastes discharged into bodies of water to reduce water pollution.

The present invention may also be used in metal refining such as in capturing of rare earths and exotic metals which are dissipated in gaseous form during a metals refining process. A laser may be used to vaporize the metals. A metal in the gaseous or vaporized state is then ionized while circulated in a vortex motion in a cylindrical magnetic field.

With the present invention, impurities may be removed from petroleum including metals in trace amounts, sulfur, sulfur compounds, nitrogen and nitrogen compounds. These impurities can be removed either near the beginning or at the end of the refining process. Residual catalytic particles can be removed from refined petroleum liquids and from metals in the gaseous or vapor state.

Thus it can be seen that the present invention has disclosed an apparatus and process for the removal of ions from a gas or liquid by radiating the ions while simultaneously circulating the ions within a cylindrical magnetic field in a vortex motion. Thus, two concepts are involved in the present invention, namely, like ionized particles will focus at a point within a solenoid magnet, and a vortex motion is superimposed on the ionized particles to recycle the ions. While several specific applications of the present invention have been described above it is pointed out that the invention can be employed essentially to remove impurities or other desired materials from gases or liquids.

It is understood that this invention is susceptible to modification in order to adapt it to different usages and conditions and, accordingly, it is desired to comprehend such modifications within the invention as may fall within the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. In a process of removing like materials from gas, the steps of radiating into a gas electromagnetic energy of a wave length of increase the attraction of like materials in the magnetic field, inducing a vortex motion of the ionized particles to recycle the like materials, passing the radiated gas continuously through a substantially cylindrical magnetic field having a high magnetic field strength therethrough whereby like charged particles converge at a focal point within the magnetic field, and removing gas at the focal point of the charged particles whereby gas of higher like material concentration is separated from gas of lower like material concentration.

2. In a process as claimed in claim 1 wherein said gas comprises automobile exhaust gases.

3. In a process as claimed in claim 1 wherein said gas comprises a mixture containing sulfur dioxide.

4. In a process as claimed in claim 1 wherein said gas has substances entrained therein and the substances are removed.

5. In a process as claimed in claim 1 wherein said process is carried out at room temperature and pressure.

6. In an apparatus for removing like materials from a gas, the combination of means for establishing a substantially cylindrical magnetic field, means for radiating the gas within the magnetic field with electromagnetic energy of a wave length to increase the attraction of like materials to a magnetic field, means for circulating the radiated gas in a vortex motion so that the like materials converge at a focal point within the magnetic field, and tubular means at said focal point for removing gas of higher like material concentration.

7. In an apparatus as claimed in claim 6 wherein said circulating means comprises an exhaust stack.

8. In an apparatus as claimed in claim 6 wherein said circulating means comprises a motor vehicle exhaust pipe.

9. In an apparatus as claimed in claim 6 and comprising a tubular conduit within which the radiated gas is circulated, second magnetic field means and second radiating means disposed along said tubular conduit, and second tubular means at a focal point established within said second magnetic field for removing particles of another material from the gas.

Claims (9)

1. IN A PROCESS OF REMOVING LIKE MATERIALS FROM GAS, THE STEPS OF RADIATING INTO A GAS ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY OF A WAVE LENGTH OF INCREASE THE ATTRACTION OF LIKE MATERIALS IN THE MAGNETIC FIELD, INDUCING, WORTEX MOTION OF THE THE IONIZED PARTICLES TO RECYC''E THE LIKE MATERIALS, PASSING THE RADIATED GAS CONTINUOUSLY THROUGH A SUBSTANTIALLY CYLINDRICAL MAGNETIC FIELD HAVING A HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGH THERETHROUGH WHEREBY LIKE CHARGE PARTICLES CONVERGE AT A FOCAL POINT WITHIN THE MAGNETIC FIELD, AND REMOVING GAS AT THE FOCAL POINT OF THE CHARGED
2. In a process as claimed in claim 1 wherein said gas comprises automobile exhaust gases.
3. In a process as claimed in claim 1 wherein said gas comprises a mixture containing sulfur dioxide.
4. In a process as claimed in claim 1 wherein said gas has substances entrained therein and the substances are removed.
5. In a process as claimed in claim 1 wherein said process is carried out at room temperature and pressure.
6. In an apparatus for removing like materials from a gas, the combination of means for establishing a substantially cylindrical magnetic field, means for radiating the gas within the magnetic field with electromagnetic energy of a wave length to increase the attraction of like materials to a magnetic field, means for circulating the radiated gas in a vortex motion so that the like materials converge at a focal point within the magnetic field, and tubular means at said focal point for removing gas of higher like material concentration.
7. In an apparatus as claimed in claim 6 wherein said circulating means comprises an exhaust stack.
8. In an apparatus as claimed in claim 6 wherein said circulating means comprises a motor vehicle exhaust pipe.
9. In an apparatus as claimed in claim 6 and comprising a tubular conduit within which the radiated gas is circulated, second magnetic field means and second radiating means disposed along said tubular conduit, and second tubular means at a focal point established within said second magnetic field for removing particles of another material from the gas.
US3929433A 1971-06-07 1973-07-05 Process and apparatus for removing ions from fluids Expired - Lifetime US3929433A (en)

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US15059971 true 1971-06-07 1971-06-07
US3929433A US3929433A (en) 1971-06-07 1973-07-05 Process and apparatus for removing ions from fluids

Applications Claiming Priority (7)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3929433A US3929433A (en) 1971-06-07 1973-07-05 Process and apparatus for removing ions from fluids
ES418052A ES418052A1 (en) 1973-07-05 1973-08-21 Method and apparatus for removing such materials from a fluid.
DE19732342715 DE2342715A1 (en) 1973-07-05 1973-08-23 A method and apparatus for the removal of similar or identical materials from media fliessfaehigen
BE135085A BE804186A (en) 1973-07-05 1973-08-29 Werkwijze in inrichting voor het verwijderen uit van ionen fluidum
NL7311975A NL7311975A (en) 1973-07-05 1973-08-30 Method and device for the removal of ions from fluid.
JP9737873A JPS5057963A (en) 1973-07-05 1973-08-31
FR7331564A FR2244569B3 (en) 1973-07-05 1973-08-31

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US4170447A (en) * 1977-01-11 1979-10-09 Exxon Research & Engineering Co. Method of separating solid particulate
US4217213A (en) * 1977-08-26 1980-08-12 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Device for the separation of minute magnetizable particles, method and apparatus
US4226548A (en) * 1978-08-21 1980-10-07 Steam Stores, Inc. Parts cleaning apparatus
US4495040A (en) * 1983-05-03 1985-01-22 Xenon Corporation Photomagnetic catalysis process
US4552664A (en) * 1984-05-09 1985-11-12 Benner Philip E Method and apparatus for removing ions from a liquid
US4837385A (en) * 1987-05-07 1989-06-06 Aluminium Pechiney Process for separating the inclusions contained in a bath of molten metal, by filtration
US4857204A (en) * 1986-11-17 1989-08-15 Joklik Otto F Method of an apparatus for sterilizing aqueous media, more particularly drinking water
US5180557A (en) * 1985-11-04 1993-01-19 Priestley Jr Joseph B Filtration system with apparatus for altering magnetic properties of particles
US5238577A (en) * 1992-06-22 1993-08-24 Newsom Roy R Method and device for magnetically removing charged particles from a body of liquid
US6409889B1 (en) * 1999-04-13 2002-06-25 Special Materials Research And Technology, Inc. Method for the removal and recovery of inorganic pollutants from waste aqueous solutions and waste primary air sources
WO2003048051A1 (en) * 2001-12-07 2003-06-12 Bonikowski, Leszek Method and device for activating liquid and gaseous media
US20040159232A1 (en) * 2003-02-14 2004-08-19 Mohamed Moustafa Abdel Kader Method and apparatus for removing contaminants from gas streams
US20100260310A1 (en) * 2004-05-30 2010-10-14 Leszek Andrzej Kuczynski Nuclear plant

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US2622735A (en) * 1949-09-09 1952-12-23 Heyl & Patterson Vortex control system
US3129173A (en) * 1960-08-01 1964-04-14 Hertha M Schulze Centrifugal type liquid-solid separator
US3207684A (en) * 1964-12-17 1965-09-21 Jr Walter M Dotts Method for changing the distribution of ions in a solution of an electrolyte
US3444077A (en) * 1965-01-21 1969-05-13 Harvey E Finch Liquid clarifying method
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Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4170447A (en) * 1977-01-11 1979-10-09 Exxon Research & Engineering Co. Method of separating solid particulate
US4217213A (en) * 1977-08-26 1980-08-12 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Device for the separation of minute magnetizable particles, method and apparatus
US4226548A (en) * 1978-08-21 1980-10-07 Steam Stores, Inc. Parts cleaning apparatus
US4495040A (en) * 1983-05-03 1985-01-22 Xenon Corporation Photomagnetic catalysis process
US4552664A (en) * 1984-05-09 1985-11-12 Benner Philip E Method and apparatus for removing ions from a liquid
US5180557A (en) * 1985-11-04 1993-01-19 Priestley Jr Joseph B Filtration system with apparatus for altering magnetic properties of particles
US4857204A (en) * 1986-11-17 1989-08-15 Joklik Otto F Method of an apparatus for sterilizing aqueous media, more particularly drinking water
US4837385A (en) * 1987-05-07 1989-06-06 Aluminium Pechiney Process for separating the inclusions contained in a bath of molten metal, by filtration
US5238577A (en) * 1992-06-22 1993-08-24 Newsom Roy R Method and device for magnetically removing charged particles from a body of liquid
US6409889B1 (en) * 1999-04-13 2002-06-25 Special Materials Research And Technology, Inc. Method for the removal and recovery of inorganic pollutants from waste aqueous solutions and waste primary air sources
US20040216607A1 (en) * 2001-09-05 2004-11-04 Moustafa Abdel Kader Mohamed Method and apparatus for removing contaminants from gas streams
US6899748B2 (en) 2001-09-05 2005-05-31 Moustafa Abdel Kader Mohamed Method and apparatus for removing contaminants from gas streams
WO2003048051A1 (en) * 2001-12-07 2003-06-12 Bonikowski, Leszek Method and device for activating liquid and gaseous media
US20040159232A1 (en) * 2003-02-14 2004-08-19 Mohamed Moustafa Abdel Kader Method and apparatus for removing contaminants from gas streams
US6824587B2 (en) * 2003-02-14 2004-11-30 Moustafa Abdel Kader Mohamed Method and apparatus for removing contaminants from gas streams
US20100260310A1 (en) * 2004-05-30 2010-10-14 Leszek Andrzej Kuczynski Nuclear plant
US8379789B2 (en) 2004-05-30 2013-02-19 Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited Nuclear plant

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