US3926088A - Apparatus for processing music as data - Google Patents

Apparatus for processing music as data Download PDF

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Publication number
US3926088A
US3926088A US430458A US43045874A US3926088A US 3926088 A US3926088 A US 3926088A US 430458 A US430458 A US 430458A US 43045874 A US43045874 A US 43045874A US 3926088 A US3926088 A US 3926088A
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United States
Prior art keywords
data
keyboard
data processing
responsive
musical
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Expired - Lifetime
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US430458A
Inventor
Stephen A Davis
Keith H Dougherty
Alan D Levit
Thomas A Hendrickson
Kenneth R Sanderson
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International Business Machines Corp
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International Business Machines Corp
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Priority to US430458A priority Critical patent/US3926088A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10HELECTROPHONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
    • G10H1/00Details of electrophonic musical instruments
    • G10H1/0033Recording/reproducing or transmission of music for electrophonic musical instruments
    • G10H1/0041Recording/reproducing or transmission of music for electrophonic musical instruments in coded form
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B15/00Teaching music
    • G09B15/02Boards or like means for providing an indication of notes
    • G09B15/04Boards or like means for providing an indication of notes with sound emitters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10HELECTROPHONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
    • G10H1/00Details of electrophonic musical instruments
    • G10H1/0033Recording/reproducing or transmission of music for electrophonic musical instruments
    • G10H1/0041Recording/reproducing or transmission of music for electrophonic musical instruments in coded form
    • G10H1/0058Transmission between separate instruments or between individual components of a musical system
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10HELECTROPHONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
    • G10H2210/00Aspects or methods of musical processing having intrinsic musical character, i.e. involving musical theory or musical parameters or relying on musical knowledge, as applied in electrophonic musical tools or instruments
    • G10H2210/031Musical analysis, i.e. isolation, extraction or identification of musical elements or musical parameters from a raw acoustic signal or from an encoded audio signal
    • G10H2210/086Musical analysis, i.e. isolation, extraction or identification of musical elements or musical parameters from a raw acoustic signal or from an encoded audio signal for transcription of raw audio or music data to a displayed or printed staff representation or to displayable MIDI-like note-oriented data, e.g. in pianoroll format

Abstract

A musical instrument such as an organ with a keyboard is attached to a data processing system. The interface between the instrument and the computer includes means for converting electrical signals produced by depressing the keys on the instrument to data in a format suitable for processing. The musical instrument is provided with a mechanism such as a foot pedal which can be actuated by the artist to provide rhythm timing to the computer. The data processing system includes means for translating the data received from the musical instrument into a format suitable for printing, displaying or storing the data in musical notation.

Description

United States Patent [19 Davis et al.
[ Dec. 16, 1975 1 1 APPARATUS FOR PROCESSING MUSIC AS DATA [73] Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, NY.
[22] Filed: Jan. 2, 1974 [21] Appl. No.: 430,458
[52] US. Cl. 84/462; 84/1.01; 84/1.03;
84/477 R [51] Int. C1. G10G 3/04 [58] Field of Search 84/1.011.03,
84/1.28, DIG. 29, 115, 461, 462, 464, 477 R 3,746,773 7/1973 Uetrecht 84/1.01 3,763,364 10/1973 Deutsch et a1 84/1.03 X 3,771,406 11/1973 Wheelwright i l 84/464 3,781,452 12/1973 Vauclain 84/1.28 3,789,719 2/1974 3,809,786 5/1974 3,809,788 5/1974 3,809,789 5/1974 3,809,790 5/1974 3,810,106 5/1974 Nadler et a1. 84/1.01 X
Primary Examiner joseph W. l-lartary Assistant ExaminerStanley .1. Witkowski Attorney, Agent, or Firr nBernard M. Goldman [5 7] ABSTRACT A musical instrument such as an organ with a keyboard is attached to a data processing system. The interface between the instrument and the computer includes means for converting electrical signals produced by depressing the keys on the instrument to data in a format suitable for processing. The musical [56] References Cited i t t 0 d a m h h a ns rumen 1S pr v1 e W1 ec anism suc s 21 UNITED STATES PATENTS foot pedal which can be actuated by the artist to pro- 2,855,816 10/1958 01801! et a1 84/1.03 vide rhythm timing to the computer The data process- 84/103 ing system includes means for translating the data re- 3 610 799 1011971 3 I i 2:113? ceived from the musical instrument into a format suit- 3:647:929 3/1972 Milde, 11.1...." .11: 84/1201 b for W dsplaymg or stormg the data m 3,683,096 8/1972 Peterson et al. 84/115 5131 3,697,661 10/1972 Deutsch 84/1,01 3,733,593 5/1973 Molnar 84/1.01 X 5 Chums, 35 Drawmg Flgures 12 16 20 44 L 22 COMMAND 1 I i TRANSLATE GRAPHIC/1L 1 ARTWORK A 1 I/O PHASE 'gE J'fLi PHASE INPUT PHASE (F|GS.9-22,29, 1 imcs 23-28) 1116- (FIGS,
PRINT OUT PRINT OUT (SAVEDATA) (SPADDATA) $53 2:53: Em 25m 3 3 255; $2522 A 35: 3 fez 22 323 #255 E d ME :5 :a
35% E 33:3 52m: in; .53
US. Patent Dec.16,1975 Sheet6of33 3,926,088
FIG.6
FROM ORGAN WRITE BUS KEY CONTACTS FROM PDA WRITE WRITE BIT 0 BIT 15 LINES LINES WRITE SEL \ II I I II 0 WORDS wonoz WORDI worwo (s1 TIMING 1s BITS IGBITS IGBITS 1s BITSGZ NT L PLAYBACK' G5 SSI III DEGODER READ SEL DR IVERS I6 1 READ READ LINES LINES V A BIT 0 BIT 15 T0 ORGAN T0 PDA KEY ING GIRGUITS US. Patent Dec. 16, 1975 Sheet80f33 3,926,088
8 BASIC TIMING RDYIRDORWR) I' I I I I I ssI D Fl II 2 5 Fl I'I Ih OOUNTERI I I BA BA B A B A CBA (OO(C)I\ /01(I) I2I I5) /1O0/(4L J COUNTERIII I I I Hm I K (I) I I (2) I I) IIEIIIIAI I I WRITE TIMING WRSEL.
I J l I I I I GI e2 e5 G0,GI,G2,G5 II 'II H IIEIIAIIIIIIIIRITEII'I II I I EORIWRITE) 8 L READ TIMING RESET CTRS RD.SELECT 60,61, $2,05, J' L DEMAND (READ) [I II II J EOR (READ) I I U.S. Patent Dec. 16, 1975 Sheet9of33 3,926,088
FIG, 9 COMMAND PHASE= COMMAND START LANGUAGE C SET UP ENTRY INTS T0 /500 CE ROUTINES TYPEINIT SET UP TERMINAL 502 TSETNEDRWTPJO o A FOR RE T 4 TRANS PRINT PICTURE ORGAN new F|G.H F|GA4 FIGM FIG.14 FIG.14 A a c o E F PLAY DUMP US. Patent Dec. 16, 1975 Sheet 10 of 33 3,926,088
WAIT FOR COMPLETION SEND MSG 'COMPLETED' T CLOSE APPROPIATE DATA SET U.S. Patent Dec. 16,1975 Sheet110f33 3,926,088
F l G. 1 1
SET SWITCH T KDIO (FIG.30)
ATTACH SERV 02 OUTPUT MSG FEATURE NOT SUPPORTED 512 T T FIGH FIG.9 B C U.S. Patent Dec. 16,1975 Sheet 12 of 33 3,926,088
SCANRQST E j START E j E J R ASK FOR FIGJZ SEND use INVALID REQUEST E INITIALIZE 406 SWITCHES R DEFAULTS A v DOES N0 SEND RETURN PICTURE HAVE es (560) ATTRIBUT INVALID SYNTAY YES 448 R SAVE 420 MEMBER NAME ANY YES MORE ATTRIBUTES RETURN TO CALLER US. Patent Dec. 16,1975 Sheet 13 of33 3,926,088
FIGJB.
TRANS ATTACH TRANS ATTACH READDAOS (SUBTASK) SEND MSG ENTER STOP WHEN DONE WAIT FOR EXIT OF READDAOS SEND MSG PLAY TERMINATED CLOSE AP DATA PROPRIATE SET FIG.9 A
US. Patent Dec. 16, 1975 F I G. 14
DUMP PRINT ATTACH ATTACH SERV04 PRINT soo Sheet 14 of 33 PICTURE SET INIT SWITCH KDIO (FIG. 30)
OPEN
FOR INPUT DCB ATTACH ORGAN (Help FIG.I0
US. Patent Dec. 16,1975 Sheet 15 0f33 3,926,088
FIG.45 B
PLAY TRAAs ORGAN PRINT TIME INTERVAL SET VERBSW ERBSW FIGAGV =10 MILLE sEp TRAN INT A A A SET VERBSW SET IOSAVESW PLAY I0 READ A A FIG. H618 FIGAS H620 F|G.2l H622 D E F G H I SAVE SPAD PICTKEY M KEY TRANS PARMKEY DU TERM) DELSAVE DELSPAD U.S. Patent Dec. 16, 1975 Sheet 16 of 33 3,926,088
FIGJS LISTDIR FIG.15 new. (a) COLLAREA B c (SAVE DATA) \4006 FIG.22
US. Patent Dec. 16, 1975 Sheet 17 of33 3,926,088
KEYWORD= SAVE F I G. 17
TURN OFF TRANSW SAVE DS/NAME m SAVENAME U.S. Patent Dec. 16,1975 Sheet 18 0f33 3,926,088
FIGJB SET IOSPADSW WRITE SET IOSPADSW SAVE SPAD READ NAME {2M US. Patent Dec. 16, 1975 Sheet 19 of 33 3,926,088
FIG.19
PICTKEY OR IN 'VERBSW (PIBTURE) TURN OFF TRANS DEFAULT 7 OR IN VERBSW C) (PICTURE) D

Claims (5)

1. In combination with a data processing system: a keyboard musical instrument connected to said data processing system; means for scanning the key contacts of the individual keys of the keyboard for converting electrical signals produced by depressing said keys into data which is compatible with said data processing system, means connected to said scanning means and responsive to signals from said data processing system for tranferring said data to said data processing system to thereby collect data representative of the music performed; and means in said data processing system for translating said data into a format suitable for outputting said data in musical notation.
2. In combination with a keyboard instrument: a data processing system first means for sampling depressed keys on the keyboard; second means responsive to said sampling means for producing first data output representative of said depressed keys; means responsive to said second means and to the data processing system for translating said first data output to said data processing system to thereby collect a second data output representative of the music performed; and means responsive to said translating means for converting said second data output to third data output in musical notation for an output device.
3. In combination with a data processing system: a musical instrument keyboard having key contacts coupled to an electrical source, said key contacts corresponding to keys on said keyboard for producing electrical signals having one state when a key is depressed and another state when a key is not depressed; a switch coupled to an electrical source, operable in conjunction with the actuation of the keyboard during a musical perfomance; means for scanning said key contacts and said switch for converting electrical signals produced by depressing said keys and switch, into digital data which is compatible with said data processsing system; means connected to said scanning means and responsive to signals from said data processing system for transferring said data to said data processing system to thereby collect data representative of the music performed; and means in said data processing system for translating said data into a format suitable for outputting said data in musical notation.
4. In combination with a data processing system: a musical instrument including a keyboard; means for inputting first data from said musical instrument into said system; a control keyboard; means responsive to said control keyboard for inputting command signals into said system by means of said control keyboard, said command signals generated by depressing selected keys on said control keyboard; a first program module responsive to command signals received from said control keyboard for decoding said command signals submitted via said control keyboard; a second program module responsive to said first data, including means for translating said first data into second data in a format suitable for outputting to an output device; and means responsive to said first module for calling said second module.
5. The combination according to claim 4 including means actuable repetitively by a musical performer at said keyboard for providing repetitive electrical signals to said data processing system, which signals correspond to the rhythm maintained by said musical performer; and means in said second program module responsive to said electrical signals for modifying said second data such that the content of said modified second data includes information which correlates said first data, from said musical instrument, with said electrical signals corresponding to the rhythm maintained by said musical performer.
US430458A 1974-01-02 1974-01-02 Apparatus for processing music as data Expired - Lifetime US3926088A (en)

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Cited By (33)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4022097A (en) * 1974-07-15 1977-05-10 Strangio Christopher E Computer-aided musical apparatus and method
US4078465A (en) * 1976-10-08 1978-03-14 The Wurlitzer Company Programmable memory system for electronic musical instrument
DE2808285A1 (en) * 1977-02-28 1978-09-07 Sharp Kk ELECTRONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
US4147083A (en) * 1976-12-16 1979-04-03 Allen Organ Company Programmable voice characteristic memory system
JPS54123831A (en) * 1978-03-17 1979-09-26 Kawai Musical Instr Mfg Co Tv sheet indicator
JPS54163021A (en) * 1978-06-15 1979-12-25 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Musical auxiliary machine
JPS5522705A (en) * 1978-08-02 1980-02-18 Yokogawa Electric Works Ltd Musical tone information processor
WO1982000379A1 (en) * 1980-07-15 1982-02-04 Ellis D Sound signal automatic detection and display method and system
WO1982002610A1 (en) * 1981-01-27 1982-08-05 Walter Pepersack Signal emitting device with adjustable beat frequency
US4343216A (en) * 1980-06-09 1982-08-10 Norlin Industries, Inc. Serial interface circuit for an electronic musical instrument
DE3218818A1 (en) * 1981-05-18 1982-12-02 Ricoh Watch SCORING DEVICE
FR2507362A1 (en) * 1981-06-09 1982-12-10 Valenciennes Hainaut Cambresis Computer based musical score writing system - uses light pen and TV screen to construct score on screen for generation by synthesiser
US4392409A (en) * 1979-12-07 1983-07-12 The Way International System for transcribing analog signals, particularly musical notes, having characteristic frequencies and durations into corresponding visible indicia
US4479416A (en) * 1983-08-25 1984-10-30 Clague Kevin L Apparatus and method for transcribing music
DE3415792A1 (en) * 1983-04-27 1984-10-31 Victor Company Of Japan DEVICE FOR VIEWING MUSIC NOTES
US4487101A (en) * 1978-10-18 1984-12-11 Ellen Leonard W Digital solid state recording of signals characterizing the playing of a musical instrument
US4506587A (en) * 1982-06-18 1985-03-26 Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha Method of processing data for musical score display system
US4538500A (en) * 1982-08-25 1985-09-03 Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha Apparatus for printing out graphical patterns
US4614144A (en) * 1983-09-28 1986-09-30 Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. Music card system
US4833962A (en) * 1985-03-12 1989-05-30 Mazzola Guerino B Installation for performing all affine transformations for musical composition purposes
GB2212318A (en) * 1987-11-09 1989-07-19 Art Round Company Limited Apparatus for production of a musical score
US4885969A (en) * 1987-08-03 1989-12-12 Chesters Thomas P Graphic music system
US4945804A (en) * 1988-01-14 1990-08-07 Wenger Corporation Method and system for transcribing musical information including method and system for entering rhythmic information
US4960031A (en) * 1988-09-19 1990-10-02 Wenger Corporation Method and apparatus for representing musical information
US5038659A (en) * 1987-08-18 1991-08-13 Toppan Printing Co., Ltd. Musical score block copy forming apparatus
DE3152514C2 (en) * 1980-11-20 1991-12-19 Ricoh Watch
WO1992009069A1 (en) * 1990-11-13 1992-05-29 Guy Huffener Man/machine interface
US5396828A (en) * 1988-09-19 1995-03-14 Wenger Corporation Method and apparatus for representing musical information as guitar fingerboards
US5440072A (en) * 1992-09-25 1995-08-08 Willis; Raymon A. System for rejuvenating vintage organs and pianos
US6072114A (en) * 1998-01-13 2000-06-06 Yamaha Corporation Score display apparatus and method capable of displaying additional data, and storage medium
US6107559A (en) * 1996-10-25 2000-08-22 Timewarp Technologies, Ltd. Method and apparatus for real-time correlation of a performance to a musical score
US6166314A (en) * 1997-06-19 2000-12-26 Time Warp Technologies, Ltd. Method and apparatus for real-time correlation of a performance to a musical score
US20150047494A1 (en) * 2013-08-16 2015-02-19 Kathleen Frances Cronin Portable musical keyboard instrument

Citations (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2855816A (en) * 1951-12-26 1958-10-14 Rca Corp Music synthesizer
US3007362A (en) * 1954-10-05 1961-11-07 Rca Corp Combination random-probability system
US3604299A (en) * 1970-04-22 1971-09-14 Edward J Englund Method and apparatus for recreating a musical performance
US3610799A (en) * 1969-10-30 1971-10-05 North American Rockwell Multiplexing system for selection of notes and voices in an electronic musical instrument
US3647929A (en) * 1970-10-08 1972-03-07 Karl F Milde Jr Apparatus for reproducing musical notes from an encoded record
US3683096A (en) * 1971-03-15 1972-08-08 Richard H Peterson Electronic player system for electrically operated musical instruments
US3697661A (en) * 1971-10-04 1972-10-10 North American Rockwell Multiplexed pitch generator system for use in a keyboard musical instrument
US3733593A (en) * 1970-10-09 1973-05-15 Rockwell International Corp Capture combination system
US3746773A (en) * 1972-02-04 1973-07-17 Baldwin Co D H Electronic organ employing time position multiplexed signals
US3763364A (en) * 1971-11-26 1973-10-02 North American Rockwell Apparatus for storing and reading out periodic waveforms
US3771406A (en) * 1971-08-10 1973-11-13 Wurlitzer Co Musical instrument with digital data handling system and lighting display
US3781452A (en) * 1972-01-06 1973-12-25 A Vauclain Method and apparatus for assembling recordings of musical scores
US3789719A (en) * 1972-08-28 1974-02-05 J Maillet Tape activated piano and organ player
US3809786A (en) * 1972-02-14 1974-05-07 Deutsch Res Lab Computor organ
US3809789A (en) * 1972-12-13 1974-05-07 Nippon Musical Instruments Mfg Computor organ using harmonic limiting
US3809788A (en) * 1972-10-17 1974-05-07 Nippon Musical Instruments Mfg Computor organ using parallel processing
US3809790A (en) * 1973-01-31 1974-05-07 Nippon Musical Instruments Mfg Implementation of combined footage stops in a computor organ
US3810106A (en) * 1972-10-05 1974-05-07 Apm Corp System for storing tone patterns for audible retrieval

Patent Citations (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2855816A (en) * 1951-12-26 1958-10-14 Rca Corp Music synthesizer
US3007362A (en) * 1954-10-05 1961-11-07 Rca Corp Combination random-probability system
US3610799A (en) * 1969-10-30 1971-10-05 North American Rockwell Multiplexing system for selection of notes and voices in an electronic musical instrument
US3604299A (en) * 1970-04-22 1971-09-14 Edward J Englund Method and apparatus for recreating a musical performance
US3647929A (en) * 1970-10-08 1972-03-07 Karl F Milde Jr Apparatus for reproducing musical notes from an encoded record
US3733593A (en) * 1970-10-09 1973-05-15 Rockwell International Corp Capture combination system
US3683096A (en) * 1971-03-15 1972-08-08 Richard H Peterson Electronic player system for electrically operated musical instruments
US3771406A (en) * 1971-08-10 1973-11-13 Wurlitzer Co Musical instrument with digital data handling system and lighting display
US3697661A (en) * 1971-10-04 1972-10-10 North American Rockwell Multiplexed pitch generator system for use in a keyboard musical instrument
US3763364A (en) * 1971-11-26 1973-10-02 North American Rockwell Apparatus for storing and reading out periodic waveforms
US3781452A (en) * 1972-01-06 1973-12-25 A Vauclain Method and apparatus for assembling recordings of musical scores
US3746773A (en) * 1972-02-04 1973-07-17 Baldwin Co D H Electronic organ employing time position multiplexed signals
US3809786A (en) * 1972-02-14 1974-05-07 Deutsch Res Lab Computor organ
US3789719A (en) * 1972-08-28 1974-02-05 J Maillet Tape activated piano and organ player
US3810106A (en) * 1972-10-05 1974-05-07 Apm Corp System for storing tone patterns for audible retrieval
US3809788A (en) * 1972-10-17 1974-05-07 Nippon Musical Instruments Mfg Computor organ using parallel processing
US3809789A (en) * 1972-12-13 1974-05-07 Nippon Musical Instruments Mfg Computor organ using harmonic limiting
US3809790A (en) * 1973-01-31 1974-05-07 Nippon Musical Instruments Mfg Implementation of combined footage stops in a computor organ

Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4022097A (en) * 1974-07-15 1977-05-10 Strangio Christopher E Computer-aided musical apparatus and method
US4078465A (en) * 1976-10-08 1978-03-14 The Wurlitzer Company Programmable memory system for electronic musical instrument
US4147083A (en) * 1976-12-16 1979-04-03 Allen Organ Company Programmable voice characteristic memory system
DE2808285A1 (en) * 1977-02-28 1978-09-07 Sharp Kk ELECTRONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
JPS54123831A (en) * 1978-03-17 1979-09-26 Kawai Musical Instr Mfg Co Tv sheet indicator
JPS54163021A (en) * 1978-06-15 1979-12-25 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Musical auxiliary machine
JPS5522705A (en) * 1978-08-02 1980-02-18 Yokogawa Electric Works Ltd Musical tone information processor
JPS6319878B2 (en) * 1978-08-02 1988-04-25 Yokokawa Denki Kk
US4487101A (en) * 1978-10-18 1984-12-11 Ellen Leonard W Digital solid state recording of signals characterizing the playing of a musical instrument
US4392409A (en) * 1979-12-07 1983-07-12 The Way International System for transcribing analog signals, particularly musical notes, having characteristic frequencies and durations into corresponding visible indicia
US4343216A (en) * 1980-06-09 1982-08-10 Norlin Industries, Inc. Serial interface circuit for an electronic musical instrument
WO1982000379A1 (en) * 1980-07-15 1982-02-04 Ellis D Sound signal automatic detection and display method and system
DE3152514C2 (en) * 1980-11-20 1991-12-19 Ricoh Watch
WO1982002610A1 (en) * 1981-01-27 1982-08-05 Walter Pepersack Signal emitting device with adjustable beat frequency
DE3218818A1 (en) * 1981-05-18 1982-12-02 Ricoh Watch SCORING DEVICE
FR2507362A1 (en) * 1981-06-09 1982-12-10 Valenciennes Hainaut Cambresis Computer based musical score writing system - uses light pen and TV screen to construct score on screen for generation by synthesiser
US4506587A (en) * 1982-06-18 1985-03-26 Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha Method of processing data for musical score display system
US4538500A (en) * 1982-08-25 1985-09-03 Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha Apparatus for printing out graphical patterns
DE3415792A1 (en) * 1983-04-27 1984-10-31 Victor Company Of Japan DEVICE FOR VIEWING MUSIC NOTES
US4479416A (en) * 1983-08-25 1984-10-30 Clague Kevin L Apparatus and method for transcribing music
US4614144A (en) * 1983-09-28 1986-09-30 Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. Music card system
US4833962A (en) * 1985-03-12 1989-05-30 Mazzola Guerino B Installation for performing all affine transformations for musical composition purposes
US4885969A (en) * 1987-08-03 1989-12-12 Chesters Thomas P Graphic music system
US5038659A (en) * 1987-08-18 1991-08-13 Toppan Printing Co., Ltd. Musical score block copy forming apparatus
GB2212318A (en) * 1987-11-09 1989-07-19 Art Round Company Limited Apparatus for production of a musical score
US4945804A (en) * 1988-01-14 1990-08-07 Wenger Corporation Method and system for transcribing musical information including method and system for entering rhythmic information
US4960031A (en) * 1988-09-19 1990-10-02 Wenger Corporation Method and apparatus for representing musical information
EP0434758A1 (en) * 1988-09-19 1991-07-03 Wenger Corporation Method and apparatus for representing musical information
US5396828A (en) * 1988-09-19 1995-03-14 Wenger Corporation Method and apparatus for representing musical information as guitar fingerboards
EP0434758A4 (en) * 1988-09-19 1992-06-10 Wenger Corporation Method and apparatus for representing musical information
WO1992009069A1 (en) * 1990-11-13 1992-05-29 Guy Huffener Man/machine interface
AU661651B2 (en) * 1990-11-13 1995-08-03 Guy Huffener Man/machine interface
US5440072A (en) * 1992-09-25 1995-08-08 Willis; Raymon A. System for rejuvenating vintage organs and pianos
US6107559A (en) * 1996-10-25 2000-08-22 Timewarp Technologies, Ltd. Method and apparatus for real-time correlation of a performance to a musical score
US6166314A (en) * 1997-06-19 2000-12-26 Time Warp Technologies, Ltd. Method and apparatus for real-time correlation of a performance to a musical score
US6072114A (en) * 1998-01-13 2000-06-06 Yamaha Corporation Score display apparatus and method capable of displaying additional data, and storage medium
US20150047494A1 (en) * 2013-08-16 2015-02-19 Kathleen Frances Cronin Portable musical keyboard instrument

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