limited males Patent [1 1 [111 3,837,395 Coolidge Sept. 24, 1974 WING SURFACE COOLER Prima Examiner-Charles Sukalo t d W  Inven or Anson S Cooll ge, Centerv1lle,Oh1o Attorney, Agent or Firmul E Beringer  Assignee: United Aircraft Products, Inc.,
Dayton, Ohio  Filed: Sept. 13, 1973 21 Appl. No.: 396,702  ABSTRACT A vehicular wing structure which performs a usual 5 (gl. functional purpose and which in addition incorporates  Fie'ld "165/4244 surface cooler means carrying out a cooling function 165/4743 in conjunction with engine oil or other fluid excessively heated in operation of the vehicle.
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,550,678 12/1970 Pfouts 165/44 5 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures I WING SURFACE COOLER BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION and the fluid to be cooled is brought to a heat ex- 1 changer where it flows in heat transfer relation to the ram air. Cooling systems of this kind are functionally effective but have a disadvantage in that heat exchange devices in frontal orientation to ram air exert a drag effect on vehicular motion. They are, moreover, relatively heavy and tend to increase in bulk and weight in a direct relation to increases in engine power, reflecting a need for greater cooling.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The instant invention has in view an elimination of ducted racing car heat exchangers of the prior art. Substituted therefor is extended surface cooler means in which air flow over a structural surface is utilized as a coolant, fluid to be cooled being brought to heat transfer relation with the coolant, through the structural surface. Fins or like devices on the structural surface add to the cooling effect but impose little or no resistance to ram air flows. 3
Most modern racing cars have an air foil, commonly termed a wing, mounted to utilizeair resistance in the applying of a downforce at the rear wheels. The wing allows greater speeds in the turns, and in cornering, and is believed responsible for increases in average racing speeds. It is in use interposed in the air stream flowing over a moving car, and, in accordance with the present invention, provides surface area for the cooling of engine oil and like fluids. Surface cooler means is integrated into the wing structure and includes externally projecting fins having an extended or secondary heat transfer function, the fins disposing perpendicular to leading and trailing wing edges for minimal air resistance. Within the wing structure is a fluid distribution system, including means defining confined flow passages on the interior side of heat transfer walls, the described fins projecting from an exterior side of said heat transfer walls. The heat transfer walls are integrated into to form a part of the skin covering of a wing structure body.
An object of the invention is to provide a wing surface cooler substantially in accordance with the foregom %)ther objects and structural details of the invention will appear more clearly from the following description, when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary view, in perspective, of a racing car with mounted wing incorporating surface cooler means in accordance with the illustrated embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a detail view, enlarged with respect to FIG. 1, showing in perspective the upper side of the wing structure of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a view similar to FIG. 2, showing the underside of the wing structure;
FIG. 4 is a view in cross section through the wing structure, showing in a partly diagrammatic form the fluid distributing system within the wing structure;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary view in longitudinal section,
taken substantially along the line 5-5 of FIG. 4; and
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary enlarged view of a manifold portion.
Referring to the drawings, a racing car body 10 and O a set of rear mounted wheels 11-12 are in a substantially mutually supporting relation. Generally overlying the wheels 11-12, and to the rear thereof, is a wing structure 13. Sets of mounting braces 14-15 and 15-17 are anchored in the body 10 and support the wing structure in a relatively elevated generally trailing relation to the racing car. It accordingly disposes within the air stream flowing over the racing car when in motion, and, as is believed to be understood, is so configured and so oriented as to utilize applied air pressures to exert a downforce upon wheels 11-12.
The wing structure 13, hereinafter identified as a wing, has an air foil body 18, to opposite ends of which are fixed plate stabilizers 19 and 21. Being supported in a position transversely of the longitudinal axis of the car body 10, the wing body 18 has a leading edge 22 and a trailing edge 23 having regard to the direction of air flow over the wing. Adjacent the leading edge of the wing, on the under side thereof, are recessed bracket means 24. Adjacent the trailing wing edge, on the under side thereof are projecting bracket means 25. The bracket means 24 and 25 provide a means of attachment for braces 14-15 and 16-17 and it will be observed in this connection that the normal attitude of use of the wing is in a forwardly pitched position wherein the leading edge 22 is lower than the trailing edge 23. The braces 14-17 may incorporate adjustment means whereby a most favorable pitch of the wing may be determined and the wing then releasably secured in such position. A wing attitude in which it is inclined some 6 to 12 to ground level is ordinarily found to provide the desired downforce without providing excessive wind resistance.
As shown in FIG. 4, the wing body 18 has a skin covering which includes a nose portion 26 at leading edge 22. Trailing edge 23 is comprised of superposing skin portions 27 and28 suitably united at edge 23 and extending divergently therefrom toward nose portion 26. Divergent means 27-28 constitute legs of a tail portion 20. The legs 27 and 28 are of differential length and may be regarded as being vertically spaced apart. Nose portion 26 similarly provides legs 29 and 31 which are of differential length and vertically spaced apart. Opposite ends of the structure defined by nose and tail body portions are closed by the plate stabilizers or flanges 19 and 21.
Inset within to form a part of the skin covering of the body 18 is surface cooler means which may be variously structured in accordance with physical and heat transfer requirements. In the illustrated instance, the surface cooler means is comprised of a plurality of upper segments 32-37 and a plurality of lower segments 38-44. Each upper segment 32-37, as for example segment 33 as shown in FIG. 4, is comprised of a thin wall plate 45 made of a heat conductive material and extending at opposite ends into overlapping relation to upper legs 27 and 29 of respective tail and nose portions of the wing body. At what may be regarded as a forward end of the plate, it is in an underlying relation to leg 29 while at what may be regarded as a rearward end it is in overlying relation to the leg 27. The wall is welded, riveted or otherwise suitably secured to nose and tail portions of the wing body and becomes in effect a unitary part of the skin covering of the body. Extended surface means in the form of U-shaped fins 46 are mounted to the upper or exterior side of the plate 45 and effectively project above the skin surface of body 18. The fins 46 are in a parallel laterally spaced apart relation and extend in a direction parallel to or within the air stream, that is, from the leading edge 22 of the wing toward trailing edge 23. The fins 46 are made of a heat conductive material and preferably are bonded in a brazing or like operation to the plate 45 whereby to act as a secondary heat transfer surface, assisting in a conducting of heat out of and away from the plate 45.
On what may be regarded as the underside of the plate 45 is means defining a confined flow passage 47. The flow passage defining means includes a plate 48 in substantially spaced parallel relation to the under side of plate 45. Marginal spacers 49 maintain a spacing of the plates 45 and 48 and unitarily join therewith in a brazing or like operation in the forming of passage 47. At opposite ends of the passage 47, in plate 48, are openings 51 and 52 communicating with respective manifolds 53 and 54. The latter attach unitarily to the assembly comprising plates 45 and 48 and spacers 49 either as a part of a common brazing operation or in a separate welding or like operation. Within passage 47, and extending longitudinally therein between openings 51 and 52 is a length of strip fin material 55. The latter functions, substantially in the manner of fins 46, as extended or secondary surface means in the promoting of more efficient heat transfer. The assembly comprising plates 45 and 48 with interposed fin strip 55, along with marginal spacers 49 and manifolds 53 and 55 constitutes a heat exchange device which may be installed as a unit in the body 18, with ends of the plate 45 being fixed to leading and trailing skin portions of the body as previously described. So positioned, the fins 46 are located to be in the path of flow of air sweeping over the upper surface of the wing body, while confined fluid flow passage 47 is recessed within the wing body, along with manifolds 53 and 54. The latter connect in a fluid distribution system internal of the wing which may include a pipe 56 connecting to manifold 53 and a pipe 57 connecting to manifold 54.
Cooler segments 38-44, as for example segment 39 shown in FIG. 4, are constructed to be substantially identical to described segments 32-37. Thus, each includes a plate installed in the lower body surface with its ends in overlapping relation to nose portion leg 31 and to tail leg portion 28. Relatively projecting fins 59 dispose in the air stream flowing over the under surface of the wing body while relatively projected within the body is an assembly of parts including a spaced plate 61, marginal spacers 62 and manifolds 63 and 64. Plates 58 and 61 define a confined fluid flow passage 65 therebetween, with strip fin means 66 being interposed in such passage. Pipes 67 and 68 of the internal fluid distribution system connect respectively to the manifolds 63 and 64.
Installed in the body 18, in nose portion 26, and adapted to project to the under side of the body are fittings 69 and 71. These in turn connect to external fluid flow conducting lines 72 and 73 extending to the car body 10 where they suitably join in a system circulating fluid in need of cooling, as for example engine oil. The fluid in need of cooling is pumped or otherwise delivered under pressure to one of the fittings 69 and 71 and distributed therefrom to inlet manifolds of the several cooler segments comprised in the body 18. The fluid flows through communicating confined fluid flow passages of the heat exchange segments to opposite outlet manifolds and returns from there to the other fitting 69 or 71 to be returned to the car engine. In the process of flow through the passages 47 and 65, the fluid gives up a portion of its heat to respective plates 45 and 58 which are cooled by reason of their presence in the air stream, the cooling process being aided and improved upon by reason of the presence of the fins 46 and 59. It will be evident that the internal fluid distribution system may take various forms, with the fluid to be cooled being directed counter to or in the same direction as the movement of air flow over external wing surfaces. Also, the fluid may be directed to all of the cooler segments for flow in a parallel relation or may be suitably directed so that flow occurs in a partial or complete series relation. Whatever form of distribution system may be used, one of the fittings 69 and 71 serves as an inlet to the system and the other as the outlet. As indicated in FIG. 4, within the wing body, portions of the fittings 69 and 71 may be suitable constructed for direct or indirect supply to the manifolds associated with the several cooler segments. In this connection, each manifold 53-54 or 63-64 may be associated with a plurality of heat exchange devices representing different cooler segments. Still further, the several cooler segments associated with either the upper or lower wing surface may be comprised in a single unit and installed as such in the wing body.
In the use of a wing in accordance with the illustrated embodiment of the invention, it is mountedin a usual and conventional manner on a racing car and there carries out in a usual and conventional manner its function of applying a downforce to rear wheels 11 and 12. At the same time, surface cooler means which has been integrated in to form a part of the wing utilizes air flow over the wing surface to cool vital engine, transmission fluids or the like, the heated fluid being delivered to the wing by way of one or the other of connectors 72 or 73. Passing through the wing, or more particularly through provided passages 47 and 65, the fluid rejects heat through surface walls 45 and 58 to the external air stream, the heat rejection process being facilitated by the fins 46 and 59. The cooled fluid is returned to the car for reuse by the other one of the described conductors 72 and 73. A continuous cooling of the fluid is carried out in operation of the vehicle in a manner to limit temperature rise of the fluid to a predetermined high value. No conventional ducted heat exchangers with attendant disadvantages of weight and air resistance are required. Cooling is carried out in accordance with the instant invention through a use of already existing means in the form of the wing 13 and without modifying or affecting the mode of operation of such means. Fins 46 and 59 project from the skin surface but are disposed in a sense longitudinal of or parallel to the air stream and impose no significant resistance to air flows.
The invention has been disclosed with respect to a particular embodiment. Structural modifications have been discussed and these and others obvious to a person skilled in the art to which this invention relates are considered to be within the intent and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
l. A race car wing structure utilizing air flow thereover to apply a downforce at rear wheels, including a body having a heat conductive skin over an external surface of which air flows in use of the structure, means for flowing a fluid in need of cooling in heat transfer relation to said skin over at least a portion of an interior surface thereof, and extended surface means in a projected relation to said external skin surface approximately coincident with said portion, said body having leading and trailing edges with respect to the direction of flow of air thereover, and having further upper and lower surfaces with respect to the normal attitude of the body relative to ground surface, said extended surface means having the form of fins projecting from at least one of said upper and lower surfaces, said fins disposing in a sense longitudinally of the air from said leading edge to said trailing edge, said fluid flowing means and said extended surface fins being comprised in a unitary heat exchange device providing a passage for a confined fluid and a wall with respect to which fluid in said passage is in heat transfer relation on an inner side thereof, said fins projecting from an outer side of said wall, said leading and trailing edges of said body including skin portions having vertically spaced legs achieving a merging relation to opposite ends of said wall, said wall being integrated in to form a part of the skin covering of the wing structure body.
2. A wing structure according to claim 1, wherein said body forms an enclosed interior, said fluid flowing means further including a fluid distributing system within said enclosed interior communicating with said confined fluid passage and providing a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet opening through said body to the exterior thereof.
3. A wing structure according to claim 2, characterized by stabilizer plate means mounting to said body in a closing relation to opposite ends of said body interior, said fins projecting from an outer side of said wall orienting in a sense parallel to said stabilizer plate means.
4. A wing structure according to claim 2, wherein a plurality of said unitary heat exchange devices are selectively installed in upper and lower body surfaces, each providing a confined fluid flow passage, said fluid distributing system within said enclosed interior of said body including inlet and outlet manifolds associating with respective passages of said heat exchange devices.
5. A vehicular wing structure according to claim 1, wherein the legs of said leading edge skin portion are in overlapping overlying relation to said wall, the legs of said trailing edge skin portion being in underlying overlapping relation to said wall.