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Electrically heated surgical cutting instrument

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US3826263A
US3826263A US27868472A US3826263A US 3826263 A US3826263 A US 3826263A US 27868472 A US27868472 A US 27868472A US 3826263 A US3826263 A US 3826263A
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Prior art keywords
element
cutting
temperature
tissue
edge
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J Cage
R Shaw
P Stoft
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R Shaw
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/08Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating by means of electrically-heated probes
    • A61B18/082Probes or electrodes therefor
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D23/00Control of temperature
    • G05D23/19Control of temperature characterised by the use of electric means
    • G05D23/20Control of temperature characterised by the use of electric means with sensing elements having variation of electric or magnetic properties with change of temperature
    • G05D23/24Control of temperature characterised by the use of electric means with sensing elements having variation of electric or magnetic properties with change of temperature the sensing element having a resistance varying with temperature, e.g. a thermistor
    • G05D23/2401Control of temperature characterised by the use of electric means with sensing elements having variation of electric or magnetic properties with change of temperature the sensing element having a resistance varying with temperature, e.g. a thermistor using a heating element as a sensing element
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B2018/00005Cooling or heating of the probe or tissue immediately surrounding the probe
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B2018/00053Mechanical features of the instrument of device
    • A61B2018/00107Coatings on the energy applicator
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B2018/00636Sensing and controlling the application of energy
    • A61B2018/00666Sensing and controlling the application of energy using a threshold value
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/08Accessories or related features not otherwise provided for
    • A61B2090/0813Accessories designed for easy sterilising, i.e. re-usable

Abstract

A surgical cutting instrument includes an electrically heated cutting edge and an automatic control system for maintaining the cutting edge at a constant high temperature for sterilizing the blade, cutting tissue, and cauterizing the incised tissue to reduce hemorrhage from the cut surfaces of the tissues (hemostasis).

Description

United States Patent [151 Cage et al.

[ 1 3,826,263 [451 July 30, 1974 1 ELECTRICALLY HEATED SURGICAL CUTTING INSTRUMENT [75] Inventors: John M. Cage, Los Altos; Robert F. Shaw, San Francisco; Paul E. Stoft, Menlo Park, all of Calif.

[73] Assignee: Robert F. Shaw, Palo Alto, Calif. 22 Filed: Aug. 7, 1972 i [63] Related US. Application Data Division of Application Ser. No. 63,645, Aug. 13, 1970.

] US. Cl l28/303.l, l28/303.l4, 128/303.l7 Int. Cl. A6lb 17/38, A6ln 3/00 1 Field of Search 30/140; 219/499;

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3/1887 Goodwillie 128/303.14 X 11/1929 Groff 128/303.14 2/1931 Hyams l28/303.l4

T0 FIRST CONTROL srsrrn T0 SECOND CONTROL SYSTEM 1,930,214 10/1933 Wapplel 128/303.14 2,012,937 9/1935 Beuoy 128/303.14 X 2,012,938 9/1935 Beuoy 128/303.l4 X 2,120,598 6/1938 Beuoy 128/303.14 X 2,795,697 6/1957 Nagel 219/499 X 3,526,750 9/1970 Siegcl 30/140 X Primary Examiner-Richard C. Pinkham Assistant Examiner-Richard J. Apley Attorney, Agent, or FirmA. C. Smith 57] ABSTRACT A surgical cutting instrument includes an electrically heated cutting edge and an automatic control system for maintaining the cutting edge at a constant high temperature for sterilizing the blade, cutting tissue, and cauterizing the incised tissue to reduce hemorrhage from the cut surfaces of the tissues (hemostasis).

3 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures This is a divisional application of pending application Ser. No. 63,645, filed Aug. I3, 1970.-

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The control of bleeding during surgery accounts for a major portion of the total time involved in an operation. The bleeding that occurs when tissue is incised obscures the surgeons vision, reduces his precision and often dictates slow and elaborate procedures in surgical operations. :Each bleeding vessel must be grasped in pincer-like clamps to stop the flow of blood and the tissue and vesselwithin each clamp must then be tied with pieces of fine thread. These ligated masses of tissue die and decompose and thus tend to retard healing and promote infection.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, the present invention provides a surgical cutting instrument having a cutting edge which is electrically heated to a constant high temperature for sterilizing the blade, cutting the tissue and cauterizing the surfaces of the incision, thereby allowing surgery to be more rapidly performed. This is accomplished in accordance with the illustrated embodiment of this invention by providing an electrically heated element disposed as the cutting edges of the blade and by providing a control system which maintains the cutting edge at a high substantially constant temperature during its use. The hot cutting edge according to the present invention decreases the amount of tissue that is damaged and reduces the tendency of the instrument to stick to the heated tissue in the incision. The material used in the electrically heated cutting edge hasa negative temperature coefficient of resistance to insure that electrical power applied to the cutting edge is dissipated primarily in the regions thereof which tend to be cooled by contact with tissue. The temperature at which the cutting edge of the blade is maintained depends upon such factors as the nature of thetissue to be cut, the speed of cutting desired, the degree of tissue coagulation desired, and the non-adherence of the blade tothe incised tissue and generally is maintained between 300-l ,000 C. for typical incisions. The instantaneous temperature of the cutting edge is monitored by measuring the resistance of the heating element itself or through the use of thermocouple elements disposed in the blade near the cutting edge, and the monitoring signal thus derived controls the power applied to the heating element. The handle of the cutting instrument is thermally insulated from the blade to permit comfortable use of the instrument and the handle and blade with its electrically heated cutting edge are detachable for easy replacement and interchangeability .with blade,

. scoops and cutting edges of various shapes and sizes determined by the nature of the incision to be made and the tissue to be cut.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram showing the cutting instrument and the temperature control system therefor, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, and FIGS. 2 and 3 are pictorial views of other embodiments of cutting instruments according to the present invention for use with circuitry as shown in FIG. 1.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to FIG. 1 of the drawing, there is shown the surgical cutting instrument 9 connected to a temperature-measuring and power-controlling system 11. The cutting instrument 9 includes a thin ceramic card 12 in the desired shape of a surgical cutting blade which is detachable from the handle or holder 10. An electrically heated element 13 is disposed along the leading edge of the card 12 to form its cutting edge and is electrically connected to the control circuit through the cable 14 and the connectors 16. The element 13 may be a single filament attached to the edge of the card 12, for example, using conventional ceramic welding materials or may be a layer of electrically conductive material vapor-deposited along the edge of the card 12. Also, the heating element 13 may have sufficient cross-sectional area to be self-supporting, as shown in FIG. 2, so that the blade 18 is formed entirely by the element 13 alone. The material used in the element 13 ideally should have a negative temperature coefficient of resistance so that as selected portions of the element cool when in contact with tissue, the resistance of such portions will increase and thereby localize the portions of the element 13 in which additional power supplied bythe control system will be dissipated. The temperature of the element may thus be maintained substantially constant over the entire length thereof as portions of the element 13 contact tissue. Suitable materials having negative temperature coefficients of resistance include silicon carbide, carbon, boron silicate and such semiconductor materials as silicon and germanium. Of course, material having a positive coefficient of resistance may also be used. However, when materials of this type are used, care should be taken to shape the element 13 so that substantially the entire length of the element 13 contacts tissue in use. This is required to prevent the additional power supplied by the control system 11 from being dissipated in the portions of the element which do not cool when in contact with tissue and, hence, which have higher resistance than the cooler portions. For cutting applications where it is not convenient to shape the element 13 so that its entire length is in contact with tissue each time it is used, the element 13 may consist of a plurality of electrically isolated elements 13 and 13, as shown in FIG. 3, with each of the elements 13 and 13' connected to a separate temperature measuring and powercontrolling system of the type shown in FIG. 1.

The resistance of the element 13 is included in a bridge circuit 15 which is connected to receive alternating signal appearing on lines 17 and 19. The level of alternating signal appearing on lines 17 and 19 and, hence, the power applied to element 13 is determined by the conduction angles of the controlled rectifiers 21 and 23 which are connected in conduction opposition in parallel across the series resistor 25. Power is supplied to the control system 11 through the primary and secondary windings 26 and 27 of power input transformer 29. Alternating line signal 28 applied to the transformer 29 is stepped down typically to about 24 volts for the safety of the patient and the surgeon and the average current flow per half cycle of the alternating signal-is determined in part by the series resistor 25 and by the conduction angle of a silicon-controlled rectifier 21, 23.

The operating temperature of the element 13 may be determined by adjusting one of the resistors, say resistor 31, in the bridge circuit 15. Any variation in the operating temperature of element 13 from a set value unbalances the bridge 15 and produces a control signal 33 across the diagonal terminals 35, 37 of the bridge circuit 15 which is either in phase or out of phase with the applied line signal, depending upon whether the operating temperature of theelement is above or below the set value of operating temperature. A phase-shifting network 39 is connected to the output terminals of the bridge circuit 15 for applying the error signal 44 with respect to ground to the input of error amplifier 41 with a small amount of phase shift relative to the applied line signal 28. This provides control of the conduction angle of the controlled rectifiers 21, 23 over a greater portion of a half cycle of the applied line signal. The output of amplifier 41 is applied to the threshold detectors 43, 45 which respond to the amplified error signal attaining selected values slightly above and below zero. The threshold detectors 47 and 49 thus activate the trigger pulse generators 47 and 49'at the proper times in alternate half cycles of applied line signal 28 to apply conduction-initiating pulses to the gate electrodes 51, 53 of the controlled rectifiers 21, 23. Thus, increased conduction angle of the controlled rectifiers 21 and 23 increases the power applied to the element 13 to maintain the element at a preselected operating temperature as the element tends to cool down in contact with skin tissue. However, if the operating temperature of the element 13 should exceed the set value due, for example, to thermal overshoot upon removal of the element 13 from contact with skin tissue, the phase of the'error signal 33 with respect to the applied line signal reverses. This causes the trigger pulse generators to supply conduction-initiating pulses to the gate electrodes of the controlled rectifiers 21, 23 during alternate half cycles when these rectifiers are back biased. This causes a decrease in the power delivered to the element 13 with a concomitant drop in its operating temperature to about the set value of operating temperature. When this occurs, the proper phase relationship between error signal and line signal is restored and power is again supplied to the element 13. Conversion of the control system 11 for operation with elements 13 having negative or positive temperature coefficients of resistance merely requires that the trigger pulses from the generators 47 and 49 be applied through reversing switch S to the proper controlled rectifier 21, 23 during the forward-biasing half cycle of line signal 28.

It should be apparent that other temperature control systems may also be used to maintain the operating temperature of the element 13 substantially constant at a preselected value. For example, a thermocouple sensor may be disposed on the card 12 in close proximity with the element 13 or a thermocouple element may even be formed on element 13 using another material or dissimilar work function to form the thermocouple junction. The signal from such thermocouple may then be used to control the operating temperature of the element 13 by controlling the power supplied thereto.

We claim:

l. A surgical instrument for cutting tissue with simultaneous hemostasis, the instrument comprising:

a blade-shaped support wafer of electrically insulating material having disposed thereon an electrically heatable element of electrically conductive material having a resistance which varies as a function of the temperature thereof, the element including a plurality of sections which form segments or portions of a tissue-cutting edge of said support wafer, each of said sections conducting electrical current along said edge for directly heating the edge; and

connection means providing electrical connections to each of said sections for independently supplying electrical power thereto for maintaining the resistance of each of said sections at a substantially constant selected value.

2. A surgical instrument as in claim 1 comprising:

means for each of said sections operatively coupled thereto for sensing the electrical resistance of the corresponding section;

circuit means for each of said sections having an input for receiving electrical current from a source and being responsive to the electrical resistance of the corresponding section of said element for altering the electrical power supplied through said connection means to the corresponding section from the signal received at said input to maintain the temperature of the corresponding section substantially at a preselected value independent of the temperature of another section of said element.

3. A surgical instrument as in claim 2 wherein each of said circuit means comprises a plurality of circuit elements and said corresponding section connected in a bridge circuit having first and second pairs of bridge terminals, and including control means coupling said input to the first pair of bridge terminals, and bridgebalance sensing means connected to the second pair of bridge terminals and to said control means for altering the electrical power applied through the bridge circuit to said corresponding section for maintaining the resistance thereof substantially at a preselected value.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,826,263 Dated July 30, 1974 Inventor (s) John M. Cage, Robert F. Shaw, and Paul E. Stoft It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent'are hereby corrected as shown below:

In the title page, left column, at item [63] after "Aug. 13, 1970" delete and insert now abandoned,

which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 681,737, filed November 9, 1967,- now abandoned.

Column 1, line 5, after "Aug. 13, 1970" delete and insert now abandoned, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 681,737, filed November 9, 1967, now

abandoned.

Signed and Eealcdthis eleventh Of November 1975 sen A nest:

RUTH C. MASON (nmml'ssiuncr nflurenls and Trademarks UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,826,263 Dated July 30, 1974 Inventor (s) John M, Cage, Robert Shaw, and Paul E. Stoft It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent-are hereby corrected as shown below:

In the title page, left column, at item [63] after "Aug. 13, 1970" delete and insert now abandoned, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 681,737,

filed November 9, 1967, now abandoned.

Column 1, line 5, after "Aug. 13, 1970" delete and insert now abandoned, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 681,737, filed November 9, 1967, now

abandoned,

Signed and Sealed-this eleventh OF N0vember1975 [SEAL] A lies I:

Claims (3)

1. A surgical instrument for cutting tissue with simultaneous hemostasis, the instrument comprising: a blade-shaped support wafer of electrically insulating material having disposed thereon an electrically heatable element of electrically conductive material having a resistance which varies as a function of the temperature thereof, the element including a plurality of sections which form segments or portions of a tissue-cutting edge of said support wafer, each of said sections conducting electrical current along said edge for directly heating the edge; and connection means providing electrical connections to each of said sections for independently supplying electrical power thereto for maintaining the resistance of each of said sections at a substantially constant selected value.
2. A surgical instrument as in claim 1 comprising: means for each of said sections operatively coupled thereto for sensing the electrical resistance of the corresponding section; circuit means for each of said sections having an input for receiving electrical current from a source and being responsive to the electrical resistance of the corresponding section of said element for altering the electrical power supplied through said connection means to the corresponding section from the signal received at said input to maintain the temperature of the corresponding section substantially at a preselected value independent of the temperature of another section of said element.
3. A surgical instrument as in claim 2 wherein each of said circuit means comprises a plurality of circuit elements and said corresponding section connected in a bridge circuit having first and second pairs of bridge terminals, and including control means coupling said input to the first pair of bridge terminals, and bridge-balance sensing means connected to the second pair of bridge terminals and to said control means for altering the electrical power applied through the bridge circuit to said corresponding section for maintaining the resistance thereof substantially at a preselected value.
US3826263A 1970-08-13 1972-08-07 Electrically heated surgical cutting instrument Expired - Lifetime US3826263A (en)

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US05656730 Reissue USRE30190E (en) 1967-11-09 1976-02-09 Electrically heated surgical cutting instrument
US05852470 Reissue USRE31723E (en) 1967-11-09 1977-11-17 Surgical cutting instrument having electrically heated cutting edge

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