US3814326A - Spray nozzle - Google Patents

Spray nozzle Download PDF

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US3814326A
US3814326A US31283972A US3814326A US 3814326 A US3814326 A US 3814326A US 31283972 A US31283972 A US 31283972A US 3814326 A US3814326 A US 3814326A
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nozzle plate
wall
nozzle
means
main body
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L Bartlett
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L Bartlett
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A62LIFE-SAVING; FIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62CFIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62C31/00Delivery of fire-extinguishing material
    • A62C31/02Nozzles specially adapted for fire-extinguishing
    • A62C31/03Nozzles specially adapted for fire-extinguishing adjustable, e.g. from spray to jet or vice versa
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A62LIFE-SAVING; FIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62CFIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62C31/00Delivery of fire-extinguishing material
    • A62C31/02Nozzles specially adapted for fire-extinguishing
    • A62C31/05Nozzles specially adapted for fire-extinguishing with two or more outlets
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B1/00Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means
    • B05B1/14Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening
    • B05B1/16Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets
    • B05B1/1627Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets with a selecting mechanism comprising a gate valve, a sliding valve or a cock
    • B05B1/1636Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets with a selecting mechanism comprising a gate valve, a sliding valve or a cock by relative rotative movement of the valve elements
    • B05B1/1645Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets with a selecting mechanism comprising a gate valve, a sliding valve or a cock by relative rotative movement of the valve elements the outlets being rotated during selection
    • B05B1/1654Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets with a selecting mechanism comprising a gate valve, a sliding valve or a cock by relative rotative movement of the valve elements the outlets being rotated during selection about an axis parallel to the liquid passage in the stationary valve element

Abstract

A nozzle assembly intended to be hand held at the end of a water hose or supported on top of a stake inserted in the ground has a main body portion and a nozzle plate rotatably supported on the main body portion. The nozzle plate has a plurality of nozzle orifices of different sizes or characteristics indexable in front of an outlet port in the main body portion. Sealing means, recesses and other features are provided to prevent water from squirting at a user while he holds the nozzle assembly and indexes the nozzle plate to present different nozzle orifices to the outlet port.

Description

United States Patent Bartlett June 4, 1974 [5 SPRAY NOZZLE 3,377,028 4/1968 Bruggeman 239/394 3,596,835 8/1971 s "111 1'1 239 394 [76] Inventor: Lawrence 21 3,704,831 12/1972 C lzi rk 239/394 Hartford, y- 42347 3,711,029 1/1973 Bartlett 239/394 [22] Filed: Dec. 7, 1972 Appl. No.: 312,839

[63] Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 133,556, April 13,

1971, Pm. No. 3,711,029.

[52] US. Cl 239/276, 239/394, 277/212 [51] Int, Cl. A62c 31/22 [58] Field of Search; ..239/394 ;276,1 1 o, 1,

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 564,412 7/1896 Rath 239/276 1,125,067 1/1915 'Cook 2771212 x 2,212,533 8/1940 Zimmerman 239/391 2, 72,029 2/1942 Benson... 277/212 x Primary Examiner-M. Henson Wood, Jr. Assistant Examiner-Andres Kashnikow Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Edwin E. Greigg [57] ABSTRACT A nozzle assembly intended to be hand held at the end of a water hose or supported on top of a stake inserted in the ground has a main body portion and a nozzle plate rotatably supported on the main body portion.

The nozzle plate has a plurality of nozzle orifices of 15 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures PATENTEDJuu 4 m4 SHEET 2 (IF 2 SPRAY NOZZLE This application is a continuation-in-part application of application Ser. No. 133,556, filed Apr. 13, 1971 now US. Pat. No. 3,711,029 granted Jan. 16, 1973.

This invention relates to a nozzle assembly having a plurality of indexable nozzle orifices on a nozzle plate.

It is an improvement on the nozzle assembly shown and claimed in my allowed application, Ser. No. 133,556, filed Apr. 13, 1971.

The nozzle apparatus of my prior application, while an advance in the art, had various deficiencies which it is the object of this invention to correct.

Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to thoroughly prevent leakage of liquid around the rim of the nozzle body while the nozzle plate is being indexed and to prevent any leakage of liquid when the nozzle plate is in a spray delivery position.

I It is another object to flush out any dirt or grime which may get between the nozzle body and plate and cause leakage and difficulty in indexing the plate.

It is another object to provide an inexpensive, durable and attractive device which will efficiently and completely satisfactorily perform its functions.

To achieve the above objects and others which will become apparent in the following description, I provide various structural features including a main nozzle body which has a sealing recess having an outer wall, the top portion of which is recessed at opposed locations and a seal in the recess having its upper portion fitting loosely in the recess so that as indexing of a nozzle plate occurs, water leaking past the seal can escape through the top recesses into a large cup-shaped cavity furnishing access to the various openings of the nozzle plate, whereby the leaking water issues towards the front of the nozzle apparatus rather than from the rim, the nozzle plate further having a circular downturned flange contacting a circumferential shoulder on the main body portion additionally to inhibit leakage from the rim.

The invention will be better understood, as well as further objects and advantages will become more apparent from the ensuing detailed specification of a preferred, although exemplary, embodiment taken in conjunction with the drawing, wherein:

FIG. 1 is an elevation of the nozzle assembly mounted on a stake;

FIG. 2 is a plan view of the-nozzle assembly; FIG. 3 is a cross section taken on' line 3-3 of FIG.

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the seal;

FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 5-5 of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a fragmentary cross section taken on line 6-6 of FIG. 3;

FIG. 7 is a plan view of the main body portion by itself without any of the associated parts;

FIG. 8 is across section on line 8--8 of FIG. 7;

FIG. 9 is a fragmentary cross section on line 9-9 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 10 is a fragmentary cross section on line 10-10 of FIG. 2; and

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary cross section of the central part of the apparatus with the fastening rivet shown detached before it is secured to the main body portion.

FIG. 1 shows the nozzle apparatus 1 having an extension 2 connected to a hose 3 and mounted on a stake deliver desired sprays.

The nozzle assembly or apparatus comprises a main body portion 5 and a nozzle plate or carrier 6 secured to the main body portion by a rivet 7 received in a centrally located recess 8 formed by an upstanding circular wall 9. The parts 5, 6 and 7 are each made of plastic,

preferably cycolac GSM and are each molded as an integral whole. The rivet 7 has a circular ridge 10 on its bottom and a circular ridge 11 on the bottom of heat portion 12. After nozzle plate 6 has been associated with main body portion 5, the rivet 7 is pressed down into recess 8 and sonically or ultrasonically vibrated to thereby fuse ridges 10, 11 and weld the rivet to the bottom of the recess and the top of wall 9. The outer portion of heat 12 overlies the surrounding circular wall 13 of nozzle plate 6. The nozzle plate 6 is thus firmly held in contact with certain parts of main body portion 5 and the sealing means while being free to rotate about circular wall 9 and the central axis of the main body portion.

The extension 2 of themain bodyforms an interiorly threaded inlet port 14 to which is threaded the conventional end fitting or fixture of water hose 3 when the nozzle apparatus is in use, a conventional washer being positioned in the bottom of threaded port 14. Outlet port 15 communicates with and forms a continuation of inlet port 14. Recess 16 surrounds outlet port 15 being formed by an inner wall 17 (the wall 17 also forming the wall of the port 15) and an outer wall 18. At diametrically opposite points the wall 18 has indented portions l8 a for a purpose to be later described.

The recess 16 receives the seal means 19 which has an annular portion 20 and at one end an outwardly protruding circumferential rim or shoulder portion 21. The end surface 22 adajcent to shoulder 21 is chamfered. The annular portion 20 is undercutat 19a to form a bottom thin cylindrical part and a top thicker cylindri cal part. The seal 19 is made of elastomeric material, preferably polyethylene.

In use the seal 19 is placed in recess 16 with the end of the seal bearing against the tops of ribs 23 formed in wall 18 in the interior of the groove. The proportions of the ribs are such that the upper end of seal 19 engages and is urged against a planar wall portion of the nozzle plate or carrier 6 when such plate is assembled with the main body portion 5. The shoulder 21 snugly engages outer wall 18 of the recess and cylindrical portion 20 is spaced from this wall by a radial distance equal to the radial width of the shoulder. The inner cylindrical surface of the undercut 19a is spaced from the inner wall 17 of recess 16 by the radial dimension of the undercut. This arrangement of the seal gives it great flexibility-which enhances the sealing action.

The main body portion 5 also comprises a downwardly opening socket 25 for receiving the top portion of stake 4 with a snug fit. The longitudinal axis of socket 25 is parallel to the longitudinal axis of ports 14 and 15 and the axis of the socket is close to the central axis of the nozzle apparatus.

, The main body portion 5 further comprises an annular collar part 26. Extending inwardly from collar 26 is a circumferential rim 27. Merging with the rim and located diametrically opposite from outlet port 15 is a circular wall 28 forming a socket 29 receiving a spring 30 and a detent ball 31, the spring urging the ball outwardly.

The bottom wall 32a of body and the circular upstanding wall or flange 32 form a cup-shaped structure enclosing a large cavity 33. The central portion 34 which forms socket 25 and a rim 34a at the base of socket 8 and merges with wall 18 rises from the bottom wall 32a. Similarly the recess wall 18 and wall 28 rise from the bottom wall.

The surface of rim 27 and the tops of central portion 34, wall 18 and wall 28 form a planar wall or surface 35. A boss 36 rises from planar wall 35 to contact a planar wall of the nozzle plate. A space 37 is formed in the main body portion below the bottom 38 of recess 8 to save material and to minimize warping of the walls of recess 16 and socket 25 which may be caused by a large mass of plastic material as it cools in a mold.

The nozzle plate or carrier 6 has a planar wallportion 38 and a circumferential flange 39 bearing against collar 26. The lower part of flange 39 forms a circumferential rim 40 extending downwardly from planar wall 38 and bearing against the outer portion of rim 27 which forms theouter limits of planar wall 35. A circumferential top part 41 and a circumferential downwardly extending wall 42 form a circumferential socket receiving collar 26. The wall 42 includes knurls 42a'to facilitate turning of the nozzle plate by a hand of the user.

The planar wall 38 is multiply perforated, having a plurality of perforations, namely the openings 43 and the nozzle orifices 44. Eachof the openings 43 is radially positioned to cooperate with ball 31 and is circumferentially positioned to be diametrically opposite an orifice 44 or a blank space 45. One of the orifices, 46,

is sized and configured to be simply a continuation of port 15. The other orifices each have adifferent and distinct configuration. Orifices 47 and 48 are shown in detail in FIGS. 9 and 10, respectively, and orifice49 is shown in FIG. 3. Orifice 49 is formed by the cooperation of a deflector 50 and the wall of the perforation.

.Deflector 50 has a stem portion 51 snapped into and held in an opening in spider 52. Once deflector 50 is assembled with spider 52, the assembly is intended to be permanent. ln assembling stem 51 with spider 52 a solution may be used on the stem tip to cause it initially to soften andreact with the material of the spider to soften it also, the two parts thus becoming welded together.

In use nozzle plate 6 is rotated to a desired position by grasping the flange 42 with its knurled surface.

When a desired orifice is in front of the outlet port, ball 31 will snap into a perforation 43 and hold the nozzle plate in position. The nozzle plate may thus be indexed to the various desired positions. in four different positions four different sprays will issue from the orifices.

In the fifth position, blank space 45' will prevent any liquid from issuing.

- When the nozzle plate is moved from one position to another, some leakage past the seal seems to be unavoidable. When the nozzle apparatus is held in the hand of the user and the water pressure is continued in force while the nozzle plate is turned escaping water must be prevented from squirting radially outwardly and at the user. In my nozzle apparatus liquid leaking past the seal will enter the large cavity and issue in a forward direction through openings 43 and orifices 44. Additionally rim 40 bearing against shoulder 27 acts as a seal to confine the liquid.

The rim 40 and boss 36 also serve to space the bottom of planar wall 38 of the nozzle plate 6 from the top of planar wall 35 of the main body portion, the boss 36 furnishing a bearing surface, a support for the central portion of the nozzle plate and inhibiting tilting of the nozzle plate due to clearances between the parts. Such tilting tends to occur during turning of nozzle plate 6 when liquid from outlet 16 hits a blankpart of the plate. The liquid pressure tends to tilt the plate and would tend to cause rim 40 to bear hard against rim 27 at a point diametrically opposite the water pressure to exert a braking action. The boss 36 hearing against wall 38 prevents such tilting and a braking effect is produced by the boss. Since the boss is radially closer to the axis of rotation than the perimeter, the braking effect is less. With this arrangement, dirt or other foreign ment of the nozzle plate. In practice it has been found that the seal 19 works very well to confine the liquid while the nozzle plate is in one of its five desired positions of use. When the nozzle plate is moved, the seal still tends to maintain its sealing action till an opening '43 begins .to straddle the seal. At this time considerable leakage takes place, such leakage being greaterthan otherwise because of the indentations 18a. This leakage causes a desirable flushing action without annoying the user of the device.

The loose fit of portion 20 of seal 19 and the flexibility due to undercut 19a have been found to be very effective in achieving a good seal while thenozzle plate is in a desired-spray delivering position. Due to the loose fit in the recess and the flexibility of the seal it can accommodate itself to the irregularities in position which the nozzle plate may assume because of the clearances between cooperating surfaces of the various parts. r

What is claimed is:

' 1. In a nozzle assembly for attachment to a garden hose, the combination comprising a main body portion including an inlet port for attachment of a garden hose fixture and an outlet port in communication with said inlet port, an annular collar means on said main body portion, a rotatable nozzle plate having a plurality of nozzle orifices and. including means snugly embraced by said collar means and also including a planar wall in a planeoverlying said outlet port, a recess in the main body portion surrounding said outlet port, a seal means in said recess and means in said recess urging said seal means into sealing engagement with said planar wall of said nozzle plate, centrally disposed means arranged to retain said nozzle plate within said collar and in firm contact with said seal means and indexing means permitting predetermined positioning of said orifices in said nozzle plate over said outlet port, said seal means being of elastomeric material and comprising an annular portion fitting loosely in the recess, the end portion of said seal facing towards the bottom of said recess protruding radially to fit snugly against a wall of the recess.

2. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 1,

, wherein said end portion of said seal comprises an annular shoulder projecting radially outwardly and the outer surface of said seal cylinder is spaced from the inner wall of said recess by a radial distance substantially equal to the radial width of said shoulder.

3. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein said main body portion comprises a cavity surrounded by a wall portion and the outer wall of said recess extends upwardly from the bottom of said cavity.

openings and orifices is communicable with said cavity.

6. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein circumferentially spaced ribs on a wall of said recess engage the bottom end portion of said seal to urge it toward said planar wall of said nozzle plate.

7. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 3, wherein the top of said wall portion, the top of the outer wall of the-recess and a central portion of the main body portion form a planar wall portion juxtaposed with but spaced from the planar wall portion of the nozzle plate and the nozzle plate has a downwardly directed circumferential flange bearing on the top of said wall portion.

8. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 7, wherein an upstanding boss on said central portion of the main body portion bears against the planar wall of said nozzle plate.

9. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein said nozzle plate has a circumferential knurled flange over said collar means.

10. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein said annular portion of the seal comprises a lower cylindrical part radially spaced both from the inner and the outer wall of said recess and an upper cylindrical part in engagement with said planar wall, said upper cylindrical part being of greater thickness than the lower cylindrical part.

11. In a nozzle assembly for attachment to a garden hose, the combination comprising a main body portion including an inlet port for attachment of a garden hose fixture and an outlet port in communication with said inlet port, a rotatable nozzle plate having a plurality of nozzle orifices and including a planar wall in a plane overlying said outlet port, a seal means surrounding said outlet port having a portion in sealing engagement with said planar wall and further includinga circumferential shoulder portion for engagement with an adjacent wall, centrally disposed means to retain said nozzle plate in form contact'with said seal means, indexing means permitting predetermined positioning of said orifices in said nozzle plate over said outlet port and means on said main body portion for receiving a part of a detachable stake to position said nozzle assembly over the ground, said means for receiving the stake comprising a downwardly opening socket formed in the main body portion having an axis parallel to the axis of the inlet port.

12. In a nozzle assembly for attachment to a garden hose, the combination comprising a main body portion including an inlet port for attachment of a garden hose fixture and an outlet port in communication with said inlet port, a rotatable nozzle plate having a plurality of nozzle orifices and including a planar wall in a plane overlying said outlet port, a seal means surrounding said outlet port in sealing engagement with said planar wall, said seal means further including a portion adapted to snugly engage a surrounding wall, centrally disposed means to retain said nozzle plate in firm contact with said seal means, indexing means permitting predetermined positioning of said orifices in said nozzle plate over said outlet port, the interior of said main body portion being cup-shaped to form a cavity surrounded for substantially its entire extent by the outer wall of said main body portion, said outer wall being relatively thin.

13. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 12, wherein said nozzle plate also has openings, said openings cooperating with a spring pressed detent associated with said main body portion, each of said openings and orifices being communicable with said cavity.

knurled flange forming the outer wall of said socket.

Claims (15)

1. In a nozzle assembly for attachment to a garden hose, the combination comprising a main body portion including an inlet port for attachment of a garden hose fixture and an outlet port in communication with said inlet port, an annular collar means on said main body portion, a rotatable nozzle plate having a plurality of nozzle orifices and including means snugly embraced by said collar means and also including a planar wall in a plane overlying said outlet port, a recess in the main body portion surrounding said outlet port, a seal means in said recess and means in said recess urging said seal means into sealing engagement with said planar wall of said nozzle plate, centrally disposed means arranged to retain said nozzle plate within said collar and in firm contact with said seal means and indexing means permitting predetermined positioning of said orifices in said nozzle plate over said outlet port, said seal means being of elastomeric material and comprising an annular portion fitting loosely in the recess, the end portion of said seal facing towards the bottom of said recess protruding radially to fit snugly against a wall of the recess.
2. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein said end portion of said seal comprises an annular shoulder projecting radially outwardly and the outer surface of said seal cylinder is spaced from the inner wall of said recess by a radial distance substantially equal to the radial width of said shoulder.
3. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein said main body portion comprises a cavity surrounded by a wall portion and the outer wall of said recess extends upwardly from the bottom of said cavity.
4. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 3, wherein said outer wall of said recess has indented portions at its outer edge which facilitate leakage of liquid into said cavity when the nozzle plate is rotated to present different orifices over said outlet port.
5. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 4, wherein said indexing means comprises circumferentially spaCed openings in said nozzle plate each of which is engageable with a spring pressed detent associated with said main body portion and each of said openings and orifices is communicable with said cavity.
6. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein circumferentially spaced ribs on a wall of said recess engage the bottom end portion of said seal to urge it toward said planar wall of said nozzle plate.
7. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 3, wherein the top of said wall portion, the top of the outer wall of the recess and a central portion of the main body portion form a planar wall portion juxtaposed with but spaced from the planar wall portion of the nozzle plate and the nozzle plate has a downwardly directed circumferential flange bearing on the top of said wall portion.
8. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 7, wherein an upstanding boss on said central portion of the main body portion bears against the planar wall of said nozzle plate.
9. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein said nozzle plate has a circumferential knurled flange over said collar means.
10. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein said annular portion of the seal comprises a lower cylindrical part radially spaced both from the inner and the outer wall of said recess and an upper cylindrical part in engagement with said planar wall, said upper cylindrical part being of greater thickness than the lower cylindrical part.
11. In a nozzle assembly for attachment to a garden hose, the combination comprising a main body portion including an inlet port for attachment of a garden hose fixture and an outlet port in communication with said inlet port, a rotatable nozzle plate having a plurality of nozzle orifices and including a planar wall in a plane overlying said outlet port, a seal means surrounding said outlet port having a portion in sealing engagement with said planar wall and further including a circumferential shoulder portion for engagement with an adjacent wall, centrally disposed means to retain said nozzle plate in form contact with said seal means, indexing means permitting predetermined positioning of said orifices in said nozzle plate over said outlet port and means on said main body portion for receiving a part of a detachable stake to position said nozzle assembly over the ground, said means for receiving the stake comprising a downwardly opening socket formed in the main body portion having an axis parallel to the axis of the inlet port.
12. In a nozzle assembly for attachment to a garden hose, the combination comprising a main body portion including an inlet port for attachment of a garden hose fixture and an outlet port in communication with said inlet port, a rotatable nozzle plate having a plurality of nozzle orifices and including a planar wall in a plane overlying said outlet port, a seal means surrounding said outlet port in sealing engagement with said planar wall, said seal means further including a portion adapted to snugly engage a surrounding wall, centrally disposed means to retain said nozzle plate in firm contact with said seal means, indexing means permitting predetermined positioning of said orifices in said nozzle plate over said outlet port, the interior of said main body portion being cup-shaped to form a cavity surrounded for substantially its entire extent by the outer wall of said main body portion, said outer wall being relatively thin.
13. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 12, wherein said nozzle plate also has openings, said openings cooperating with a spring pressed detent associated with said main body portion, each of said openings and orifices being communicable with said cavity.
14. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 13, wherein said nozzle plate has a downwardly directed circumferential flange bearing on the top of the wall surrounding said cavity.
15. The nozzle assembly as claimed in claim 14, wherein said main body portion has an annular collar means and said nozzle plAte has means snugly embraced by said collar means, said nozzle plate also having an annular socket receiving said collar means, a knurled flange forming the outer wall of said socket.
US31283972 1971-04-13 1972-12-07 Spray nozzle Expired - Lifetime US3814326A (en)

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US13355671A true 1971-04-13 1971-04-13
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US31283972 US3814326A (en) 1971-04-13 1972-12-07 Spray nozzle
GB5658273A GB1441841A (en) 1972-12-07 1973-12-06 Nozzle assemblies
CA187,575A CA998716A (en) 1972-12-07 1973-12-06 Spray nozzle
JP13805173A JPS4988109A (en) 1972-12-07 1973-12-07

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US6435427B1 (en) 2001-01-16 2002-08-20 Coltec Industries, Inc. Nozzle assembly with an extendable turret
US6446882B1 (en) 2001-02-02 2002-09-10 Owens-Illinois Closure Inc. Trigger sprayer having sprayer/foamer selector nozzle cap
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CA998716A (en) 1976-10-19
CA998716A1 (en)
GB1441841A (en) 1976-07-07
JPS4988109A (en) 1974-08-23

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