US3762648A - Spray nozzle - Google Patents

Spray nozzle Download PDF

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US3762648A
US3762648A US00264959A US3762648DA US3762648A US 3762648 A US3762648 A US 3762648A US 00264959 A US00264959 A US 00264959A US 3762648D A US3762648D A US 3762648DA US 3762648 A US3762648 A US 3762648A
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Prior art keywords
valve
housing
inlet
spray nozzle
valve member
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US00264959A
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S Deines
J Trenary
D Smith
C Hickman
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Teledyne Inc
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Teledyne Inc
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B1/00Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means
    • B05B1/14Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening
    • B05B1/16Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets
    • B05B1/1627Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets with a selecting mechanism comprising a gate valve, a sliding valve or a cock
    • B05B1/1636Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets with a selecting mechanism comprising a gate valve, a sliding valve or a cock by relative rotative movement of the valve elements
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B3/00Spraying or sprinkling apparatus with moving outlet elements or moving deflecting elements ; Spraying or sprinkling heads with rotating elements located upstream the outlet
    • B05B3/02Spraying or sprinkling apparatus with moving outlet elements or moving deflecting elements ; Spraying or sprinkling heads with rotating elements located upstream the outlet with rotating elements
    • B05B3/04Spraying or sprinkling apparatus with moving outlet elements or moving deflecting elements ; Spraying or sprinkling heads with rotating elements located upstream the outlet with rotating elements driven by the liquid or other fluent material discharged, e.g. the liquid actuating a motor before passing to the outlet
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B1/00Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means
    • B05B1/14Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening
    • B05B1/18Roses; Shower heads
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B15/00Details of spraying plant or spraying apparatus not otherwise provided for; Accessories
    • B05B15/60Arrangements for mounting, supporting or holding spraying apparatus
    • B05B15/62Arrangements for supporting spraying apparatus, e.g. suction cups

Abstract

A spray nozzle especially useful as a showerhead operable to deliver an intermittently interrupted or pulsating spray. Water passing through the device is divided within the device into two flow paths which are recombined prior to discharge through groups of nozzle orifices. Water flowing through one of the flow paths is directed against a turbine blade assembly to drive a rotatable valve rotor in rotation at a rotary speed dependent upon the pressure of water following this flow path. The second flow path bypasses the turbine blades, and hence water following the second flow path does not contribute to the rotary speed of the valve rotor. By adjustably throttling flow through the second flow path, the pressure head or driving force of water in the first flow path against the turbine blades may be varied to thus vary the rotary speed of the valve rotor independently of the supply pressure. Flow of water to each group of nozzle orifices is cyclically interrupted by the rotating valve rotor which connects only a portion of the orifices to supply at a given time. The configuration of the rotating valve port and the arrangement of the groups of nozzle orifices is such that back pressure at the rotating valve port remains constant regardless of the rotary position of the valve port.

Description

United States Patent Deines et al. 1 1 Oct. 2, 1973 I 1 SPRAY NOZZLE 57 ABSTRACT [75] inventors: Siegmund Deines; John M. Trenary, 1 A spray nozzle especially useful as a showerhead opera both of Fort Collin D id W, t ble to deliver an intermittently interrupted or pulsating S i h w m Cl spray. Water passing through the device is divided Hickman, Fort Collins, a" f C within the device into two flow paths which are recomi bined prior to discharge through groups of nozzle ori- [73] Assignee: Teledyne Industries Inc., Fort fices. Water flowing through one of the flow paths is di- Colhns, COIO- rected against a turbine blade assembly to drive a rotat- [22] Filed: June 21, 1972 able valve rotor in rotation at a rotary speed dependent upon the pressure of water following this flow path.

[ PP 2641959 The second flow path bypasses the turbine blades, and

hence water following the second flow path does not 152 11.5. c1. 239/383, 239/102 Contribute to the rotary Speed Ofthe valve By 51 1m. (:1. B05b 1/08 Justably thmhhng flow through the Second flow Path,

[58] Field of Search 239/383, 380, 381, the Pressre head driving of Water the first 239/382, 102 flow path against the turbine blades may be varied to thus vary the rotary speed of the valve rotor indepen- 5 References Cited dently of the supply pressure. Flow of water to each group of nozzle orifices is cyclicall interru ted b the UNITED STATES PATENTS rotating valve rotor which connects only a porti n of 2,878,066 3 1959 Erwin 239/383 the orifices to Supply at a given time The configuration i of the rotating valve port and the arrangement of the 3:713:58? 1 1973 Carson..,.3IIIIIIIIIIII:.... 239/383 groups of mule orifices is Such that back Pressure at Primary ExaminerM. Henson Wood, Jr. Assistant Examiner-Michael Mar Att0rney-Hugh H. Drake et al.

the rotating valve port remains constant regardless of the rotary position of the valve port.

Claims, 10 Drawing Figures 1 L I I04, E If 2% 56 54\ i 40 26 I8 38 y i 5a &9 i3 n 2 4 3 20 s g l 60 46 44 4 SPRAY NOZZLE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION It is a well recognized fact that a pleasant massage effect can be created by a pulsating stream of water, and many efforts have been made in an attempt to provide a spray nozzle or showerhead which will discharge an intermittent or pulsating spray when supplied with water from a source at a constant pressure. The effect of a pulsating stream of water is most conveniently achieved in this particular environment by intermittently interrupting the individual streams discharged from the nozzle orifices. However, most devices employing this approach suffer from two drawbacks. First, the intermittent opening and closing of the nozzle orifices to achieve the desired interruption of pulsation of the stream results in a cylically varying back pressure as the orifices are alternately opened and closed which creates a water hammer in the supply pipe system. Second, in those prior art devices where a turbine driven rotary valve member is employed, the rate of rotation of the valve member, and hence the rate of pulsation of the discharge streams, varies directly with the supply pressure and cannot be adjusted independently of the supply pressure. In order to achieve a pulsation rate rapid enough to achieve the desired massaging effect, the person using the device may have to open the supply controlling faucets to a point where the velocity of the spray is uncomfortably high.

The present invention is especially directed to the provision of a spray nozzle or showerhead which is operable to produce a pulsating or intermittently interrupted spray with no variations in back pressure exerted by the nozzle, thereby eliminating water hammer, and in which the rate of pulsation may be readily adjusted independently of the pressure of water supplied to the nozzle.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A nozzle embodying the present invention includes a hollow cylindrical housing having a hollow cylindrical valve rotor supported for coaxial rotation between opposed end plates of the housing. An inlet tube is connected to supply water to the outer side of one of the housing end plates. Water from the inlet can pass through the inlet end plate through a first axially extending passage and also through a series of tangentially inclined passage ways. The tangentially inclined passage ways are aligned with an annular ring of turbine blades mounted on the valve rotor so that water discharged from the inclined passages impinges on the turbine blades to drive the valve rotor in rotation and passes through spaces between the blades. The end wall of the valve rotor in which the turbine blades are mounted also carries a series of axially extending passages located to conduct water discharged from the axial passage in the housing end plate. The axial passages and the inclined passages thus define two separate flow paths for water to flow from the inlet tube through the rotor to be recombined downstream of the rotor end wall. Apportionment of the inlet flow between these two flow passages is achieved by a shutter type valve which can be adjustably positioned to provide a variable restriction to the axially extending passage in the housing end plate. By operating this valve to decrease the amount of, water flowing through the axial passage in the housing end plate, the pressure of water flowing through the inclined passages can be increased to thereby increase the rate of rotation of the valve rotor.

In one form, the valve rotor is a hollow cylinder, the turbine blades being formed in one end wall, and the opposite end wall of the valve rotor is formed with a valve opening or port in the shape of a segment of an annulus. This latter end wall of the valve rotor is located in substantial face to face engagement with the corresponding end wall of the housing. The nozzle discharge orifices are bored through the end wall of the housing and arranged in symmetrically spaced groups, identical in pattern, which lie within the annular path traversed by the valve port. The angular extent of the annular valve port is determined by the number of groups of orifices, the angular extent of the port being equal to 360 divided by the number of groups of orifices or a whole multiple thereof. Because the pattern of the orifices within each of the individual groups is common to all groups, the number of orifices exposed or uncovered by the valve port remains constant, regardless of the angular position of the rotating valve port. Thus, the back pressure exerted by the relatively restricted discharge orifices remains constant thereby eliminating the possibility of generating a water hammer in the supply system. The rotating valve port uncovers and closes the orifices in succession as it is driven in rotation, thus intermittently interrupting the stream discharge from each individual orifice to produce a pulsating effect inthe stream.

To minimize wear, a floating wear plate of a material having a low coefficient of friction may be inserted between the housing end wall and a recess formed in the adjacent end wall of the rotor.

In a modified form of the invention, the valve rotor may take the form of a shaft fixed to the turbine, the opposite end of the shaft being received in a stationary hub on the interior side of the housing end wall. Each group of discharge orifices is connected via an internal chamber in the hub to symmetrically spaced inlet ports opening into the bore of the hub in which the valve rotor shaft rotates. An axially extending groove in the shaft functions as the valve port.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent by reference to the following specification and to the drawings.

IN THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view taken on a vertical plane extending axially through a spray nozzle embodying the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken approximately on the line 22 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a detail cross-sectional view taken on the line 3-3 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a bottom elevational view of the spray nozzle of FIG. 1;

FIG. 5- is a schematic diagram, partially in section, illustrating paths of fluid flow through certain parts of the nozzle;

FIG. 6 is a bottom elevational view of the rotary valve member employed in the spray nozzle;

FIG. 7 is a cross sectional view, taken on an axial plane of a modified form of valve rotor;

FIG. 8 is a cross sectional view taken on line 8--8 of FIG. 7;

FIG. 9 is a cross sectional view, taken on an axial plane, of another form of the invention; and

FIG. 10 is a cross sectional view taken on line 10-10 of FIG. 9.

One form of spray nozzle shown in the drawings includes a main connector tube designated generally I whose upper portion, as viewed in FIG. I, is formed with a relatively small diameter inlet passage 12. At its lower end, connector tube is formed with an enlarged diameter housing portion 14 whose open lower end is closed by an orifice fitting designated generally 16 threadably received within housing portion 14. A flow directing plate designated generally I8 is keyed in fixed position within the interior of housing portion 14 between the inner end 20 of fitting 16 and a shoulder 22 formed within housing portion 14. Water flowing downwardly through inlet passage I2 can pass through flow directing plate 1% via an axially extending passage 24 and also through a plurality of tangentially inclined passageways 26 which extend through plate 118.

When assembly into housing portion 14, orifice fitting 16 and flow directing plate 18 cooperatively enclose a cylindrical chamber 28 whose upper wall is defined by plate 18 and whose lower wall is defined by the bottom plate 30 of the cup shaped orifice fitting 16. The outlet of chamber 28 is formed by a plurality of relatively small diameter bores 32 through bottom plate 30 of fitting 16.

A hollow cylindrical valve rotor designated generally 36 is mounted for coaxial rotation within chamber 28 by a projecting shaft 38 at its upper end received within a central bore 40 in plate 18 and by a ball 42 retained within opposed conical recesses formed in bottom plate 30 and the bottom wall 413 of valve rotor 36. The upper wall 44 of valve rotor 36 is formed with an annular series of turbine blades 46 located in an annular band near the outer periphery of plate 44 in alignment with the lower ends of passages 26, water discharged from the lower ends of passages 26 impinging on the inclined turbine blades 46 to drive valve rotor 36 in rotationv Axially extending bores 48 are also formed to extend through upper plate 44 at a radial position such that bores 48 are aligned with passage 24 in flow directing plate 18 as valve rotor 36 is driven in rotation.

Valve rotor 36 substantially fills chamber 28, and thus substantially all water passing through flow directing plate 18 either via passage 24 or passages 26 passes into the interior of valve rotor 36 either through bore 48 or through the spaces between turbine blades 46. A valve port 50 is cut through bottom valve 43 of valve rotor 36 to accommodate flow of water from the interior of rotor 36. As best seen in FIG. 6, valve port 50 is shaped in the form of an annular segment coaxial with the axis of rotation of rotor 36.

As best seen in FIG. 4, the discharge bores or orifices 32 in bottom plate 30 are located in three symmetrically arranged groups about the central axis of orifice fitting 16, the groups of orifices 32 all falling within the annular path of movement traversed by valve port 50 of valve rotor 36. The radial extent of annular valve port 50 is selected to radially overlap the various groups of orifices 32, while the angular extent of port 50 is equal to 360 divided by the number of individual groups of orifices. In the embodiment shown in the drawings, three groups of orifices are employed, and therefore the angular extent of port 50 is 120.

With this relationship, the number of individual bores 32 which are in alignment with valve port 50 remains constant at all times, regardless of the rotative position of port 50, thus exerting a constant back pressure on the supply to achieve a pulsating discharge without creating a pulsating back pressure.

To adjustably apportion the flow from inlet passage 12 between passage 24 and passages 26, a shutter type throttling valve designated generally 52 is employed to act as an adjustable closure for the inlet of passage 24. As best seen in FIGS. 1 and 2, valve 52 includes a shutter like valve member 54 fixedly mounted upon a shaft 56 journaled for rotation in housing portion 14 immediately above plate 18. A valve lever 58 is fixedly mounted upon shaft 14, and by manipulation of lever 58, flow from inlet passage 12 through passage 24 may be adjustably throttled in accordance with the degree by which valve member 54 overlies the upper end of passage 24.

An external casing for the nozzle includes a lower casing member 60 formed with a flange 62 clamped between the lower end of housing portion 14 and a shoulder 64 on orifice fitting 16. A coupling ring 66 is detachably mounted upon the upper end of lower casing member 60. Ring 66 is formed with an inwardly projecting ear 68 which forms a sliding support for actuating lever 58, ring 66 being notched to accommodate movement of lever 58. An upper casing member 70 engages the upper surface of ring 66 and is formed with an internally threaded sleeve 72 at its upper end for engagement with of main connector tube 10. A downwardly facing conical seat 74 at the upper end of upper casing 70 is employed to detachably couple a pivot ball adapter 76 of conventional construction to the upper end of main connector tube 10.

In use as a showerhead, the spray nozzle is coupled, by means of pivot ball adapter 76, to a supply conduit (not shown) in the same manner as a conventional showerhead. The temperature and pressure of water flowing into inlet 12 from the supply conduit via pivot ball 76 are adjusted in the conventional manner.

Referring now to the schematic diagram of FIG. 5, water from inlet passage 12 passes through the stationary flow directing plate 18 either via passage 24 or inclined passages 26. The direction and location of passages 26 is such that water flowing through passages 26 is discharged to impinge on the inclined blades 46 of valve rotor 36, thus causing the valve rotor to rotate at a velocity which is dependent upon-the velocity at which water is discharged from passages 26. Water which does not pass through passages 26 must pass through passage 24 and thence through bores 48 in the rotating rotor 36. Because the water which passes through passage 24 and the various aligned passages 48 is moving only in an axial direction, flow through passages 24 and 48 bypasses the turbine blades and does not exert any effect on the rotating valve rotor 36, except possibly to exert a slight drag or resistance to rotation of the rotor.

The rotative speed of rotor 36 may be adjusted independently of the supply pressure by adjusting the degree to which valve member 54 overlies passage 24. Passage 24 may most conveniently be considered to be an adjustable venting orifice for venting the pressure withing inlet passage 12. By increasingly restricting or closing the inlet of passage 24 by valve member 54, the pressure exerted on flow through the remaining passages 26 is increased, thus increasing the rotary velocity of valve rotor 36 due to the increased velocity of water discharged from passages 26.

As explained above, by arranging the discharge orifices 32 f the nozzle in like symmetrically disposed groups and making the angular extent of valve port 50 equal to 360 divided by the number of groups, the number of individual orifices 32 uncovered by valve port 50 at any given instant remains the same, and hence the total area available as a discharge flow passage remained constant. However, the rotating valve port 50 opens and closes the respective groups of orifices 32 successively as port 50 is driven in rotation thus intermittently interrupting the stream flowing from each individual orifice 32. This intermittent cyclic interruption of each of the individual streams from the nozzle produces a pulsating action on the surface or area of the body against which the stream is directed.

In the embodiment shown in the FIGS. 1-6, the nozzle is shown with three groups of orifices 32 and with the angular extent of valve port 50 thus being 120. This particular arrangement may be considered to be a preferred one, although this preference is based on the rather subjective test of what appeared to be the most pleasant massaging action. In the case where the number of discharge orifices 32 was increased to cover the entire annular band traversed by the valve port, the resulting effect was similar to that which might be achieved by moving a conventional showerhead in a circular path. With the three groups of orifices and the 120 valve port, the stream from each individual orifice 32 is turned on for one-third of a revolution of the valve rotor and turned off during the remaining two-thirds of the revolution. This ratio of on time to off time produces a definite pulsating sensation which apparently spreads over an area somewhat greater than that actually struck by the stream. By spacing the groups of orifices from each other it appears that the impact of the streams from adjacent groups are sensed independently from each other in a manner which feels more like a pulsating stationary stream than as a continuously moving continuous stream.

Variation of the rate of pulsation by adjustment of shutter valve 52 may be modified further by the degree to which orifice fitting 16 is tightened into housing portion 14 to thus vary the frictional resistance to rotation of valve rotor 36.

A modified form of spray nozzle is disclosed in FIGS. 7 and 8 which differs from th previously described embodiment by a modification to the valve rotor. Because ofthe offset location of valve port 50 in bottom wall 43 of valve rotor 36 of the embodiment of FIGS. 1 through 6, the forces developed by the pressure of water against bottom wall 43 are not uniformly applied about the axis of rotation. These unbalanced forces applied to that portion of bottom wall 43 diametrically opposite valve port 50 tend to tilt valve rotor 36 about its axis in a direction lifting that portion of bottom wall 43 through which valve port 50 passes upwardly away from the lower end wall of orifice fitting l6, while at the same time pressing the diametrically opposite portion of bottom wall 43 downwardly against the lower end wall of fitting 16. Over a period of time, the underside of bottom wall 43 opposite valve port 50 can become worn, thus permitting even further tilting of the rotor.

The embodiment of FIGS. 7 and 8 is designed to minimize wear resulting from the application of the unbalanced force described above. Because the modification of FIGS. 7 and 8 involves primarily a change in the shape of bottom wall 43 and the addition of a floating wear plate, only the housing and valve rotor have been illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8, it being understood that the remaining structure of the showerhead will be identical to that of the embodiment of FIGS. 1 through 6. In FIGS. 7 and 8, parts common to the FIG. 1 through 6 embodiment have been identified by employing the same reference numerals with a subscript 0 added.

Referring now to FIGS. 7 and 8, in this embodiment, bottom wall 43a is formed with an upwardly offset portion which extends circumferentially of the rotor for approximately 240 between shoulders 82 (FIG. 8). That portion of bottom wall 43a through which valve port 50a extends is stepped downwardly from offset portion 80 so that when valve rotor 36a is mounted within orifice fitting 16, only portion 84 is in face-toface contact with the inner surface of the fitting end wall, while portion 80 of bottom wall 43a is spaced upwardly above the fitting end wall. To assist in supporting valve rotor 36a coaxially within fitting 16a, a floating wear plate 86 is placed within fitting 16a to ride within the recess between shoulders 82. Wear plate'86 is preferably formed from a material having a low coefficient of friction, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, and, upon rotation of rotor 36a, which. is driven in rotation with the rotor by one of the shoulders 82. Because of its low coefficientof friction, wear of floater 86 is minimized.

Still another form of nozzle is shown in FIGS. 9 and 10 in which the wear problem presented by the unbalanced pressure forces is minimized by applying these forces radially against a shaft bearing. As in the case of the FIG. 7 and 8 embodiment, the embodiment of FIGS. 9 and 10 differs from that of FIG. 1 solely by modification of the valve rotor and orifice fitting, hence much of the structure shown in the FIG. 1 through 6 embodiment has not been duplicated in FIGS. 9 and 10. Structure in the FIG. 9 and 10 embodiment corresponding to that of the FIGS. ll through 6 embodiment is identified by the same reference numerals with the addition of a subscript b".

Referring now to FIGS. 9 and 10, orifice fitting 16b of FIGS. 9 and 10 is modified from that of the previous embodiment by the addition of a stationary adapter member 90 which is fixedly secured within the interior of fitting 16b in overlying relationship with the bottom end wall of the fitting. Adapter 90 is formed with a centrally located hub 92 through which a central bore 94 extends to serve as a bearing for a shaft 96 which forms a portion of the valve rotor of this embodiment.

For each group of discharge orifices 32b, adapter member 90 is formed with a housing portion 98 having an internal chamber 100 which opens radially at an inlet port 101 into bore 94 and which is in communication at its opposite end with an individual group of discharge orifices 32b.

The valve rotor of the FIG. 9 and 10 embodiment consists of an upper wall 44b, similar in construction to the upper wall 44 of the FIG. 1 through 6 embodiment, and a centrally located shaft 96 which is fixedly secured to wall member 44b. Shaft 96 is rotatably received within bore 94 of adapter member 90 and is formed with an axially extending groove 102 which functions as the rotating valve port of the device. As in the previous cases, where discharge orifices 32b are disposed in three symmetrically arranged groups, the angular extent of groove 42 about the rotor axis is 120.

The operational characteristics of the FIG. 9 and I embodiment differ slightly from those of the two previously described embodiments in that the valve port l02b does not act directly upon each individual discharge orifice 32b, but instead controls the flow of water from the supply side to a relatively large chamber 100 which is commonly connected to all of the individual orifices 32b of a given group. Thus, as distinguished from the common characteristic of the two previously described embodiments, in the FIG. 9 and lit) embodiment, the number of individual orifices in communication with the supply side of the rotating valve can vary from a minimum of an entire single group of orifices when only one inlet port 101 is exposed to valve port 102 to two entire groups or orifices when valve port 102 partially uncovers each of two adjacent inlet ports 101. Inlet ports 101 are all of like dimensions and are symmetrically disposed about the circumference of bore 94 on 120 centers. Thus, the total area of inlet port in communication with valve port 102 remains constant at all times to present a constant cross sectional flow area which eliminates a pulsation in the back pressure exerted on the supply by the nozzle. Although the total ultimate outlet area presented by discharge orifices 32b can vary, the resistance to flow imposed by the discharge orifices is modulated at the inlet port 101 to maintain the back pressure exerted by the nozzle substantially constant at all times.

The somewhat modified operation of the FIG. 9 and It) embodiment does, however, modify the characteristics of the spray discharged by the nozzle as compared to that discharged by the embodiments of FIGS. ll through 6 and 7 and 8.

In the embodiments of FIGS. 1 through 8, for purposes of explanation it may be considered that each in dividual orifice 32 is either discharging water under full pressure or is not discharging water at all. In the embodiment of FIGS. 9 and 10, on the other hand, the discharge pressure at each individual orifice 32b can vary in dependence upon the total area ofits associated inlet port 101 which is uncovered by valve port I02.

In the embodiments of FIGS. 1 through 8, water is initially discharged from the orifice in a substantially cylindrical slug having a diameter generally corresponding to that of the individual orifice and an axial length dependent upon the period of time over which the orifice is uncovered. As this cylindrical slug of water moves away from the nozzle, air resistance tends to cause the slug to break up into individual droplets, the slug at first tending to try to assume a teardrop shape and at some point bursting or exploding into a group of individual droplets. The distance from the nozzle at which this explosion will occur is dependent to a large extent upon the initial supply pressure and the rate of rotation of the valve rotor. Under what might be termed average conditions of these last two parameters, the explosion will occur at distances in the neighborhood of twelve to eighteen inchesfrom the shower nozzle. The pulsating effect on the body of a person using the shower is most noticeable if the spray does not strike the body until at or after this explosion has occurred. The sensation of a pulsating spray is more apparent under these conditions, because the bulk of each individual slug of water discharged from the nozzle will strike the body simultaneously, while if the slug strikes the body while still in a configuration close to its initial assumed cylindrical form, the period of contact is spread out over a longer time.

In the case of the FIG. 9 and 10 embodiment, the explosion of the individual slug of discharged water appears to occur much closer to the showerhead. This is believed to be due to the fact that the initial portion of the slug is discharged at a relatively low pressure and hence at a relatively low velocity, due to the fact that during the initial portions of the discharge, the associated inlet port 101 is only partially open. As the inlet port 101 is opened wider and wider by the rotating valve port 102, the discharge pressure at the orifice increases, expelling the water at successively higher pressures, and hence higher discharge velocities. Thus, the FIG. 9 and 10 embodiment tends to discharge a slug which almost immediately begins to assume a generally teardrop shape, water discharged during the middle of the discharge cycle being under higher pressure and thus tending to catch up with the initially discharged portions of the slug, while the decreasing discharge pressure at the end of the cycle causes the water to trail out. The explosion of the individual slugs discharged from the FIG. 9 and 10 form of nozzle tends to occur at relatively short distances from the nozzle, i.e., in the neighborhood of 6 inches under pressure and rotor speed conditions which in the FIG. 1 through 8 embodiments would occur at 12 to 18 inches from the nozzle.

While certain embodiments of the invention has been described in detail, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the disclosed embodiments may be modified. Therefore, the foregoing description is to be considered exemplary rather than limiting, and the true scope of the invention is that defined in the following claims.

I claim:

1. A spray nozzle comprising a hollow housing having a fluid inlet at one end, an end wall at the opposite end of said housing, said end wall having a plurality of fluid discharge orifices extending therethrough in a symmetrical pattern about a central axis of said housing, a valve member mounted in said housing for rotation about said axis at a location between said inlet and said end wall, said valve member having a valve port establishing fluid communication between said inlet and a portion only of said orifices at all rotative positions of said valve member, flow passage meansin said housing between said inlet and said valve port having separate first and second flow passages for conducting fluid from said inlet to said port, turbine means on said valve member for driving said valve member in rotation in response to the flow of fluid through said first flow passage, and control means for adjustably throttling flow through one of said flow passages to thereby vary the portion of the total flow which passes through said first flow passage.

2. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 1 wherein said flow passage means comprises a plate extending across the interior of said housing normal to said axis between said inlet and said valve member, said valve member having an annular upper wall member disposed in substantially face to face relationship with the side of said plate remote from said inlet, and an annular series of circumferentially spaced turbine blades in said upper wall member defining said turbine means, said first flow passage being defined by a plurality of axially inclined bores extending through said plate tangentially of said axis in operative alignment with said blades.

3. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 2 wherein said second flow passage extends axially through said plate, said upper wall member having axial passages therethrough rotatable in a path aligned with said second flow passage.

4. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 3 wherein said control means comprises a valve shutter movable across the surface of said plate adjacent said inlet into and out of overlying relationship with said second flow passage.

5. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 1 wherein said valve member comprises a hollow generally cylindrical member coaxial with said axis and having a downstream end wall located in adjacent face to face relationship with the inner surface of said end wall of said housing, said valve port being constituted by an opening through said downstream end wall in the shape of a segment of an annulus coaxial with said axis, said discharge orifices being located in axial alignment with the annular path traversed by said valve port upon rotation of said valve member.

6. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 5 wherein said discharge orifices are arranged in a plurality of like groups circumferentially uniformly spaced from each other, the angular extent and spacing between the groups or orifices being related to the angular extent of said valve port such that the number of discharge orifices aligned with said valve port remains constant over all rotative positions of said valve member.

7. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 5 wherein said downstream end wall includes a first portion located in substantially face to face engagement with the inner surface of said end wall of said housing and a second portion axially offset from said first portion, said valve port passing through said first portion of said downstream end wall and said first portion terminating at generally radially extending shoulders adjacent the opposite ends of said valve port, and a floating wear plate slidably engaged between said second portion of said downstream end wall and the inner surface of said housing end wall.

8. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 7 wherein said discharge orifices are arranged in a plurality of like groups circumferentially uniformly spaced from each other, the angular extent and spacing between the groups of orifices being related to the angular extent of said valve port such that the number of discharge orifices aligned with said valve port remains constant over all rotative positions of said valve member.

9. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 1 wherein said valve member comprises a shaft coaxial with said axis, stationary hub means in said housing having a bore therein rotatably receiving said shaft, means defining a plurality of internal chambers in said hub means having inlet ports symmetrically spaced about and opening into said bore, each of said chambers communicating with a group of said discharge orifices, said valve port being located on said shaft to communicate with said inlet port and having an angular extent about said axis such that only a portion of said inlet ports are in com munication with said valve port at any given rotative position of said shaft.

10. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 9 wherein said discharge orifices are arranged in a plurality of groups uniformly spaced from each other within an annular band coaxial with said axis, each group of said orifices communicating with one of said chambers.

11. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 9 wherein said inlet ports are of uniform configuration and angular spacing from each other, the angular extent of said valve port being equal to the angular spacing of said inlet ports.

12. A spray nozzle comprising a housing having an internal chamber defined in part by a first wall of said housing, means defining a plurality of discharge orifices extending through said first wall from said chamber and arranged in a plurality of groups uniformly spaced from each other within an annular band having a central axis, a valve member mounted within said chamber for rotation about said central axis means defining a valve port in said valve member offset from said axis and establishing fluid communication between said chamber and a segment of said annular band to place said groups of orifices successively in communication with said chamber upon rotation of said valve member, coupling means defining an inlet to said chamber and operable to couple said nozzle to a source of fluid under pres sure, means in said housing defining a first and a second flow passage for conducting fluid from said inlet to said discharge orifices via said port, drive means coupled to said valve member in rotation in response to the flow of fluid through said first flow passage, and control means for adjustably throttling flow through said second passage.

13. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 12 wherein said valve member comprises a hollow cylindrical tube having a first end wall at one end complementary in shape to the inner side of said first wall of said housing, said valve port passing through said first end wall, a turbine wheel having an annular series of blades constituting said drive means fixedly mounted within the opening at the opposite end of said tube, and means defining a series of axially extending openings through said wheel constituting a portion of said second flow passage.

14. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 13 wherein said valve member is mounted for rotation with a cylindrical portion of an annular conduit sealingly secured at one end to said first wall of said housing, the opposite end of said conduit being in direct fluid communication with said inlet, a plate fixedly mounted within said conduit adjacent said turbine wheel, said plate having a first series of inclined openings therethrough aligned with the blades of said turbine wheel and constituting said first flow passage, said axially extending openings in said wheel being at a common radial distance from the center of said wheel, and means defining an axially extending opening through said plate at said common radial distance from the center of said plate and constituting the remaining portion of said second flow passage.

15. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 14 wherein said control means comprises a shutter like valve member adjustably movable across said axially extending opening in said plate.

Claims (15)

1. A spray nozzle comprising a hollow housing having a fluid inlet at one end, an end wall at the opposite end of said housing, said end wall having a plurality of fluid discharge orifices extending therethrough in a symmetrical pattern about a central axis of said housing, a valve member mounted in said housing for rotation about said axis at a location between said inlet and said end wall, said valve member having a valve port establishing fluid communication between said inlet and a portion only of said orifices at all rotative positions of said valve member, flow passage means in said housing between said inlet and said valve port having separate first and second flow passages for conducting fluid from said inlet to said port, turbine means on said valve member for driving said valve member in rotation in response to the flow of fluid through said first flow passage, and control means for adjustably throttling flow through one of said flow passages to thereby vary the portion of the total flow which passes through said first flow passage.
2. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 1 wherein said flow passage means comprises a plate extending across the interior of said housing normal to said axis between said inlet and said valve member, said valve member having an annular upper wall member disposed in substantially face to face relationship with the side of said plate remote from said inlet, and an annular series of circumferentially spaced turbine blades in said upper wall member defining said turbine means, said first flow passage being defined by a plurality of axially inclined bores extending through said plate tangentially of said axis in operative alignment with said blades.
3. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 2 wherein said second flow passage extends axially through said plate, said upper wall member having axial passages therethrough rotatable in a path aligned with said second flow passage.
4. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 3 wherein said control means comprises a valve shutter movable across the surface of said plate adjacent said inlet into and out of overlying relationship with said second flow passage.
5. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 1 wherein said valve member comprises a hollow generally cylindrical member coaxial with said axis and having a downstream end wall located in adjacent face to face relationship with the inner surface of said end wall of said housing, said valve port being constituted by an opening through said downstream end wall in the shape of a segment of an annulus coaxial with said axis, said discharge orifices being located in axial alignment with the annular path traversed by said valve port upon rotation of said valve member.
6. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 5 wherein said discharge orifices are arranged in a plurality of like groups circumferentially uniformly spaced from each other, the angular extent and spacing between the groups or orifices being related to the angular extent of said valve port such that the number of discharge orifices aligned with said valve port remains constant over all rotative positions of said valve member.
7. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 5 wherein said downstream end wall includes a first portion located in substantially face to face engagement with the inner surface of said end wall of said housing and a second portion axially offset from said first portion, said valve port passing through said first portion of said downstream end wall and said first portion terminating at generally radially extending shoulders adjacent the opposite ends of said valve port, and a floating wear plate slidably engaged between said second portion of said downstream end wall and the inner surface of said housing end wall.
8. A spray nozzle as defiNed in claim 7 wherein said discharge orifices are arranged in a plurality of like groups circumferentially uniformly spaced from each other, the angular extent and spacing between the groups of orifices being related to the angular extent of said valve port such that the number of discharge orifices aligned with said valve port remains constant over all rotative positions of said valve member.
9. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 1 wherein said valve member comprises a shaft coaxial with said axis, stationary hub means in said housing having a bore therein rotatably receiving said shaft, means defining a plurality of internal chambers in said hub means having inlet ports symmetrically spaced about and opening into said bore, each of said chambers communicating with a group of said discharge orifices, said valve port being located on said shaft to communicate with said inlet port and having an angular extent about said axis such that only a portion of said inlet ports are in communication with said valve port at any given rotative position of said shaft.
10. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 9 wherein said discharge orifices are arranged in a plurality of groups uniformly spaced from each other within an annular band coaxial with said axis, each group of said orifices communicating with one of said chambers.
11. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 9 wherein said inlet ports are of uniform configuration and angular spacing from each other, the angular extent of said valve port being equal to the angular spacing of said inlet ports.
12. A spray nozzle comprising a housing having an internal chamber defined in part by a first wall of said housing, means defining a plurality of discharge orifices extending through said first wall from said chamber and arranged in a plurality of groups uniformly spaced from each other within an annular band having a central axis, a valve member mounted within said chamber for rotation about said central axis means defining a valve port in said valve member offset from said axis and establishing fluid communication between said chamber and a segment of said annular band to place said groups of orifices successively in communication with said chamber upon rotation of said valve member, coupling means defining an inlet to said chamber and operable to couple said nozzle to a source of fluid under pressure, means in said housing defining a first and a second flow passage for conducting fluid from said inlet to said discharge orifices via said port, drive means coupled to said valve member in rotation in response to the flow of fluid through said first flow passage, and control means for adjustably throttling flow through said second passage.
13. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 12 wherein said valve member comprises a hollow cylindrical tube having a first end wall at one end complementary in shape to the inner side of said first wall of said housing, said valve port passing through said first end wall, a turbine wheel having an annular series of blades constituting said drive means fixedly mounted within the opening at the opposite end of said tube, and means defining a series of axially extending openings through said wheel constituting a portion of said second flow passage.
14. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 13 wherein said valve member is mounted for rotation with a cylindrical portion of an annular conduit sealingly secured at one end to said first wall of said housing, the opposite end of said conduit being in direct fluid communication with said inlet, a plate fixedly mounted within said conduit adjacent said turbine wheel, said plate having a first series of inclined openings therethrough aligned with the blades of said turbine wheel and constituting said first flow passage, said axially extending openings in said wheel being at a common radial distance from the center of said wheel, and means defining an axially extending opening through said plate at said common radial distance from the center of said plate and constituting the remaining portion of said second flow passage.
15. A spray nozzle as defined in claim 14 wherein said control means comprises a shutter like valve member adjustably movable across said axially extending opening in said plate.
US00264959A 1972-06-21 1972-06-21 Spray nozzle Expired - Lifetime US3762648A (en)

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AT (1) AT333417B (en)
BE (1) BE801179A (en)
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DE (1) DE2329258B2 (en)
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US3967783A (en) * 1975-07-14 1976-07-06 Chicago Specialty Manufacturing Company Shower spray apparatus
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US4081135A (en) * 1976-06-11 1978-03-28 Conair Corporation Pulsating shower head
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
NL169555B (en) 1982-03-01
HK12077A (en) 1977-03-11
JPS4964006A (en) 1974-06-21
NO132673C (en) 1975-12-17
CH561085A5 (en) 1975-04-30
FR2190024A5 (en) 1974-01-25
IT985716B (en) 1974-12-20
DE2329258B2 (en) 1976-06-24
SE394250B (en) 1977-06-20
AT333417B (en) 1976-11-25
CA986162A1 (en)
DE2329258A1 (en) 1974-01-17
NL169555C (en) 1982-08-02
NO132673B (en) 1975-09-08
ATA543973A (en) 1976-03-15
CA986162A (en) 1976-03-23
GB1430123A (en) 1976-03-31
IE38211L (en) 1973-12-21
BE801179A1 (en)
BE801179A (en) 1973-10-15
JPS525368B2 (en) 1977-02-12
NL7307953A (en) 1973-12-27
IE38211B1 (en) 1978-01-18

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