US3759448A - Simplified flat spray fuel nozzle - Google Patents

Simplified flat spray fuel nozzle Download PDF

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US3759448A
US3759448A US3759448DA US3759448A US 3759448 A US3759448 A US 3759448A US 3759448D A US3759448D A US 3759448DA US 3759448 A US3759448 A US 3759448A
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fuel
slot
air
nozzle
tip
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Expired - Lifetime
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S Watkins
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Avco Corp
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Avco Corp
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • F23D11/10Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space the spraying being induced by a gaseous medium, e.g. water vapour
    • F23D11/12Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space the spraying being induced by a gaseous medium, e.g. water vapour characterised by the shape or arrangement of the outlets from the nozzle
    • F23D11/14Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space the spraying being induced by a gaseous medium, e.g. water vapour characterised by the shape or arrangement of the outlets from the nozzle with a single outlet, e.g. slit

Abstract

A flat spray fuel nozzle comprising a generally spherical tip with an elongated fuel discharge slot extending from a spherical chamber. A fuel splitter is adjustably positioned in the chamber, by means of a sleeve-like shim, to divert and reunite fuel at the slot to increase turbulence. An air shroud surrounds the exterior of the tip and has a discharge slot in line with the slot in the tip. A splitter element is positioned in the shroud so that air passing through the shroud is divided into separate streams which impinge on either side of the liquid film adjacent the fuel slot to further increase atomization of the fuel.

Description

United States Patent 1191 Watkins [111 3,759,448 14 1 Sept. 18,1973

[ SIMPLIFIED FLAT SPRAY FUEL NOZZLE Primary Examiner-Richard A. Schacher [75] Inventor: Sidney c:wmngnfisgssaaf Conn. [57] ABSTRACT [73] Assignee: Avco Corporation, Stritford, Conn. A fl t Spray f l nozzle comprising a generany Spheri l 1 1972 cal tip with an elongated fuel discharge slot extending [22] Flled Sept from a spherical chamber. A fuel splitter is adjustably PP 289,419 positioned in the chamber, by means of a sleeve-like shim, to divert and-reunite fuel at the slot to increase F i gl turbulence. An air shroud surrounds the exterior of the 2 d 419 5 597 tip and has a discharge slot in line with the slot in the l 0 ea c tip. A splitter element is positioned in the shroud so [56] References Cited that air passing through the shroud is divided into sepa- UNITED STATES PATENTS rate streams which impinge on either side of the liquid 2 722 45:; 11/1955 Wahlin 239/597 film adjacent h fuel further increase ammiza' 3:590:3l8 6/1971 Probst 239/597 x 0f the fuel- 1 8 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures 28K 30 59 8O 7 52 56 r 38 1/ /x I e 82 62% l 48 86 s\ so I IN I]! II 74 72 42 54 44 SIMPLIFIED FLAT SPRAY FUEL NOZZLE The present invention relates to nozzles and more specifically to flat spray fuel nozzles.

In recent years annular combustor development in the gas turbine art has necessitated the use of fuel nozzles having an extremely flat spray pattern so as to effectively distribute the fuel around the annulus of a combustor with a minimum of nozzles. An excellent example of this type of nozzle may be found in copending application Ser. No. 95,193 filed on Dec. 4, 1970, and now US. Pat. No. 3,702,175, entitled Flat Spray Fuel Nozzle, Sidney C. Watkins, inventor, and of common assignment with the present invention. This application illustrates a nozzle which achieves a properly atomized flat spray by the useof a bar adjustably positioned relative to an elongated slot. However, there are certain instances in which it is desirable to obtain an even greater atomization within a more simplified and compact nozzle assembly.

Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a flat spray fuel nozzle that is relatively compact, economical to manufacture, and has a high degree of atomization over a wide range of flow rates.

These ends are achieved by a fuel nozzle having a nozzle body with a fuel flow path to a spherical chamber within a tip. An elongated fuel discharge slot formed in the tip permits fuel to be discharged in a flat spray pattern. A splitter element is supported within the chamber adjacent the slot by a splitter assembly having a flange adjacent a shoulder formed within the nozzle body. A sleeve-like shim is sandwiched between the flange and the shoulder and has an adjustable axial dimension so that the splitter element is adjustably positioned relative to the slot for optimum fuel distribution.

The above and other related objects and features of the present invention will be apparent from a reading of the description of the disclosure shown in the accompanying drawing and the novelty thereof pointed out in the appended claims.

In the drawing:

FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a nozzle assembly embodying the present invention; and

FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view of the nozzle assembly of FIG. 1 taken on line 2--2 of FIG. 1.

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2 there'is shown a fuel nozzle 28 embodying the present invention. The nozzle 28 comprises an outer housing 30 having a suitable connector 32 for receiving a supply of pressurized fuel. Housing 30 has a central bore 34. A hemispherical tip 40 is threaded or jointed onto the downstream end 42 of housing 30 and has a central passage 44 extending A splitter assembly 50 is received in a bore 52 in tip tioned in hemispherical chamber 46 at a predetermined distance from the fuel slot 48 by the shim 58. As noted particularly in FIG. 2, the edge of splitter element 64 has sharp corners to promote turbulence. It should be noted that other configurations for the edge may also be used.

A tube-like porous filter element 66 is telescoped over a neck 68 on the upstream end of splitter assembly and has a plug 70 in its upstream end so that fuel from inlet 32 must pass inwardly through element 66 to the central passage 60.

Housing 30 has a reduced diameter 72 adjacent its outlet end and has a shoulder 74 over which a shroud 76 is telescoped. Shroud 76 has a. downstream cap 78 generally conforming to the hemispherical exterior shape of the tip 40 in the plane of fuel slot 48, as shown in FIG. 1. In a plane 90 with respect to the slot 48, the cap has a straight configuration, as shown in FIG. 2. Inlets 80 provide an entrance for pressurized air into the interior of shroud 76. A sheet-like splitter element 82 is secured to the interior of shroud 76 to divert air in shroud 76 into two streams in the same plane as that for the splitter 64 as shown in FIG. 2. Splitter element 82 is deformable and has a central hole telescoped over a boss 85 formed adjacent the ends of fuel slot 48. Corners 49, formed by the straight configuration of cap 78, provide sufficient flow area around the splitter element to enable the air streams to flow against one another adjacent the fuel slot 48. From there both the fuel from fuel slot 48 and the air in shroud 76 flows out of a slot 86 in the cap 78 of shroud 76. Air-fuel slot 86 is formed in thesame plane as that for fuel slot 48. Splitter element 82 may be bent toward or away from slot 86 a limited amount to provide maximum performance as later described.

In operation, fuel flows from inlet port 32 inward through screen 66 and into passage 60 where it is split into two separate streams by ports 62. The fuel streams pass alongside splitter element 64 and then impinge on oneanother with a substantial degree of turbulence at i the slot 48. This provides a substantial breaking up of energy from the air to the fuel flowing from slot 48. The

40.,Splitter assembly 50 has a radial flange 54 sancl position of splitter element82 may be adjusted to provide an optimum transfer of energy. The resultant discharge passes from slot 86 in a flat spray pattern having a high degree of atomization.

The splitter assembly 50 enables the nozzle to operate over a wide range of flow rates, including very low flow rates while maintaining a high degree of atomization. Splitter assembly 50 may be easily positioned relative to the slot 48 by meansof the shim 58. Furthermore, the splitter element 82 may be easily adjusted by a simple bending-operation.

The simplified constructionof the above fuel nozzle results in a substantial reduction in manufacturing costs but still maintains anoptirnum predictable spray pattern over a wide range of flow rates.

While preferred forms of the present invention have been described, it should be apparent to those skilled in the art that fuel nozzles may be employed that are different from those shown without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.

Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as novel and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the U.S. is:

l. A fuel nozzle comprising:

a nozzle body with a fuel flow path therethrough having an inlet for receiving pressurized fuel and an outlet for discharge of fuel from said nozzle body in a spray pattern;

said nozzle body including a generally hemispherical tip at the outlet end thereof and a generally hemispherical chamber within said tip, said hemispherical tip having an elongated fuel slot extending outward from said hemispherical chamber, whereby fuel is discharged in a flat spray pattern, said flow path through said nozzle body having a shoulder formed therein at a given distance from said slot;

a fuel splitter element positioned within said chamber with the longitudinal axis of its edge lying generally in the plane of said fuel slot for diverting the fuel flow into separate streams and reuniting the streams against one another adjacent said fuel slot thereby maximizing turbulence and atomization of the fuel, said fuel splitter element being supported by a splitter assembly having a flange adjacent said shoulder; and

a sleeve-like shim sandwiched between said flange and said shoulder, said shim having an adjacent axial dimension so as to adjustably position said flange and said fuel splitter element relative to'said fuel slot thereby producing a predetermined distribution of fuel discharged from said nozzle.

2. A fuel nozzle as in claim 1 wherein the edge of said fuel splitter element has sharp corners to maximize turbulence.

3. A fuel nozzle as in claim 2 wherein:

said splitter assembly has a central passage from a point upstream of said flange through said flange and a pair of passages extending downstream from said central passage to opposite sides of said fuel splitter element;

said fuel nozzle further comprises a screen element positioned over the upstream end of said central passage and within said fuel nozzle, said screen being generally tubular in form.

4. A fuel nozzle as in claim 2 further comprising:

an air splitter element secured to the interior of said shroud for dividing air flowing between the tip and the interior of said shroud into separate streams in the same plane as that for said fuel splitter, said streams reuniting at said fuel-air slot.

5. A fuel nozzle as in claim 4 wherein said air splitter element is an elongated sheet-like element secured to the interior of said shroud and has a central opening telescoped over a boss formed on said tip adjacent said fuel-slot.

6. A fuel nozzle as in claim 5 wherein said air splitter element is deformable toward and away from said airfuel slot to optimize the atomization of said fuel.

7. A fuel nozzle as in claim 6 wherein said shroud has a cap generally conforming to the hemispherical tip in the plane of said fuel and said air-fuel slots, said cap being straight in the plane ninety degrees with respect to said first-mentioned plane to form comers on opposite sides of said air splitter element thereby increasing the flow area around said air splitter element.

8. A fuel nozzle as in claim 1 further comprising:

an outer shroud positioned over and spaced from said tip, said shroud having at least one inlet for pressurized air and an elongated air-fuel slot in the same plane as the fuel slot whereby energy is transferred from the air to said fuel to further increase atomization.

Claims (8)

1. A fuel nozzle comprising: a nozzle body with a fuel flow path therethrough having an inlet for receiving pressurized fuel and an outlet for discharge of fuel from said nozzle body in a spray pattern; said nozzle body including a generally hemispherical tip at the outlet end thereof and a generally hemispherical chamber within said tip, said hemispherical tip having an elongated fuel slot extending outward from said hemispherical chamber, whereby fuel is discharged in a flat spray pattern, said flow path through said nozzle body having a shoulder formed therein at a given distance from said slot; a fuel splitter element positioned within said chamber with the longitudinal axis of its edge lying generally in the plane of said fuel slot for diverting the fuel flow into separate streams and reuniting the streams against one another adjacent said fuel slot thereby maximizing turbulence and atomization of the fuel, said fuel splitter element being supported by a splitter assembly having a flange adjacent said shoulder; and a sleeve-like shim sandwiched between said flange and said shoulder, said shim having an adjacent axial dimension so as to adjustably position said flange and said fuel splitter element relative to said fuel slot thereby producing a predetermined distribution of fuel discharged from said nozzle.
2. A fuel nozzle as in claim 1 wherein the edge of said fuel splitter element has sharp corners to maximize turbulence.
3. A fuel nozzle as in claim 2 wherein: said splitter assembly has a central passage from a point upstream of said flange through said flange and a pair of passages extending downstream from said central passage to opposite sides of said fuel splitter element; said fuel nozzle further comprises a screen element positioned over the upstream end of said central passage and within said fuel nozzle, said screen being generally tubular in form.
4. A fuel nozzle as in claim 2 further comprising: an air splitter element secured to the interior of said shroud for dividing air flowing between the tip and the interior of said shroud into separate streams in the same plane as that for said fuel splitter, said streams reuniting at said fuel-air slot.
5. A fuel nozzle as in claim 4 wherein said air splitter element is an elongated sheet-like element secured to the interior of said shroud and has a central opening telescoped over a boss formed on said tip adjacent said fuel-slot.
6. A fuel nozzle as in claim 5 wherein said air splitter element is deformable toward and away from said air-fuel slot to optimize the atomization of said fuel.
7. A fuel nozzle as in claim 6 wherein said shroud has a cap generally conforming to the hemispherical tip in the plane of said fuel and said air-fuel slots, said cap being straight in the plane ninety degrees with respect to said first-mentioned plane to form corners on opposite sides of said air splitter element thereby increasing the flow area around said air splitter element.
8. A fuel nozzle as in claim 1 further comprising: an outer shroud positioned over and spaced from said tip, said shroud having at least one inlet for pressurized air and an elongated air-fuel slot in the same plane as the fuel slot whereby energy is transferred from the air to said fuel to further increase atomization.
US3759448D 1972-09-15 1972-09-15 Simplified flat spray fuel nozzle Expired - Lifetime US3759448A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4218020A (en) * 1979-02-23 1980-08-19 General Motors Corporation Elliptical airblast nozzle
US4893754A (en) * 1987-11-13 1990-01-16 Francisco Ruiz Generation of flat liquid sheet and sprays by means of simple cylindrical orifices
WO1999025481A1 (en) * 1997-11-14 1999-05-27 Concast Standard Ag Slit nozzle for spraying a continuous casting product with a cooling liquid
US20120318891A1 (en) * 2011-06-14 2012-12-20 Wu-Chiao Chou Siphon nozzle for air blow gun

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2722458A (en) * 1952-06-02 1955-11-01 Spraying Systems Co Nozzles of flat spray type
US3590318A (en) * 1969-12-08 1971-06-29 Ransburg Electro Coating Corp Powder coating apparatus producing a flat powder spray

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2722458A (en) * 1952-06-02 1955-11-01 Spraying Systems Co Nozzles of flat spray type
US3590318A (en) * 1969-12-08 1971-06-29 Ransburg Electro Coating Corp Powder coating apparatus producing a flat powder spray

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4218020A (en) * 1979-02-23 1980-08-19 General Motors Corporation Elliptical airblast nozzle
US4893754A (en) * 1987-11-13 1990-01-16 Francisco Ruiz Generation of flat liquid sheet and sprays by means of simple cylindrical orifices
WO1999025481A1 (en) * 1997-11-14 1999-05-27 Concast Standard Ag Slit nozzle for spraying a continuous casting product with a cooling liquid
AU733220B2 (en) * 1997-11-14 2001-05-10 Concast Standard A.G. Slot nozzle for spraying a continuous casting product with a cooling liquid
US6360973B1 (en) 1997-11-14 2002-03-26 Concast Standard Ag Slot nozzle for spraying a continuous casting product with a cooling liquid
US20120318891A1 (en) * 2011-06-14 2012-12-20 Wu-Chiao Chou Siphon nozzle for air blow gun

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