US3474970A - Air assist nozzle - Google Patents

Air assist nozzle Download PDF

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Publication number
US3474970A
US3474970A US3474970DA US3474970A US 3474970 A US3474970 A US 3474970A US 3474970D A US3474970D A US 3474970DA US 3474970 A US3474970 A US 3474970A
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Prior art keywords
air
fuel
nozzle
spray
pressure
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Expired - Lifetime
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Harold C Simmons
Eugene R Hogg
Roy C Kuhn
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Parker-Hannifin Corp
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Parker-Hannifin Corp
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • F23D11/10Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space the spraying being induced by a gaseous medium, e.g. water vapour
    • F23D11/106Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space the spraying being induced by a gaseous medium, e.g. water vapour medium and fuel meeting at the burner outlet
    • F23D11/107Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space the spraying being induced by a gaseous medium, e.g. water vapour medium and fuel meeting at the burner outlet at least one of both being subjected to a swirling motion
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D2900/00Special features of, or arrangements for burners using fluid fuels or solid fuels suspended in a carrier gas
    • F23D2900/11101Pulverising gas flow impinging on fuel from pre-filming surface, e.g. lip atomizers

Description

SPRAY coNE MEAN DROP SIZE ocr. 2s, 1969 HESIMMNS ETAE 3,474,970

AIR ASSIST NOZZLE Filed March i5, 1967 r E 8o A|R ASSnST i zs SPRAY "QZZLE PRESSURE oPERATEo .x 7o, SPRAY NozzLE SOL PRESSURE oPERATEo s 200k SPRAY NOZZLE V00@ 8 Ill z :u o co r m g u 5 E '0' A|R ASSIST '5 SPRAY nozzLE 2o J f E m D FUEL PRESSURE w (Bom GASES) d D 0g 25 5o loo zNvENToRs FUEL FLOW RATE (PPH) EUGENE R. H066 ROY C. KUHN HAROLD c. SIMMONS l E ATTORNEYSvv United States Patent O U.S. Cl. 239-404 5 Claims ABSTRACT 0F THE DISCLOSURE Nozzle for spraying liquids especially fuel for use in aircraft gas turbines and the like. Nozzle is of air assist type characterized by merging of concentric conical air stream and conical fuel sheet at exit oriiice of nozzle.

The present invention relates as indicated to a nozzle and particularly to a fuel nozzle of the air assist type for gas turbine and like application.

'Ihe nozzle herein is in the class of liquid spraying devices in which some or all of the energy required to atomize and to disperse the spray is supplied by a second fluid, such as air. Such devices take many forms with a variety of arrangements of liquid and gas passages and the gas pressures which are employed may be as high 4as several hundred pounds per square inch. In contrast, the present nozzle may be termed a low pressure atomizer because the air pressure required for efiicient atomization ranges only from about 1/2 to 10 p.s.i. which pressure is especially suited for use in aircraft gas turbines in view of the diiiiculty and expense of providing a source of high pressure air especially under high altitude conditions.

One disadvantage of known air operated spraying devices is that the spray is concentrated in a stream of relatively small included cone angle, i.e., less than 60, whereas, in combustion applications generally, as well as in other fields of -application such as spray drying, it is necessary to produce sprays having included cone angles of the order of 90 or greater.

A known advantage of air atomizing or spraying devices is the capability of atomizing liquids of relatively higher viscosities than can conveniently be atomized by using conventional liquid pressure operated devices. In addition, because it is unnecessary to use high liquid supply pressures, the liquid passage dimensions can be made larger than otherwise required for a given flow rate, and thus the problems of clogging of passages with contaminants is minimized.

Accordingly, it is a principal object of this invention to provide an air assist nozzle which, when employed for spraying fuel for combustion engines, achieves good atomization of fuels having a wide range of viscosities', including fuels which are quite viscous at low temperatures as would be involved in high altitude flights.

It is another object of this invention to provide an air assist nozzle which improves the quality of atomization, i.e., the iineness of the spray, at very low fuel flow rates.

It is another object of this invention to provide an air assist nozzle which produces a hollow conical spray pattern of large included angle, and further, with capability of ready adjustment of the spray angle.

It is another object of this invention to provide an air assist nozzle which is economical to operate in terms of both low air pressure and low air ow rate while yet achieving good atomzation.

It is another object of this invention to provide an air assist nozzle which enables the use of relatively large "ice size -fuel passages in order to minimize problems resulting from fuel contamination.

It is another object of this invention to provide an air assist nozzle which has a very wide useful fuel flow range of, for example, :1 as colnpared with the usual 4:1 range obtainable with liquid pressure operated nozzles.

Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent as the following description proceeds.

To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, the invention, then, comprises the features hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims, the following description and the annexed drawing setting forth in detail a certain illustrative embodiment of the invention, this being indicative, however, of but one of the various ways in which the principle of the invention may be employed.

In said annexed drawing: v

FIG. l is an elevation view of a fuel nozzle embodying the present invention as mounted on an air-fuel manifold;

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary cross-section view on much enlarged scale taken substantially along the line 2-2, FIG. 1; and

FIG. 3 are comparative graphs of performance characteristics of the present air assist nozzle and a fuel pressure operated nozzle (without air assist).

Referring now more particularly to the drawing, the nozzle 1 herein is mounted in a dual manifold 2 for supplying air and fuel into the respective passages 3 and 4 in the nozzle 1. The nozzle 1 herein shown comprises tubular body and nozzle members 5 and 6 defining therebetween the air passage 3. The nozzle member 6 has, in the fuel passage 4 thereof, a swirl member 7 provided with slots 8 which are disposed at an angle to the axis of the vortex chamber 9 so as to produce a swirling fuel ilow having the general characteristics of a free vortex. The fuel is discharged through the orifice 10 which is coaxial with the vortex chamber 9, the discharge orifice 10 being extended as shown in the direction of fuel Vdischarge in a substantially conical lip 11 terminating in a sharp edge 12.

Surrounding the vortex chamber 9 is the annular air passage 3 the inner and outer walls of which converge conically through swirl producing vanes or slots 14 in nozzle member 6 to a minimum diameter and then flares conically outward. The air flow is further guided by the lip 15 which is concentric with the vortex chamber discharge orifice 10 and terminates in the sharp edge 16.

The cross-section area for air flow is designed to be continually 4decreasing until the point 17 is reached and this is made as close as is practical to the edge 12 of the fuel discharge orice 10. Accordingly, the highest air velocity is produced at the point 17, and the shape of the surface 15, in conjunction with the use of swirl slots 14 produces an air ow discharge characterized as tending to follow the surface of a cone. It should be noted that the included angles of the lips 11 and 15 are sub'- Stantially the same.

In operation, when fuel enters the vortex chamber A9, a vortex is formed having an air core as shown and the fuel discharges from the orifice 10 as a hollow conical sheet which is constrained to flow along the lip 11 and leave ythe edge 12 as a very thin conical sheet. At this point the thin conical sheet of fuel is immediately acted upon by the high velocity air stream and broken into a supplyfof small dropsl which continue under the combined momentum of the fuel and air streams to follow a substantially conical path until acted upon by other forces such as air turbulence. By these means, advantage is taken of the natural property of the vortex chamber 9 of tending to produce a conical sheet of fuel andthe air is employed to constitute the break-up mechanism in producing a spray from the sheet.

A further important feature of the present invention is that when a high viscosity fuel is used at relatively low fuel pressure, the fuel issuing from the discharge orifice 10 has insufficient momentum to follow a conical path, but herein the high velocity air as it passes the point 17, acts in effect as a venturi in which, by reason of the lowering of static pressure due to high air velocity, the fuel is sucked outward following lips 11 and 15, and is atomized by the air stream. This characteristic is demonstrated in FIG. 3 which shows that the supply cone angle can be maintained by the air assist nozzle 1 down to very low fuel flow rates. In fact, this flow rate is far below the point at which a conventional fuel pressure operated nozzle ceases to produce a recognizably conical discharge.

In the design of the fuel vortex chamber 9 the inlet passage 4 and discharge orifice 10 dimensions can be chosen without regard to the atomizing process. In other words, the dimensions can be maximized and low fuel spray pressures employed. The geometry and sizes of the air flow passage 3 do not appear to be critical until the point 17 is reached and it has been found that the width ofthe air annulus at point 17 should rbe of the same order of magnitude as the dimensions of the fuel inlet slots 8 thus indicating no greater precision to be required in the manufacture of the air passages 3, and 14 than in the parts of the fuel vortex chamber 9. The effectiveness of this nozzle 1 in producing finely atomized sprays is due to the high kinetic energy of the air stream. Por example, for equal flow rates of air and fuel and an equal pressure drop for lboth fluids the kinetic energy of the air can be shown to be about 600 times greater than the fuel. In a specific example, therefore, where it is required to atomize a fuel flow rate of 1 p.p.h., the fuel pressure being no greater than l p.s.i., if 1 p.p.h of air at a pressure drop of 1 p.s.i is supplied, the atomizing power of the nozzle 1 is similar to that which would be produced by a pressure operated fuel nozzle operating at about 300 p.s.i. fuel pressure. In practice, the pressure operated nozzle would have eX- tremely small dimensions and would be very limited in the flow range available without using very high fuel pressures.

In the present nozzle 1 the cone angle of the spray can readily be changed .by simply changing the angles of the lips 11 and 15 without changing the proportions of the fuel vortex chamber 9 or the internal air passages 3 and 14.

Referring to FIG. 3, it can be seen that with the present nozzle 1 the spray cone angle (curve 18) remains substantially constant, i.e., 90 at all fuel liow rates Ibetween 0 and 100 p.p.h., whereas, a fuel pressure operated nozzle for a 90 spray cone angle (curve 19) does not attain that spray cone angle until the flow is about 60 p.p.h., the vangle gradually increasing to 90 from about 60 at 25 p.p.h.

In FIG. 3 the curve 20 represents the fuel supply pressure vs. fuel flow rate characteristics of both the nozzle 1 of the present invention and a conventional fuel pressure operated nozzle. With reference to fuel flow range, the conventional fuel pressure operated nozzle (curve 21) has a useful flow range of about 4:1 with an average droplet size of about 120 microns at 100 p.p.h. with the droplet size increasing to about 220 microns at 25 p.p.h., that being the limit of a usable fuel spray. Contrary to that, the present nozzle 1 (curve 23) has a usable flow range of about 100:1, since from a rate of fuel -ffow of just greater than 0 p.p.h. the droplet size ranges from less than 50 microns at such low flow to a maximum of about 140 microns at about 40 p.p.h. flow and then gradually down to about 120 microns tat 100 p.p.h.

With the present nozzle 1 even with a high viscosity fuel at low temperature there is no problem in relighting the engine even at 25,000 altitude. At high rates of fuel flow it has been found that the air flow can be discontinued if desired, although the results are better with swirling low pressure air. In some cases satisfactory results may be obtained by omitting the air swirl slots 14.

`In any case, it has :been found that only a low air pressure of from 1/2 to 10 p.s.i. is required and in the curves of FIG. 3, the air pressure was but 1 p.s.i. and the fuel has a viscosity of 12 centistokes.

We therefore particularly point out and distinctly claim as our invention:

1. A spray nozzle comprising a nozzle !body assembly defining therewithin a liquid passage having a vortex chamber to impart a whirling motion to the liquid flowing through -said passage and having an outwardly flared conical discharge orifice through which the liquid is discharged in the form of a hollow cone, and an annular air passage disposed concentrically around said orifice for flow of air to merge with the liquid cone as the latter flows past the end of said discharge orifice thus to break up the liquid into Ia fine conical spray, the wall of said discharge orifice and the inner wall of said air passage converging toward each other, said air passage being of minimum radial cross-section width substantially at the end of said orifice, and the outer wall of said air passage extending radially and axially beyond the end of said discharge orifice thus to form a conical surface havin-g an included angle substantially the same as the included angle of the orifice along which the air stre-am flows to assist in break up of the liquid as it leaves the confines of said orifice.

2. The spray nozzle of claim 1 wherein said air passage has converging conical inner and outer walls effective to impart high velocity fiow of air as it merges with the liquid.

3. The spray nozzle of claim 2 wherein said air passage has spin slots therein to impart whirling motion to the air 'as it merges with the liquid.

4. The spray nozzle of claim 2 wherein said inner and outer conical walls immediately upstream of the end of said orifice are flared outwardly to turn the increasing velocity air flow therethrough so as to flow in the form of a conical stream along the liquid as the latter leaves the confines of said orifice.

5. The spray nozzle of claim 4 wherein the outwardly flared inner wall of said air passage merges with said orifice to locate said air passage closely adjacent the edge of said orifice.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,643,916 6/ 1953 White et al 239-405 3,013,732 12/1961 Webster et al 239-406 3,346,412 10/ 1967 Siegenthaler et al 239-405 2,566,788 9/ 1951 Berggren et al 239-404 2,595,759 5/1952 Buckland et al 239-404 2,703,260 I3/ 1955 Olson et al 239-404 EVERETT W. KIRBY, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R 239-406

US3474970A 1967-03-15 1967-03-15 Air assist nozzle Expired - Lifetime US3474970A (en)

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Cited By (35)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2442895A1 (en) * 1973-09-10 1975-03-13 Gen Electric Fuel injection device
US3972182A (en) * 1973-09-10 1976-08-03 General Electric Company Fuel injection apparatus
US4139157A (en) * 1976-09-02 1979-02-13 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Dual air-blast fuel nozzle
DE2834313A1 (en) * 1977-08-31 1979-03-15 Parker Hannifin Corp fuel nozzle
US4185778A (en) * 1978-03-30 1980-01-29 Envirotech Corporation Spray nozzle
US4261517A (en) * 1979-11-23 1981-04-14 General Electric Company Atomizing air metering nozzle
US4280851A (en) * 1979-12-14 1981-07-28 General Foods Corporation Process for cooking or gelatinizing materials
US4558822A (en) * 1982-08-20 1985-12-17 Lechler Gmbh & Co. Kg Binary atomizing nozzle
US4559009A (en) * 1982-08-06 1985-12-17 Hauck Manufacturing Company Aggregate dryer burner
US4941617A (en) * 1988-12-14 1990-07-17 United Technologies Corporation Airblast fuel nozzle
US4974571A (en) * 1989-02-24 1990-12-04 Regents Of The University Of California Pulsed jet combustion generator for non-premixed charge engines
US5423132A (en) * 1992-09-30 1995-06-13 Graber; David A. Dryer apparatus using hot gases in free standing vortex
US5499768A (en) * 1989-05-31 1996-03-19 Ohkawara Kakohki Co., Ltd. Spray nozzle unit
US5513798A (en) * 1993-08-08 1996-05-07 Tavor; Elhanan Atomizer
US5697553A (en) * 1995-03-03 1997-12-16 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Streaked spray nozzle for enhanced air/fuel mixing
US6076745A (en) * 1997-05-01 2000-06-20 Haldor Topsoe A/S Swirling-flow burner
US6363726B1 (en) 2000-09-29 2002-04-02 General Electric Company Mixer having multiple swirlers
US6367262B1 (en) 2000-09-29 2002-04-09 General Electric Company Multiple annular swirler
US6381964B1 (en) 2000-09-29 2002-05-07 General Electric Company Multiple annular combustion chamber swirler having atomizing pilot
US6418726B1 (en) 2001-05-31 2002-07-16 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for controlling combustor emissions
WO2002073089A1 (en) * 2001-03-07 2002-09-19 Delavan Inc Air assist fuel nozzle
US6460344B1 (en) 1999-05-07 2002-10-08 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Fuel atomization method for turbine combustion engines having aerodynamic turning vanes
US6474071B1 (en) 2000-09-29 2002-11-05 General Electric Company Multiple injector combustor
US6484489B1 (en) 2001-05-31 2002-11-26 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for mixing fuel to decrease combustor emissions
US20030196440A1 (en) * 1999-05-07 2003-10-23 Erlendur Steinthorsson Fuel nozzle for turbine combustion engines having aerodynamic turning vanes
US6698208B2 (en) 2001-12-14 2004-03-02 Elliott Energy Systems, Inc. Atomizer for a combustor
EP1706671A1 (en) * 2003-12-24 2006-10-04 PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA CORP./PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA CIE. Helical channel fuel distributor and method
US20060272332A1 (en) * 2005-06-03 2006-12-07 Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation System for introducing fuel to a fluid flow upstream of a combustion area
US20090100837A1 (en) * 2007-10-18 2009-04-23 Ralf Sebastian Von Der Bank Lean premix burner for a gas-turbine engine
JP2010522864A (en) * 2007-03-26 2010-07-08 サン−ゴバン アンバラージュ Hollow jet injector jet injector for liquid fuel
US20110175244A1 (en) * 2008-10-01 2011-07-21 Fluor Technologies Corporation Configurations and Methods of Gas-Assisted Spray Nozzles
US8893500B2 (en) 2011-05-18 2014-11-25 Solar Turbines Inc. Lean direct fuel injector
US8919132B2 (en) 2011-05-18 2014-12-30 Solar Turbines Inc. Method of operating a gas turbine engine
US9182124B2 (en) 2011-12-15 2015-11-10 Solar Turbines Incorporated Gas turbine and fuel injector for the same
US20160281991A1 (en) * 2013-03-19 2016-09-29 Snecma Injection system for a combustion chamber of a turbine engine, comprising an annular wall having a convergent inner cross-section

Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3684186A (en) * 1970-06-26 1972-08-15 Ex Cell O Corp Aerating fuel nozzle
CA1119893A (en) * 1978-07-31 1982-03-16 Olle L. Siwersson Burner for a suspension of fine-grained coal in liquid
US4505665A (en) * 1980-02-19 1985-03-19 Southern California Edison Method and burner tip for suspressing emissions of nitrogen oxides
US4618323A (en) * 1980-02-19 1986-10-21 Southers California Edison Method and burner tip for suppressing emissions of nitrogen oxides
GB9420375D0 (en) * 1994-10-10 1994-11-23 Itw Ltd An improved nozzle and aircap for spray guns
FR2772118B1 (en) 1997-12-05 2001-08-17 Saint Gobain Vitrage Process for the combustion burner and a fuel spray using a such a process
DE102011120717A1 (en) * 2011-12-12 2013-06-13 Sm-Klebetechnik Vertriebs Gmbh Fluid nozzle for application of highly viscous materials e.g. high viscosity adhesive, has deflector metal sheet such as lock washer provided in gas outlet which is arranged around substance outlet

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2566788A (en) * 1949-05-21 1951-09-04 Wright Aeronautical Corp Air assisted fuel nozzle
US2595759A (en) * 1948-11-30 1952-05-06 Gen Electric Atomizing nozzle for spraying viscous liquids
US2643916A (en) * 1949-04-25 1953-06-30 Braun & Co C F Fuel burner
US2703260A (en) * 1951-07-07 1955-03-01 Delavan Mfg Company Dual orifice atomizing nozzle
US3013732A (en) * 1959-09-01 1961-12-19 Parker Hannifin Corp Fuel injection nozzle
US3346412A (en) * 1963-09-04 1967-10-10 Fur Firestone Produckte Ag Fab Tire coating apparatus

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2595759A (en) * 1948-11-30 1952-05-06 Gen Electric Atomizing nozzle for spraying viscous liquids
US2643916A (en) * 1949-04-25 1953-06-30 Braun & Co C F Fuel burner
US2566788A (en) * 1949-05-21 1951-09-04 Wright Aeronautical Corp Air assisted fuel nozzle
US2703260A (en) * 1951-07-07 1955-03-01 Delavan Mfg Company Dual orifice atomizing nozzle
US3013732A (en) * 1959-09-01 1961-12-19 Parker Hannifin Corp Fuel injection nozzle
US3346412A (en) * 1963-09-04 1967-10-10 Fur Firestone Produckte Ag Fab Tire coating apparatus

Cited By (48)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2442895A1 (en) * 1973-09-10 1975-03-13 Gen Electric Fuel injection device
US3946552A (en) * 1973-09-10 1976-03-30 General Electric Company Fuel injection apparatus
US3972182A (en) * 1973-09-10 1976-08-03 General Electric Company Fuel injection apparatus
US4139157A (en) * 1976-09-02 1979-02-13 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Dual air-blast fuel nozzle
DE2834313A1 (en) * 1977-08-31 1979-03-15 Parker Hannifin Corp fuel nozzle
US4168803A (en) * 1977-08-31 1979-09-25 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Air-ejector assisted fuel nozzle
US4185778A (en) * 1978-03-30 1980-01-29 Envirotech Corporation Spray nozzle
US4261517A (en) * 1979-11-23 1981-04-14 General Electric Company Atomizing air metering nozzle
US4280851A (en) * 1979-12-14 1981-07-28 General Foods Corporation Process for cooking or gelatinizing materials
US4559009A (en) * 1982-08-06 1985-12-17 Hauck Manufacturing Company Aggregate dryer burner
US4558822A (en) * 1982-08-20 1985-12-17 Lechler Gmbh & Co. Kg Binary atomizing nozzle
US4941617A (en) * 1988-12-14 1990-07-17 United Technologies Corporation Airblast fuel nozzle
US4974571A (en) * 1989-02-24 1990-12-04 Regents Of The University Of California Pulsed jet combustion generator for non-premixed charge engines
US5499768A (en) * 1989-05-31 1996-03-19 Ohkawara Kakohki Co., Ltd. Spray nozzle unit
US5423132A (en) * 1992-09-30 1995-06-13 Graber; David A. Dryer apparatus using hot gases in free standing vortex
US5513798A (en) * 1993-08-08 1996-05-07 Tavor; Elhanan Atomizer
US5697553A (en) * 1995-03-03 1997-12-16 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Streaked spray nozzle for enhanced air/fuel mixing
US6076745A (en) * 1997-05-01 2000-06-20 Haldor Topsoe A/S Swirling-flow burner
US6560964B2 (en) 1999-05-07 2003-05-13 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Fuel nozzle for turbine combustion engines having aerodynamic turning vanes
US6460344B1 (en) 1999-05-07 2002-10-08 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Fuel atomization method for turbine combustion engines having aerodynamic turning vanes
US20030196440A1 (en) * 1999-05-07 2003-10-23 Erlendur Steinthorsson Fuel nozzle for turbine combustion engines having aerodynamic turning vanes
US6883332B2 (en) 1999-05-07 2005-04-26 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Fuel nozzle for turbine combustion engines having aerodynamic turning vanes
US6381964B1 (en) 2000-09-29 2002-05-07 General Electric Company Multiple annular combustion chamber swirler having atomizing pilot
US6367262B1 (en) 2000-09-29 2002-04-09 General Electric Company Multiple annular swirler
US6363726B1 (en) 2000-09-29 2002-04-02 General Electric Company Mixer having multiple swirlers
US6609377B2 (en) 2000-09-29 2003-08-26 General Electric Company Multiple injector combustor
US6474071B1 (en) 2000-09-29 2002-11-05 General Electric Company Multiple injector combustor
WO2002073089A1 (en) * 2001-03-07 2002-09-19 Delavan Inc Air assist fuel nozzle
US6688534B2 (en) 2001-03-07 2004-02-10 Delavan Inc Air assist fuel nozzle
US20040139750A1 (en) * 2001-03-07 2004-07-22 Bretz David H. Air assist fuel nozzle
US6484489B1 (en) 2001-05-31 2002-11-26 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for mixing fuel to decrease combustor emissions
US6418726B1 (en) 2001-05-31 2002-07-16 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for controlling combustor emissions
US6698208B2 (en) 2001-12-14 2004-03-02 Elliott Energy Systems, Inc. Atomizer for a combustor
EP1706671A1 (en) * 2003-12-24 2006-10-04 PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA CORP./PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA CIE. Helical channel fuel distributor and method
JP2007517181A (en) * 2003-12-24 2007-06-28 プラット アンド ホイットニー カナダ コーポレイションPratt & Whitney Canada Corp. Helical path fuel distributor and methods
EP1706671A4 (en) * 2003-12-24 2009-07-29 Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp Pr Helical channel fuel distributor and method
US7810336B2 (en) 2005-06-03 2010-10-12 Siemens Energy, Inc. System for introducing fuel to a fluid flow upstream of a combustion area
US20060272332A1 (en) * 2005-06-03 2006-12-07 Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation System for introducing fuel to a fluid flow upstream of a combustion area
JP2010522864A (en) * 2007-03-26 2010-07-08 サン−ゴバン アンバラージュ Hollow jet injector jet injector for liquid fuel
US20090100837A1 (en) * 2007-10-18 2009-04-23 Ralf Sebastian Von Der Bank Lean premix burner for a gas-turbine engine
US8910483B2 (en) * 2007-10-18 2014-12-16 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & C Lean premix burner for a gas-turbine engine
US20110175244A1 (en) * 2008-10-01 2011-07-21 Fluor Technologies Corporation Configurations and Methods of Gas-Assisted Spray Nozzles
US8616533B2 (en) 2008-10-01 2013-12-31 Fluor Technologies Corporation Configurations and methods of gas-assisted spray nozzles
US8893500B2 (en) 2011-05-18 2014-11-25 Solar Turbines Inc. Lean direct fuel injector
US8919132B2 (en) 2011-05-18 2014-12-30 Solar Turbines Inc. Method of operating a gas turbine engine
US9182124B2 (en) 2011-12-15 2015-11-10 Solar Turbines Incorporated Gas turbine and fuel injector for the same
US10036552B2 (en) * 2013-03-19 2018-07-31 Snecma Injection system for a combustion chamber of a turbine engine, comprising an annular wall having a convergent inner cross-section
US20160281991A1 (en) * 2013-03-19 2016-09-29 Snecma Injection system for a combustion chamber of a turbine engine, comprising an annular wall having a convergent inner cross-section

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
GB1188761A (en) 1970-04-22 application
DE1601958A1 (en) 1971-03-04 application
BE712147A (en) 1968-09-16 grant
DE1601958B2 (en) 1979-06-13 application

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