US3753301A - Crash dummy viscous neck - Google Patents

Crash dummy viscous neck Download PDF

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Publication number
US3753301A
US3753301A US3753301DA US3753301A US 3753301 A US3753301 A US 3753301A US 3753301D A US3753301D A US 3753301DA US 3753301 A US3753301 A US 3753301A
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Prior art keywords
swivel
units
structure
means
head structure
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R Daniel
R Resh
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Ford Motor Co
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Ford Motor Co
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B23/00Models for scientific, medical, or mathematical purposes, e.g. full-sized devices for demonstration purposes
    • G09B23/28Models for scientific, medical, or mathematical purposes, e.g. full-sized devices for demonstration purposes for medicine
    • G09B23/30Anatomical models
    • G09B23/32Anatomical models with moving parts

Abstract

A simulated neck construction and arrangement is provided for coupling a head structure to a torso structure of an anthropomorphic dummy of the type used in vehicular crash testing. The simulated neck construction and arrangement comprises a plurality of interconnected swivel units interposed between the head and torso structure. The swivel units permit fore and aft tilting movement, rotary movement about an axis lying in a vertical plane of the torso structure and substantially lateral tilting movement. A viscous damping means is housed within the swivel unit permitting fore and aft tilting movement to control the rate of deceleration of the head structure during such movements.

Description

Daniel et a1.

CRASH DUMMY VISCOUS NECK Inventors: Roger P. Daniel, Dearborn; Robert E. Reah, Westland, both of Mich.

Assignee: Ford Motor Company, Dearbom,

Mich.

Filed: June 23, 1972 Appl. No.: 265,872

US. Cl. 35/17 'lntlCl. G091! 23/32 Field of Search 35/17; 280/150 B, 280/150 SB References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1/1971 Payne et al. 35/17 1/1973 Alderson 35/17 [111 3,753,30l [451Au .21, 1973 Primary Examiner-Harland S. Skogquist Anomey-Keith L. Zerschling et a1.

[5 7] ABSTRACT A simulated neck construction and arrangement is provided for coupling a head structure to a torso structure of an anthropomorphic dummy of the type used in vehicular crash testing. The simulated neck construction and arrangement comprises a plurality of interconnected swivel units interposed between the head and torso structure. The swivel units permit fore and aft tilting movement, rotary movement about an axis lying in a vertical plane of the torso structure and substantially lateraltilting movement. A viscous damping means is housed within the swivel unit permitting fore and aft tilting movement to control the rate of deceleration of the head structure during such movements.

8 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures Patented Aug. 21, 1973 3,753,301

2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Patented Aug. 21, 1973 3,753,301

2 Sheets-Sheet 2 CRASH DUMMY VISCOUS NECK BACKGROUND or THE INVENTION During crash testing of vehicles, anthropomorphic dummies, as disclosed in US Pat. No. 3,557,471, issued Jan. 26, 1971, to P. R. Payne et al., are utilized in an attempt to analyze what might happen to a human occupant of the vehicle under similar conditions. The anthropomorphic dummies are articulated structures which provide for movement of the head and limbs relative to the torso. The neck structures currently available on most crash test dummies for supporting the head structure on the torso structure are so constructed and arranged that under crash conditions the head structure snaps violently backward or forward, creating excessive head decelerations not found in human biomechanic testing.

In U.S. application Ser. No. 259,093, filed June 2, 1972, in the name of R. J. Berton et al., entitled Crash Dummy Viscous Neck, there is disclosed a neck structure incorporating a hydraulic mechanism or control unit. The purpose of the viscous or hydraulic mechanism is to provide test results which will more nearly approximate the results obtained from human biomechanical testing.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a crash dummy viscous neck structure utilizing a different form of viscous or hydraulic mechanism for controlling the rate of deceleration of the head structure and also to incorporate additional rotary and pivotal movements so that the movements of the dummy head during a crash test will more nearly simulate the movements of a human head under similar conditions.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a neck simulation device for couplingthe head structure to a torsostructure of an anthropomorphic dummy. The neck simulation device comprises a plurality of interconnected swivel units interposed between the torso structure and the head structure. A first one of the swivel units has pivot means positioned to provide for forward and backward tilting movements of the head structure about an axis substantially normal to the vertical axis of the torso structure. A viscous damping means is housed within this first one of the swivel units to control the rate of $0 deceleration of the head structure during forward and rearward tilting movement. An intermediate one of the swivel units has pivot means supporting the head structure for pivotal movement about an axis normal to the first swivel unit axis. The axis normal to the first'swivel unit axis lies in a vertical plane of the torso structure. A last one of the swivel units supports the head structure for tilting movement about an axis normal to the pivotal axis of the second swivel unit.

A damping means, preferably comprising a fluid filled chamber, is located within the first one of the swivel units. A braking member is relatively movable within the chamber. Orifice means in the braking member meters flow of fluid from one side of the braking member to the other side as the head structure undergoes tilting movements.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Further features and advantages of the present invention will be made more apparent as this description proceeds, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a front view of an anthropomorphic dummy with a portion of the neck area surface removed in order to illustrate the environment in which the present invention is utilized;

FIG. 2 is a side elevation view also with a portion removed for clarity of illustration;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged vertical section through the vertically stacked swivel units; and

FIG. 4 is a section view on the line 4-4 of FIG. 3.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Referring now to the drawings, FIGS. 1 and 2 represent front and side views of an anthropomorphic dummy ll of a type generally used in vehicle crash testing. The present invention is concerned with the interconnection between the head structure 12 and the upper torso structure 13 of the dummy. This interconnection takes the form of a swivel mechanism or control unit, generally designated 14, and shown in greater detail in FIGS. 3 and 4.

The swivel mechanism or control unit 14 comprises a plurality of swivel units l5, l6 and 17. The first unit 15 is supported on a bracket 18 the base 19 of which is adapted to be secured on the upper end 21 of the structure forming the spine and cage 22 of the,

dummy.

' The bracket 18 has spaced upstanding legs 23. Each leg 23 has a square aperture 24 at its upper end which receives the square end 25 of a nonrotatable shaft 26. The shaft 26 is held in place by clamp screws 27, as best seen in FIG. 3.

A housing 28 having a longitudinally extending chamber 29 extending therethrough is swingably journalled on bearings 31 carried on shoulder portions 32 of the shaft 26. The housing 28 is shown as a two-piece structure having a base section 33 and a cap portion 34 bolted thereon by bolts 35. Suitable sealing rings 36 and 37 are strategically placed to make the chamber 29 leakproof.

The chamber 29 is filled with a viscous fluid. A braking or paddle member 38 welded to the nonrotatable shaft 26 projects into the chamber 29, see FIG. 4. The braking or paddle member 38 has a pair of spaced threaded inserts 39 each having an aperture 41 extending from one end to the other. The apertures 41 are calibrated orifices the size of which may be changed by changing the inserts. The function of the orifices is to regulate the flow of viscous fluid from one side to the other of the braking or paddle member 38. This fluid flow occurs as the housing swings about the pivot shaft 26, as will be explained.

The intermediate swivel unit 16 may be considered as comprising a rectangular plate 42 bolted to the top of the housing 28. The plate 42 has an upstanding circular boss 43 which is a pilot for a friction washer 44 and a plate 45. The plate 45 is rectangular but has a circular recess 46 which tits over the friction washer 44. The plate 45 is held in rotary relationship to the housing by a washer and bolt assembly 47.

Projecting upwardly from the plate 45 are a pair of spaced legs 48. Each leg 48 supports a pivot stud 49 which is threadedly engaged with threaded apertures 51 in spaced legs 52 depending from a plate 53. The plate 53 is the base plate of the swivel unit 17, as will be explained.

lnterposed between each contiguous pair of legs 48 and 52 is a friction washer 54. Between the head of each pivot stud 49 and the adjacent surface of a leg 48 is a stack of Belleville washers 50. The pivot joint provided by the foregoing structure comprises a controllable friction joint by which the resistance of swiveling movement of the upper swivel unit 17 about the pivot studs 49 may be controlled.

In addition to the plate 53, the upper swivel unit 17 comprises a plate 55 separated from and bonded to the plate 53 by a rubber isolation material 56. The upper plate 55 is provided with a threaded bolt receiving hole 57 to which the frame structure 58 of the head structure 12 of the dummy is bolted. Because of the isolation material 56, there is no metal to metal contact between the head structure and torso structure of the dummy.

The swivel mechanism or control unit 14 embodying the present invention supports the head structure 12 on the torso structure 13 for movement about a plurality of axes. As described above, this is accomplished through the series of vertically stacked swivel units l5, l6 and 17. The base unit 15 permits the head structure to tilt about a substantially horizontal axis relative to the normal upright position of the torso structure. The tilting movement is in a forward and rearward direction about the axis of the pivot shaft 26. When a test vehicle is subjected to a barrier crash test, the head 12 of the dummy is snapped violently backward or forward, creating excessive head decelerations not found during human biomechanics testing. As the swivel housing 15 swings about the shaft 26, the viscous fluid in the chamber 29 acts to dampen the violent swinging movement of the head structure. The rate of deceleration is controlled by the fiow of viscous fluid through theorifices 41 in the paddle member 38. It is thus possible to simulate to a greater degree of accuracy the reaction of the human head under similar crash conditions.

There are, of course, other forces acting on the head structure during the decelerations resulting from the crash. There may be a force tending to twist the head structure about a vertical axis. The intermediate swivel unit 16 provides for such twisting or rotary movement about the vertical axis. The swivel unit is mounted on the upper surface of the base swivel unit 15. Its resistance to rotary movement about the vertical axis defined by the pivot stud 47 is controlled by the friction washer 44 ans also by the amount of torque that has been placed on the pivot stud 47 in tightening the intermediate swivel unit base plate 16 to the plate 42 carried by the base swivel unit l5.

There also may be forces acting on the head structure tending to tilt the latter laterally or in a side to side swinging movement. This is accommodated by the upper swivel unit 17 which is supported on the pivot studs 49 which define a pivot axis that is nonnal to the vertical plane of the pivot axis of the stud 47. This pivot axis lies in a plane which is parallel to the plane of the axis defined by the shaft 26. Although in the at rest" position shown in the drawing the pivot axis defined by the studs 49 is normal to the pivot axis defined by the 65 shaft 26, it will be understood that this relationship may not be maintained as the intermediate swivel unit permits the head structure to rotate about the vertical axis 47. The pivot studs 49 provide a friction joint the resistance of which to lateral movement of the head structure may be controlled by the degree of tightness in the joint. That is, by tightening the bolts 49 the pressure on 5 the Belleville washers 50 and the friction disk 54 may be increased or decreased as described thereby increasing or decreasing the frictional resistance of the swivel unit to lateral movement of the head structure 12.

It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the exact construction illustrated and described above, but that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the following claims:

We claim:

1. A neck simulation device for coupling a head structure to a torso structure of an anthropomorphic dummy, comprising:

a plurality of interconnected swivel units interposed between the torso structure and the head structure;

a first one of the swivel units having pivot means positioned to provide for forward and backward tilting movements of the head structure about an axis normal to the vertical axis' of the torso structure when the latter is in an upright position,

and viscous damping means housed within the first one of the swivel units to control the rate of deceleration of the head structure during forward and rearward tilting movements;

an intermediate one of the swivel units having pivot means supporting the head structure for pivotal movement about an axis normal to the first swivel unit axis and lying in a vertical plane of the torso structure;

and a last one of the swivel units supporting the head structure for tilting movement about an axis substantially normal to the pivotal axis of the secon swivel unit.

2. A neck simulation device according to'claim l, in which:

40 the swivel units are vertically stacked relative to one another.

3. A neck simulation device according to claim 1, in which:

the first one of the swivel units is mounted on the torso structure and the last one of the swivel units is attached to the head structure,

and the intermediate one of the swivel units couples the first and last units together.

4. A neck simulation device according to claim 3, in which:

the viscous damping means comprises a fluid filled chamber within the first one of the swivel units,

a braking member relatively movable within the chamber,

and orifice means in the braking member metering flow of fluid from one side of the braking member to the other side as the head structure undergoes tilting movements.

5. A neck simulation device according to claim 1, in which:

the viscous damping means comprises a fluid filled chamber within the first one of the swivel units,

a paddle member relatively movable within the chamber,

and orifice means in the paddle metering flow of fluid between opposite sides of the paddle member as the head structure undergoes tilting movements.

which: i

the first swivel unit comprises a support bracket rigidly fastened to the torso structure,

a pivot shaft nonrotatably mounted in the support 5 bracket,

and a housing pivotally joumalled on the pivot shaft,

the housing having a fluid chamber therein,

a braking member fixed to the pivot shaft and projecting into the housing fluid chamber,

a viscous damping fluid filling the chamber,

and orifice means in the braking member to permit controlled passage of the viscous fluid from one side of the braking member to the other as the housing tilts about the pivot shaft. 7. A neck simulation device according to claim 6, in which:

the intermediate one of the swivel units comprises a plate member, bearing means interposed between the first swivel unit and the plate member permitting pivotal movement about the axis normal to the first swivel unit axis,

pivot support means on said plate member,

and friction joint pivot means journalled in the pivot support means coupling the last one of the swivel units to the intermediate swivel unit.

8. A neck simulation device according to claim 1, in

which:

the intermediate one of the swivel units comprises a plate member,

a bearing means interposed between the first swivel unit and the plate member permits pivotal movement of the latter about the axis normal to the first swivel unit axis,

the plate member having pivot support means thereon,

and friction joint pivot means journalled in the pivot support means coupling the last one of the swivel units to the intermediate swivel unit.

Claims (8)

1. A neck simulation device for coupling a head structure to a torso structure of an anthropomorphic dummy, comprising: a plurality of interconnected swivel units interposed between the torso structure and the head structure; a first one of the swivel units haVing pivot means positioned to provide for forward and backward tilting movements of the head structure about an axis normal to the vertical axis of the torso structure when the latter is in an upright position, and viscous damping means housed within the first one of the swivel units to control the rate of deceleration of the head structure during forward and rearward tilting movements; an intermediate one of the swivel units having pivot means supporting the head structure for pivotal movement about an axis normal to the first swivel unit axis and lying in a vertical plane of the torso structure; and a last one of the swivel units supporting the head structure for tilting movement about an axis substantially normal to the pivotal axis of the second swivel unit.
2. A neck simulation device according to claim 1, in which: the swivel units are vertically stacked relative to one another.
3. A neck simulation device according to claim 1, in which: the first one of the swivel units is mounted on the torso structure and the last one of the swivel units is attached to the head structure, and the intermediate one of the swivel units couples the first and last units together.
4. A neck simulation device according to claim 3, in which: the viscous damping means comprises a fluid filled chamber within the first one of the swivel units, a braking member relatively movable within the chamber, and orifice means in the braking member metering flow of fluid from one side of the braking member to the other side as the head structure undergoes tilting movements.
5. A neck simulation device according to claim 1, in which: the viscous damping means comprises a fluid filled chamber within the first one of the swivel units, a paddle member relatively movable within the chamber, and orifice means in the paddle metering flow of fluid between opposite sides of the paddle member as the head structure undergoes tilting movements.
6. A neck simulation device according to claim 1, in which: the first swivel unit comprises a support bracket rigidly fastened to the torso structure, a pivot shaft nonrotatably mounted in the support bracket, and a housing pivotally journalled on the pivot shaft, the housing having a fluid chamber therein, a braking member fixed to the pivot shaft and projecting into the housing fluid chamber, a viscous damping fluid filling the chamber, and orifice means in the braking member to permit controlled passage of the viscous fluid from one side of the braking member to the other as the housing tilts about the pivot shaft.
7. A neck simulation device according to claim 6, in which: the intermediate one of the swivel units comprises a plate member, bearing means interposed between the first swivel unit and the plate member permitting pivotal movement about the axis normal to the first swivel unit axis, pivot support means on said plate member, and friction joint pivot means journalled in the pivot support means coupling the last one of the swivel units to the intermediate swivel unit.
8. A neck simulation device according to claim 1, in which: the intermediate one of the swivel units comprises a plate member, a bearing means interposed between the first swivel unit and the plate member permits pivotal movement of the latter about the axis normal to the first swivel unit axis, the plate member having pivot support means thereon, and friction joint pivot means journalled in the pivot support means coupling the last one of the swivel units to the intermediate swivel unit.
US3753301A 1972-06-23 1972-06-23 Crash dummy viscous neck Expired - Lifetime US3753301A (en)

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Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3877156A (en) * 1974-03-02 1975-04-15 Kazu Itoh Neck component in anthropomorphic test dummy
US4395235A (en) * 1982-02-02 1983-07-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Four pivot linkage to simulate head/neck kinematics
US4580985A (en) * 1985-02-20 1986-04-08 Dave Redenbaugh Simulator device for demonstrating the benefits of wearing a seat belt
US5018977A (en) * 1989-04-21 1991-05-28 Dynamic Research, Inc. Motorcycle accident simulating test dummy
US6447518B1 (en) 1995-07-18 2002-09-10 William R. Krause Flexible shaft components
US20060073456A1 (en) * 2004-09-03 2006-04-06 Robert Allen Birthing simulator
US20070122785A1 (en) * 1996-05-08 2007-05-31 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US20070172804A1 (en) * 2004-09-03 2007-07-26 Robert Allen Birthing Simulator
US20080131855A1 (en) * 1996-05-08 2008-06-05 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US20080138779A1 (en) * 1996-05-08 2008-06-12 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US20080138778A1 (en) * 1996-05-08 2008-06-12 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US20080138780A1 (en) * 2000-08-17 2008-06-12 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US20090148822A1 (en) * 2007-12-07 2009-06-11 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US20140190280A1 (en) * 2013-01-07 2014-07-10 Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Inc. Shoulder assembly for crash test dummy
US9947244B2 (en) 2015-04-02 2018-04-17 Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Inc. Adjustable spine joint assembly for crash test dummy
US9965977B2 (en) 2014-12-31 2018-05-08 Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Inc. Adjustable lumbar spine assembly for crash test dummy
US9972220B2 (en) 2014-12-31 2018-05-15 Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Inc. Omnidirectional neck assembly for crash test dummy

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB8410493D0 (en) * 1984-04-25 1984-05-31 Clinton E W K Lockable universal joint
US7585323B2 (en) * 2000-05-05 2009-09-08 Medlden, Llc In vitro mechanical loading of musculoskeletal tissues

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US3557471A (en) * 1968-09-16 1971-01-26 Wyle Laboratories Anthropodynamic dummy
US3707782A (en) * 1971-06-23 1973-01-02 Alderson Res Lab Neck for test dummy

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3557471A (en) * 1968-09-16 1971-01-26 Wyle Laboratories Anthropodynamic dummy
US3707782A (en) * 1971-06-23 1973-01-02 Alderson Res Lab Neck for test dummy

Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3877156A (en) * 1974-03-02 1975-04-15 Kazu Itoh Neck component in anthropomorphic test dummy
US4395235A (en) * 1982-02-02 1983-07-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Four pivot linkage to simulate head/neck kinematics
US4580985A (en) * 1985-02-20 1986-04-08 Dave Redenbaugh Simulator device for demonstrating the benefits of wearing a seat belt
US5018977A (en) * 1989-04-21 1991-05-28 Dynamic Research, Inc. Motorcycle accident simulating test dummy
US6447518B1 (en) 1995-07-18 2002-09-10 William R. Krause Flexible shaft components
US8016598B2 (en) 1996-05-08 2011-09-13 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US20070122785A1 (en) * 1996-05-08 2007-05-31 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US8951047B2 (en) 1996-05-08 2015-02-10 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US20080131855A1 (en) * 1996-05-08 2008-06-05 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US20080138779A1 (en) * 1996-05-08 2008-06-12 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US20080138778A1 (en) * 1996-05-08 2008-06-12 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US9378659B2 (en) 1996-05-08 2016-06-28 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US8696362B2 (en) 1996-05-08 2014-04-15 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US8678832B2 (en) 1996-05-08 2014-03-25 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US8419438B2 (en) 1996-05-08 2013-04-16 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US8152532B2 (en) 1996-05-08 2012-04-10 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US7811090B2 (en) 1996-05-08 2010-10-12 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US20100304347A1 (en) * 1996-05-08 2010-12-02 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US7976312B2 (en) 1996-05-08 2011-07-12 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US20080138780A1 (en) * 2000-08-17 2008-06-12 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US7976313B2 (en) 2000-08-17 2011-07-12 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US9004922B2 (en) 2000-10-06 2015-04-14 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US9406244B2 (en) 2000-10-06 2016-08-02 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US9324247B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-04-26 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US7632100B2 (en) 2004-09-03 2009-12-15 Birth Injury Prevention, Llc Brachial plexus simulator
US7465168B2 (en) 2004-09-03 2008-12-16 Birth Injury Prevention, Llc Birthing simulator
US20060073456A1 (en) * 2004-09-03 2006-04-06 Robert Allen Birthing simulator
US20070172804A1 (en) * 2004-09-03 2007-07-26 Robert Allen Birthing Simulator
US8197259B2 (en) 2004-09-03 2012-06-12 Birth Injury Prevention, Llc Obstructed delivery simulation system
US20100086906A1 (en) * 2004-09-03 2010-04-08 Birth Injury Prevention, Llc Obstructed Delivery Simulation System
US9870720B2 (en) 2006-10-03 2018-01-16 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US20090148822A1 (en) * 2007-12-07 2009-06-11 Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc. Interactive Education System for Teaching Patient Care
US20140190280A1 (en) * 2013-01-07 2014-07-10 Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Inc. Shoulder assembly for crash test dummy
US9799234B2 (en) * 2013-01-07 2017-10-24 Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Inc. Shoulder assembly for crash test dummy
US9965977B2 (en) 2014-12-31 2018-05-08 Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Inc. Adjustable lumbar spine assembly for crash test dummy
US9972220B2 (en) 2014-12-31 2018-05-15 Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Inc. Omnidirectional neck assembly for crash test dummy
US9947244B2 (en) 2015-04-02 2018-04-17 Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Inc. Adjustable spine joint assembly for crash test dummy

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DE2330093A1 (en) 1974-01-10 application

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