US373967A - delany - Google Patents

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US373967A US373967DA US373967A US 373967 A US373967 A US 373967A US 373967D A US373967D A US 373967DA US 373967 A US373967 A US 373967A
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    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/14Two-way operation using the same type of signal, i.e. duplex
    • H04L5/1407Artificial lines or their setting


(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 1.
No..373,967. Patented Nov. 29, 1887 (No Moa'ei.) 13 sheets-sheet a.
TELEGRAPHY. No. 373,967. Patented Novp29, 1887.
SPECIPICATON forming part of Letters Patent No. 373,967, dated November 29, 1887.
Application filed March lT,1887.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, PATRICK BERNARD DE- LANY, of New York, in the State of New York,
have invented a certain new and useful Improved System of Telegraphic Transmission and Apparatus therefor, of which the following is a specification.
It is well known that in operating longlines, especially underground or submarine cables, the effect of the static charge isa serious obstacle in the way of rapid transmission, and that on this account the distance over which such lilies can be operated is limited, and the speed of operation is necessarily slow. The best results heretofore obtainable on such lines have been secured by the use of reverse or alternating currents. Even the practice of this method, however, has been greatly impeded by the difficulties arising from the unequal duration of impulses sent into the line, and the consequent unequal static charge and discharge. It is well understood that when a dash is made the discharge of static is proportionally greater than when the dot is made, and that when a dot quickly follows a dash the effect of t'ne discharge at the transmitting lend is to partially neutralize or obliterate the dot, while at the receiving end the current tails or runs out of the line so slowly as to bridge over the space between the dash and the weakened' dot which comes after it.
I am aware that in the automatic telegraphic system of Dr. Werner Siemens it has been proposed to employ perforated strips of paper for automatic transmission in connection with a magneto-generator, the speed or motion of the strip and of rotation of the generator being so regulated that .the alternate generation of positive and negative currents shall coincide with the particular position of the perforation of the paper strip, and thereby, through suitable contacts, send into the line alternate currents of equal duration but opposite polarity, the impulses being received upon a suitable ink recorder having net receiver.
I am also aware that signals which are received Vas dots and dashes have been transmitted by the use ofrtwo keys which send dots of alternating polarity; but with this system of working the duration of the impulses is necessarily of uncertain or imperfect uniformity,
a polarized-mag Serial No. 231,302. (No model.)
and the operation. of such a system requires specially-trained operators.
So far as I am aware, however, no system has heretofore been devised by means of which an ordinary Morse key may be manipulated to transmit dots and dashes by causing to be thrown upon the line impulses of electricity of alternating polarity and uniform duration.
The primary object of my invention is to provide suchta new system involving the use of a Morse key. In my improvement, also, the line is put to earth and discharged after each impulse, so that succeeding impulses will not encounter even the weak discharge arisA ing from a dot.
The invention also contemplates certain improvements in the manner of driving the apparatus, all of which fully appears from the following specification.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure. 1 is a diagram view showing two connected stations organized for transmission according to my plan. Fig. 2 is a view of a single station, showing a somewhat different arrangement for driving the apparatus; and Fig. 3 is a detail 4 view showing another arrangement for driving the instrument.
Fig. l illustrates two stations, X and Y, and the organization is alike at each station. A Morse key, A, is connected with a local battery, L B, and both its front stop, c, and its rear stop, d, are connected with the opposite pole of the battery L B through the coil or coils of a magnet, B. The armatureleverb of 'this magnet operates a push-arm, C, carrying ranged other, preferably smaller, contacts, Z. As shown in the drawings, these contacts Z are all part of an insulated plate, L, which is, by means of a wire, Z-, connected through the coils of a polarized relay, P R, to earth. The spring b2 of the armature-lever normally tends to draw the lever away from its magnet, and thus throw the pawl e out of engagement with the ratchetf. XVhenever the key is closed either on its back or front stop, the lever is attracted and the pawl drives the ratchet and trailing arm G one tooth. In this movement the trailing finger G passes from a contact Z across the face of a contact 7i or g, and then pauses upon the next contact Z, as shown in the drawings. As the key is manipulated, therefore, the circuit of the magnet B will be completed at each contact c and d, and interrupted when the key is out of contact with both of them. By such an arrangement I obtain a rapid and regular rotation ofthe trailing finger.
From the construction shown it will be seen that when an instrument is receiving it is at rest, and the impulses from the line pass by way of brush I, insulated spindle, trailer, and insulated plate L to relay and earth. At the transmitter, as the trailer crosses an insulated battery, contact with the current passes from battery through contact,trailer,insulated spindle, and brush to line, and when the trailer pauses on a contact Z, the battery now being disconnected from theline, the line is grounded through brush I. insulated spindle, trailer, iusulated contact Z, and relay.
Assuming that the operator at X is telegraphing to station Y, the Morse key A would, as will be obvious to anybody versed in telegraphy, be operated iu the ordinary manner to produce dots and dashes. llhus when the key is pressed upon its front stop, c, the trailer would be moved across a contact g, thus sending a -icurrent from the battery llI B to line, and at the station Y, through the brush I, plate L, and coil of polarized relay P It, to earth, thus actuating the relay in one direction and causing the operation of the sounder S inits local circuit. XVhen the key is raised and then brought into contact with its back stop,d,the trailer is caused to pass overa contact h, thus sending a current to the distant station, driving the armature of the polarized relay to its other stop, and terminating the signal there, whatever it be. Since the polarized-relay armature at the receiver remains in the position into which it is drawn by a transmitted impulse, whatever may be the polarity of the impulse, the character of the signal (whether a dot or a dash) depends upon the length of time during which the key is held down, the signal, whatever it is, being terminated when the key is put upon its back stop and a current of opposite polarity is sent into the line. Therefore, if the key be operated in the usual way, dois and dashes will be produced at the receiving end of the line; but the transmitted impulse is always of the same duration, because current only enters the line as the trailer at the transmittiiig-station crosses a battery-contact g or lz. At the receivingstation the line is always to earth through the polarized relay, while at the sending-station, immediately after an impulse of'either polarity 1of the operator.
has been sent into the line, theliueis grounded when the trailer G comes upon the contact Z through the line i and coil of' polarized relay l? It. Obviously the alternating currents are thrown upon the line with perfect regularity, not in any manner dependent upon the touch The operator by the manipu lation of the key only decides whether the received signal shall be a dot or dash. 'Iheinr pulse sent must be invariably of the same duration. Of course, any receivingapparatus, instead of an ordinary sounder, S, may be ernployed in the local of the polarized relay. No switching or other changes for sending or re eeiving are required. iVhen an operator iS transmitting in the particular organization shown, his relay I R is not actuated by the current from the battery M B. The plates Lbeiug insulated, only the relay at the receiving` station is actuated. This is an advantage, since it avoids the introduction of an unnecessary resistance at the transmittiiig-station, the stroke of the armaturedever of the actu ating-magnet B being entirely sufficient for the transmitting operator.
In Fig. 2 an arrangement for one station is shown identical in all respects with the ar rangement in Fig. l, except that, instead of employing a single driving-magnet, B, two magnets, BIz B2, are employed, being placed in branch circuits of a common local battery, L B. The branches are alternately closed as the key makes contact with its front stop, e, or its back stop, d. The movement of the trailer G and the operation of the apparatus are precisely the same; or, instead of the arrangement shown in Fig. 2, that illustrated in Fig. 3 may be adopted. In that figure the local battery LB is not split. One pole is connected through the coil of the magnet B with the front stop of the key, and the other connected directly with the key. In this arrangement the armaturelever b is bifurcatcd at its end, each bifurcation acting on the toothed wheelf-one of them when the key is closed and the lever b is drawn down by its magnet and the other when the key is open and the lever b is drawn up by its spring.
Since, so far as I am aware, I am the first to provide an arrangement for transmission by an ordinary Morse key in connection with an apparatus for throwing impulses of electricity of equal duration and alternating polarity upon the main line for producing either a dot or dash at the receivingstation, I do not limit myselfto the precise organization shown, although it is a practical and efficient one.
I claim as my inventionl. The combination, substantially as set forth, of a Morse key, apparatus for throwing working or message impulses of electricity of equal duration and alternating polarity upon the main line in response to the manipulation of the said key, and a polarized relay or receiving-magnet at the distant station for receiving the dots and dashes thus transmitted.
2. The combination, substantially as set forth, with a Morse key, a main line, and a source ot' electric energy, of a transmitter having contacts connected with opposite poles of the source of energy, and a circuit-completer which traverses said contacts as the transmitter operates, and thereby throws upon the line working or message impulses of electricity of equal duration and alternate polarity, transmitter-controller devices interposed between the key and transmitter, whereby when 'the key is depressed the transmitter is actuated to send a current of one polarity, as described, and when the keyis raisedto transmit another current of equal duration but opposite polarity, and a receiver at the distant end of the line. A
3. The combination of a Morse key, a rotating circuit completer, electro magnetic driving devices and circuits interposed between the Morse key and rotating trailer, whereby the trailer is actuated, series of insulated contacts g h, arranged alternately with reference to each other, a transmitting battery or generator having one pole connected to one series of contacts andthe opposite pole con` nected to the other series of contacts, and a main line in electrical connection with the trailer.
4. The combination of a main line, a rotating trailer in connection therewith, series of insulated contacts gh, arranged alternately with reference to each other, over which the trailer is caused to traverse, a transmitting battery or generator having one pole connected with one series of said contacts and the other pole connected with the other series of said contacts, in combination with mechanism for rotating the trailer and transmitting dots and dashes.
5. The combination ofamain line and trailer in connection therewith, series of insulated contacts y h, arranged alternately with reference to eachother, a main battery having one pole connected to one of said series and the other pole to the other of said series, interposed contacts Z, and a conductor, Z', connected with all of said contacts Z, and running to earth through the coil of a polarized relay,
6. The combination ofa mainline with the following apparatus Aat eachv end thereof: atrotating trailer, with which it is in electrical connection, series of insulated contacts g h, arranged alternately with reference to each other, over which the trailer is caused to traverse, a main battery or generator having one pole connected with one of said series and the other pole with the other of said series, contacts Z, interposed4 between the other contacts g h, a line, Z, connected with the eontactsZ and running to earth through the coil ofa receiving polarized relay, P R, and messagetransmitting devices for rotating the trailer step by step and at each actuation causing it to move from a contact across the face of anism which is driven step by an adjoining contact, 71I or g, and stop upon v to the manipulation of the Morse key to throw upon the line intermittent electrical message impulses of equal'duration and alternate polarity, receiving apparatus at the distant end of the line for receiving such alternating equal impulses as dots or dashes, as set forth, and ground-connected contacts at the transmitting end of the line, with which the line is put in contact after each transmission of an impulse, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
8. The combination of series of contactsg 71:, a trailer-,which traverses said contacts,a transmitting battery or generator having one pole connected with one of said series and the other pole with the opposite series, a Morse key, devices interposed between the Morse key and trailer for actuating the trailer by the manipulation of the key for the transmission of dots or dashes, polarized receiving apparatus at the distant station, through which the line is normally grounded and upon which the impulses are-received as dots or dashes, as the case may be, and means at the transmitting-station for grounding the line after each impulse has been sent into it.
9. The combination, with a table ofinsulated contacts, of a trailer which traverses said contacts, aMorse key, and devices interposed between the Morse key and the trailer,
whereby the latter is actuated step by step and caused to traverse the table of contacts, substantially as set forth.
10. The combination,'with a Morse key, of duplicate magnets, a battery-circuit for each of said magnets, connections whereby the circuit of one magnet is completed when the key is in one position and the circuit of the other magnet is completed when the key is in another position,the armature-levers of the magnets, a driven Shaft, and lever-and-pawl mechanism, whereby the shaft is driven step by step as the magnets are alternately energized.
ll. The combination, with a pivoted or vibrating circuit-interru pter, of electro-magnetic IOO actuating devices, a battery and circuit-connections, whereby said devices are energized or actuated when the vibratoris on either side of a'central or neutral position, and mechstep by said devices.
12. The combination of a Morse key, electro-magnetic actuating devices, a spindle driventherehy, a local battery, and circuitconnections between the battery, electro-magnetic devices, and key, whereby when the key is pressed uponl its front stop the spindle is actuated one step, and when the key is raised from its front stop the spindle is actuated another step, substantially as set forth.
13. The combination of a main line, a conn tact, g, connected with one poleof a source of electric energy, a Contact, z, connected with and pause, and a receiver at the distant end an opposite pole of asource of electricenergy, of the line.
a trailer or circuit-completer traversing said In testimony whereof I have hereunto subcontacts and connected with the line, a key, scribed my name.
devicesinterposed between thekey and trailer, PATRICK BERNARD DELANY. whereby the latter is actuated step by step as \Vitnesscs:
the key is manipulated and caused at each MARTIN B. WALLER,
movement to cross the face of a Contact g or h F. W. FEIGONT.
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