US322739A - Quadruplex telegraph - Google Patents

Quadruplex telegraph Download PDF


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US322739A US322739DA US322739A US 322739 A US322739 A US 322739A US 322739D A US322739D A US 322739DA US 322739 A US322739 A US 322739A
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    • H04B7/00Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field
    • H04B7/24Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field for communication between two or more posts
    • H04B7/26Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field for communication between two or more posts at least one of which is mobile
    • H04B7/2621Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field for communication between two or more posts at least one of which is mobile using frequency division multiple access [FDMA]


(No Model.) 2 Sheets- Sheet I..
No. 322,739. Patented Ju1y`21g1885..
rlflllmlel N. PETERS. FhulD-Lilhugrlpher, Wnshingmn. D. C.
(No Model.) 2 Sheets-,Sheet 2;
QUADRUPLBX TELEGRAPH. Y N0- 322,'739. Patented July 21, 1885.,
gaa Q Zea/2 0Min/2613011:
N. PETERS. Phuln-Lilhogmphnr. Wathingan, D. C.
to provide a simple multiple-telegraph system terminate near the free end of the pivoted NITED STATES :ATENT OFFICE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 322,739, dated July *21, 1885.
Application filed April 23, 1885. (No model.)
mission of two messages in each direction over f a single main line at the same time without interference. The object of the invention is of this character which is rapid in its operation and free from liability of giving false signals.
The invention consists, generally, in organizing the apparatus at each station in substantially the following manner: TWO batteries or battery sections are employed from which currents of either positive or negative polarity and of greater or less strength may be transmitted. A continuity-preserving key is elnployed for varying the strength of the currents, While a pole-changing key serves to reverse the polarity of the same, irrespective of the strength. The receiving-instruments consist of two relays, the one of which is essentiallya polar relay, producing signals in response to currents of a given polarity only, While the other, which is of peculiar construction, responds to currents of a given strength without reference to their polarity. The rst-named relay comprises a differentially-wound magnetizing helix or coil surrounding a pivoted core, which is capable of a slightlateral movement within the coil. The respective poles of the permanent magnet extend along the outer surface of the magnetizing helix and core. j Adjustable screws, constituting polar extensions, pass from the extremity of the permanent magnet into proximity to the core. Vhen both sections of the helix are traversed in series by a current in a given direction, a corresponding polarity is induced in the core, and it is attracted toward one of the poles of the permanent magnet and repelled from the other. A current in the opposite direction tends to impel the movable armature-core in the reverse direction. Suitable contact-stops are applied to the core, and the circuit of a local battery, including a sounder or other receiving-instrument, is completed and interrupted by the movements of the armature-core in any convenient manner. The second relay, which responds to currents of a given strength only, irrespective of their polarity, is constructed With a differentially-Wound magnetizing helix surrounding a pivoted core-section or armature-core, and this is also capable of a slight lateral movement. It is provided with two soft-iron bars or plates, one Within the coils and adjacent to the movable section, and the other exterior to the coil and upon the opposite side of the movable core-section. A tension-spring normally holds the movable section in a given position against one of its contact-poi nts. Whenever a current traverses the two sections of the coils in series the movable section and the adjacent stationary coresection receive the same polarity at their corresponding extremities, and therefore repel each other. The plate exteriorv to the coils, however, receives the opposite polarity and tends therefore to attract the movable section. If the current be ofsufcient strength the attraction and repulsion thus exerted will overcome the tension of the spring and the movable cross-section will be drawn from its resting contact-stop, and this result Will be secured Whether the current traverses the coils in one direction or the opposite. The exterior plate or bar is provided With adjustable screws of soft iron extending into proximity to the' movable core-section and constituting polar extensions. These serve to afford a greater degree of attraction between the movable section of core than would otherwise be exerted across the intervening space. The circuit connections of a local battery, including a suitable sounder or other receivinginstrument, are controlled by the movements of the core-section in a manner similar to that described with reference to the lfirst-named relay.
It frequently occurs that at the moment of a reversal of a current a slight movement of an armature-lever takes place, and such move- IOC ment tends to give false signals upon the receiving-instrument. For the purpose of avoiding such an occurrence a special device, which may be termed a governing relay, is employed when necessary for the purpose of momentarily interrupting the connections of a local circuit in which the receiving-relay or repeating-sounder is included. Y
For the purpose of preventing false signals, which might otherwise be occasioned by the static discharge of the main line, a condenser is employed, the plates of which are so arranged with reference to the line connections that the discharge of the condenser neutralizes the current due to the discharge of the line.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a diagram showing the general organization of apparatus at one station of a quadruplex system. Fig. 2 illustrates a modification in the organization, showing the application of the governing relay.
Referring to the drawings, L represents a main line leading from a distant station. rlwo keys, K and K2, are employed for transmitting currents to the main line from two batteries, O and O2. The strength of the battery O is preferably one-half as'great as that of O2, although this ratio may be varied as found desirable. The key K is a continuity-preserving key. Its lever a carries an insulated contact-spring, @which normally rests against the lever. A conductor, 1, 'leads from the negative pole of a battery, O', to thelever c', and the spring a2 is connected by a conductor, 2, with the second key, K2. A contact-stop, a3, is applied to the `spring a?, and when the lever is depressed by the operation of the magnet c4 the spring is pressed away from the lever c by reason of the stop a3. This stop is connected by conductor 5 with the negative pole of the battery O2.
rlhe key K2 is provided with a lever, b', having two insulated springs, bl and b3. The conductor 2 leads to the spring b2. The spring b3 is connected by a conductor, 4, with the positive poles of the batteries O' and O2. A conductor, 3, connects the lever b through a switch, S, with the main line LI Aworkingfcontact, b,is applied to the springs b2 and b3. When the key is at rest the'spring b2 restsk against the vstop'b4 and is pressed awa-y from the'lever b.
The spring b3, however, rests in contact With the lever b. 'When, therefore, the keys are at rest the negative pole of the battery OWill Vbe connected through conductor l and key K vto the spring b2 of the key K2, thence through the working-contact b4 with a conductor, 6, and thus with the earth, in a manner hereinafter described. |Ihe positive pole of the battery O will at the same time be connected by conductor t with the spring b3, and thus, through the lever b and conductor 3, with the main line L.
f` When the key K alone is depressed the connections with the battery VO will be interrupted and the negative pole of the battery (D2 Will be connected with the spring c2 through contact with the lever b', so that a negative current will y be sent to line from the battery O, the positive pole of this battery being connected through the spring b3, contact b4, and conductor 6 with the earth.
When both keys are depressed the negative pole of the battery O2 will be connected through the key K with the conductor 2 in the same manner as when the key K alone is depressed, and from the conductor 2 the connections will be continued through the spring b2, lever b', and conductor 3 to the main line, while the positive pole of the battery O2 will be connected through the conductor 4, spring b3, and contact b4 with the conductor 6. In this manner, when both keys or transmitters are at rest, a positive current having a given strength will be transmitted to line. When the transmitter K alone is depressed a positive current having an increased strength will be transmitted. Vhen the transmitter K2 alone is operated a negative current of less strength will be transmitted to line, and when both transmitters are operated a negative current of increased strength will be transmitted. These currents are designed to operate instruments at a distant station corresponding to the relays R and R2, the former of which responds to changes in strength and the latter to reversals in polarity. n
The receiving-instrument R2 will, for convenience, be first described. This instrument is constructed withtwo magnetizing-coils, respectively,included between the conductors 8 and 9 and 11 and 12. The conductors 8 and 11 both diverge from a common point, 7, in the conductor 6, and currents traversing the coils from this point produce equal and opposite magnetic effects upon the movable softiron core d inclosed within the coils, and therefore serve to neutralize each other. The core is pivoted at its lower extremity, as shown at d2, while its opposite free endy is laterally movable between two contact-stops, di and d4. Upon the exterior of the coils of the instrument is placed a permanent magnet, d5, the respective north and south poles of which terminate near the upper end of the coils of the instrument. Adjustable soft-iron screws d5 and dl extend through the poles of the permanent magnet, as shown in dotted lines, into proximity to the core d', thus constituting polar extensions of said magnet. rlhese screws are preferably located within the end plate or head of the spool upon which the helix yis IOO IIO
wound, and this plate-*and, in fact, the entire I The receiving-instrument R is also constructed with two opposing magnetizing-coils, one of which is included between the conductors 9 and 10 and the other between conductors 12 and 13. These coils are so connected t-hat a current from the conductor 6, dividing at the point 7, will tend to induce opposite magnetic effects upon the core of the receiving-instrument R', which effects will neutralize each other. Within the coils of the instrument R' there is inclosed a stationary coresection, c2, and a movable core-section, c', which is pivoted at c3. A suitable adjustable tension-spring, c, tends to hold the section c toward the section c2 and against the stop c5. Upon the opposite side of the movable coresection c', and upon `the exterior of the coils is placed a soft-iron plate or bar, c, provided with two soft-iron polar extensions in the form of adjustable screws cs and G9, similar to thescrews d and di, hereinbefore referred to. When the currents traverse both coils from the conductors 9 and 10, respectively, no effect will be produced upon the cores; but when a current is caused to traverse both coils in series there will be included in the two inclosed core-sections, magnetism of like polarity at the adjacent ends, and hence the section o will be repel'led from the section c2. The exterior section, c6, will receive opposite polarity at its respective ends, and will tend to attract the section c. If the current be of sufficient strength it will overcome the tension of the spring c4 and draw the section c away from the stop c5 and toward the stop om, overcoming the tension of the spring c4.
A receiving-instrument,which is preferably in this instancea repeating-sounder or local relay, ,is included in the circuit of a local battery, o', one pole of which is connected through this instrument with the stop c5,while the other is connected with the movable armature-section c. The movements of the section c, occasioned in this manner, serve to complete and interrupt the circuit of the local battery o', and thus to operate the receivinginstrument T.
The conductor 10, from one coil of the relay R,leads to the earth at G,while the conductor 13 leads through a suitable artificial resistance, r', to the main line L at a point outside the switch S. When, therefore, one pole of the battery O or O2 is connected with the main line, the opposite pole is put to the earth through the point 7 and the conductors 8., 9,
This is and 10. One-half of the current will reach the earth at G', traversing one coil of each instrument R and R2. The portion of current which will traverse this circuit is dependent in part upoii' the resistance of the line, for it is this current or its equivalent which traverses the main line. The other half of the current passes from the point 7, by way of the conductors 11,12,and 13, and resistance r', through switch S, where it unites with the portion of the current traversing the main line; thence through the conductor 3 back to the opposite pole of the battery. This circuit constitutes the artificial line, and the resistance r' must therefore be so adjusted as to approximately equal the resistance of the main line, so that the portion of the current traversing the line L and the conductors 8, 9, and 10 will be approximately equal to that traversing the conductors 11, 12, and 13, including the resistance r. The current reaching the point 7, it will be understood, finds there two paths to the conductor 3, one through the artificial line 18, including the resistance r', and the other through the earth from the point G', and thence from the distant station through the main line. The resistance of the main line is equalized by the articial resistance r. j
A condenser, E, has one of its terminals e connected with the conductor 6, by a branchconductor, 14, and its otherterminal e'Z connected by a conductor,15,in which is inserted a resistance, rwith the earthat G.
Incoming currents from the distant station traverse the conductor 3 and the batteries O or O2, (whichever chances to be connected at the moment with the main line,) thence they pass through the conductor 6 to the conductor 8, and reach the earth by way of one coil onlyof each receiving-instrument. Another,but comparatively small portion of the incoming current,will pass by the way of the conductor 13, including the resistance r and one coil of each receiving-instrument, to theppoint 7; thence through the remaining coil of each instrument, but this time in the same direction as the portion of the current which traverses the conductor 3, reaching the earth at G. The current thus caused to traverse the receivinginstruments will combine the magnetism in the cores of the respective receiving-instrumentstand will cause4 the same to respond to the signals of the transmitting-station in a manner which will be readily understood.
-The switch S consists of an arm, s', capable of being placed in contact with either of two points, Sl or S3. The point s2 is connected with the conductor 3, and the apparatus has hereinbefore been described as if the arm were in contact with this point. When, however, it is desired to adj ust the balance of the apparatus before commencing to operate, or to receive signals through the instruments R and R2 and not have'the batteries in circuit, the switch-arm s is placed in contactvwith the point s3.
ductor 16 with the conductor 6, so that the This point is connected by the con# IOC) ITO
l site direction.
incoming currents may reach the conductor 6 without being caused to traversev the batteries and transmitting-instruments. y
It is well known that at every interruption or change in the polarity of a current upon the main line a static discharge occurs which consists ofa momentary current in the oppo- As this discharge is liable to give false signals upon the receiving-instrument, it is necessary to neutralize or destroyT it, which result is effected by means of a condenser, E. It will be seen that the current transmitted upon the main line by the bat-1 Vteries O and O2 will be in the opposite direction from that traversing the conductor-6, and therefore opposite to that which charges the condenser E. When, therefore, a discharge from the line takes place there will occur an opposite discharge from the condenser` E, which will tend to neutralize the static discharge in the conductor 6, and therefore no effect will be produced by the static discharge upon lthe instruments R and R2. The. resistance r2 is employed for regulating the amount of charge and discharge of the condenser E.
In Fig. 2 there is shown an organization of apparatus designed especially to prevent the occurrence of false signals upon the instrument R', which might be occasioned by the slight movement of the armature-core c at the reversal of the incoming currents. rlhis additional instrument, which may be called a governing relay, consists ot' an electromagnet, F, differentially wound, and having its respective coilsincluded in the conductors 8`and- 11. It is provided with a reed-armature, f,which normally -rests against a piv` oted 'arrn,j2.' The tension of the spring f3 presses this arm against the end-of the reed 4o f. An incoming-cu rrent tends to magnetize "the electro-magnet and slightly depress the reed-armature.
The tension of the springf3 keeps the arm f2 in contact with the reed- Al reversal of the currents of the reason that the movement of the reed-armature is insufficient to throw the pivoted arm or rider f2 upward against the tension of the spring. rlhe stronger current will, however, draw the armature forward such a distance that its upward movement upon a reversal -will throw the arm f 2 out of contact therewith,
' tery o will not be completed because of the momentary interruption occasioned by the separation of the arm f2 from the reed-armature f.
I claim as my inventionl. The combination, with a main line, of two sources of electricity, two transmitting-keys, one serving to varythe strength of a current transmitted to line, and the other to reverse its polarity, two receiving-instruments, the one responding to variations in strength, and the other to changes in polarity of the mainline currents, a conductor leading from one pole of the source of electricity at any time having its otherrpole connected with the line, which conductor leads through said iustruments to the earth, a second conductor leading from the rst conductor through said instruments in the opposite direction to the main line, and an articial resistance included in the last-named conductor.
2. lIhe combination, substantially as hereinbefore set forth, with a main line and means, substantially such as described, for transmit- .ting currents of either of two strengths, and of either polarity upon the main line, two differentially-wound receiving-instruments, means for transmitting currents through the coils of said instruments of the polarity opposite t0 that being transmitted vupon'the main line, a condenser having oneV plate connected with the conductor leading to the said instruments, and the other connected with the earth, whereby said condenser will receive a charge opposite to the static charge occasioned upon the main line.
3. The combination, substantially as hereinbefore set forth, of a main line, two batteries, means for connecting4 either pole of either battery with said main line, two receiving-instruments included between the said batteries and the earth, a magnetizing. helix applied to each receivinginstrument included between said batteries and the earth, a second magnetizing helix applied to each of said receivinginstruments included between said batteries and main' line, and means for determining the resistance included in the lastnamed circuit, substantially as described.
4. The combination, substantially as hereinbefore set forth, with a main line, of a receiving-instrument responding to incoming currents of a given polarity, and a second receiving-instrument responding to incoming IOO IIO
currents of a given strength, which consists of a helix, a pivoted core-section within the same, a soft-iron stationary core-section within said coil upon one side of said pivoted section, a retractile spring tending to pull said pivoted section toward said stationary section, and a soft-iron plate exterior to said coil upon the side opposite to said pivoted section.
5. In a multiple telegraph system, a receiving instrument consisting ofa magnetizing coil, a pivoted core-section, astationary core- .section, means tending to hold said pivoted section toward said stationary section, a soft- -iron plate exterior to said coil, and a contact step for said pivoted section, substantially as described.
6. The combination, substantially as hereinbefore set forth, with a main line and two 4 differentially-wound receivinginstruments,of means for transmitting currents to said main line from one pole of a battery, and through one coil of each of said instruments in one direction to the earth from the other pole of the battery, and means for transmitting currents from the last-named battery-pole through the remaining coil of each instrument in the opposite direction to the pole connected with the line, substantially as described.
7. The combination, substantially as hereinbefore set forth, with a main line and two differentially-wound receiving-instruments, of a battery located between the main line and the receiving-instruments, means for transmitting currents from one pole of the battery to the main line and from the other in opposite directions through the coils of said instruments, a condenser bridging from the pole of the battery connected with the earth round said receiving-instrument.
8. The combination, substantially as hereinbefore set forth, with a telegraphic receiving-instrument and a local circuit, the connections of which are controlled by said receiving-instrument, of a governing relay, a circuit-controller included in the main line circuit, consisting of an armature, a pivoted contact-arm, means for normally holding the I of given strength, and through which arma-V ture and arm the connections of said local battery are normally completed.
9. The combination,substantially as hereinbefore set forth, with a main line and a telegraphic receiving-instrument included therein, of an electro-magnet also included in said main-line circuit, a reed armature applied to said magnet, an arm resting upon said armature, a spring tending to hold said arm against said armature, and at the same time to press the latter toward its electro-magnet, a local circuit, the connections of which are normally completed through said arm and armature with the contact-point and armature-lever of said first-named instrument.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name,this 18th day of April, A. D. 1885. I
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2490895A (en) * 1945-02-22 1949-12-13 Mallory & Co Inc P R High-frequency vibrator
US2731527A (en) * 1952-11-04 1956-01-17 Gen Railway Signal Co Electromagnetic relays

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2490895A (en) * 1945-02-22 1949-12-13 Mallory & Co Inc P R High-frequency vibrator
US2731527A (en) * 1952-11-04 1956-01-17 Gen Railway Signal Co Electromagnetic relays

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