US3714796A - Cryogenic refrigeration system with dual circuit heat exchanger - Google Patents

Cryogenic refrigeration system with dual circuit heat exchanger Download PDF

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US3714796A
US3714796A US3714796DA US3714796A US 3714796 A US3714796 A US 3714796A US 3714796D A US3714796D A US 3714796DA US 3714796 A US3714796 A US 3714796A
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tube
gas
end
pressure
high
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R Longsworth
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Sumitomo (SHI) Cryogenics of America Inc
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Air Products and Chemicals Inc
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B9/00Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point
    • F25B9/02Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point using Joule-Thompson effect; using vortex effect

Abstract

Disclosed is a miniature cryogenic refrigeration system employing a dual circuit heat exchanger to effect rapid cooldown of the system. The heat exchanger is characterized in that the cooldown circuit is disposed within the run or steady state circuit with both circuits employing the same high pressure gas as the refrigerant.

Description

United States Patent Longsworth 1 1 Feb. 6, 1973 541 CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION 3,095,711 7/1963 Wurtz ..62/5l4 SYSTEM WITH DUAL CIRCUIT HEAT 3,353,371 11/1967 Hammons ..62/5l4 3,415,078 12/1968 Liston 1 ..62/514 EXCHANGER 3,431,750 3/1969 Lefranc..... ..62/Sl4 [75] Inventor: Ralph C. Longsworth, Allentown,

Pa. Primary ExaminerMeyer Perlin [73] Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., g ggz fl ig Sherer James 0 Simmons and Allentown, Pa.

[22] Filed: July 30, 1970 [57] ABSTRACT [21] A L N 59,478 Disclosed is a miniature cryogenic refrigeration system employing a dual circuit heat exchanger to effect rapid cooldown of the system. The heat exchanger is [52] U.S. Cl. ..62/514 characterized in that the cooldown circuit is disposed [51] Int. Cl ..F25b 19/00 within the run or Steady state circuit with nq- [58] Field of Search ..62/5l4 employing the Same high pressure gas as the refrigerant. [56] References Cited 3 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,991,633 7/1961 Simon ..62/514 PATENTEDFEB 6 ma SHEET 1 BF 2 INVENTOR.

E& A

J ow Q Q RALPH C. LONGSWORTH BY H I g ATTORNEY.

PATENTEI] FEB 6 I975 SHEET 2 BF 2 INVENTOR.

RALPH C. LONGSWORTH ATTORNEY.

CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WITH DUAL CIRCUIT HEAT EXCHANGER BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION systems, most commonly referred to as cryostats, used in cryo-electronic systems such as cooling infra-red detectors and the like. These systems are useful in both fixed ground operations and in airborne detection systems. Such systems produce refrigeration by expansion of a gas through an orifice which is the well-known Joule-Thompson effect or cooling cycle.

A system of the type herein disclosed is shown in the US. Pat. No. 3,320,755 owned by the assignee of the present invention. The patentees disclosed a method of overcoming a major problem with prior art cryostats, namely, achieving initial rapid cool-down of the system. This is accomplished by employing a valve so that initially the refrigerant flows rapidly through the orifice to provide a rapid cooldown of the system and then the flow is valved down to the lesser rate to maintain the required level of refrigeration. Although the patentees valving system achieves the required rapid cooldown it requires the cryostat to have a large number of movable parts which in turn makes assembly of such devices difficult.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In order to simplify assembly of cryostats and avoid the problems of slow initial cooldown of the system it has been discovered that when a dual circuit heat exchanger in the form of a tube within a tube is used in place of the single heat exchanger heretofore used it is possible to achieve initial rapid cool-down of the system followed by reduced flow of refrigerant to maintain the level of refrigeration without internal valving of the cryostat. It has been further discovered that extension of the cool-down circuit tube beyond where it is intimately associated with the run or steady-state circuit has the same effect as including a Joule-Thompson orifice in the end of the tube.

cuit heat exchanger wherein each circuit of the heat exchanger uses the same refrigerant.

It is yet another object of this invention to provide a cryostat capable of initial rapid-cool-down without the need for internal valving of the refrigerant.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a greatly enlarged cross-sectional view, taken along line 1-1 of FIG. 2, of the heat exchanger according to the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a view taken along line 2-2 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of a cryostat according to the invention inserted in a vacuum test dewar.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT heat exchanger 10 consists of an outer tube 12,

preferably of stainless steel. Disposed perpendicular to the axis of tube 12 are a plurality of thermal conduction devices 14 commonly referred to as fins. At the discharge end 16 of tube 12 there is a plug 18 wherein is disposed a nozzle 20. The nozzle 20 acts as a Joule- Thompson orifice so that the high pressure gas exiting from tube 12 produces refrigeration. At the entry end of tube 12 is a fitting 22 containing an inlet conduit 24 for tube 12 and an opening 13 for tube 26. Tube 26 is placed inside of tube 12 and projects at both ends through cap 18 and fitting 22 respectively. The end 28 projecting through fitting 22 is connected'to a source of high pressure gas (not shown). The discharge end 30 projects beyond tube 12 sufficiently so that there is a pressure drop of the high pressure fluid in this portion of tube 26 and in effect the projection acts as a Joule- Thompson orifice/This projection of tube 26 obviates the necessity for a nozzle as is necessary for tube 12.

With the device of FIG. 1 and 2 refrigeration is achieved by connecting the entry end of conduit 24 and conduit 26 to a source of high pressure gas. Both conduits can be connected to the same source but must have individual flow control valves. Initially the gas is allowed to flow through both conduits but at a much greater rate through conduit 26. The greater flow rate of gas through conduit 26 causes a rapid cool-down of the system. Once the operating or steady-state temperature is reached the flow of gas through conduit 26 can be reduced significantly and in mostcases stopped entirely. The flow of gas through conduit 12 then maintains the level of refrigeration in the system. Normally the refrigerant exiting from the end 30 of conduit 26 and nozzle 20 is caused to flow toward the entry end 28 of conduit 12 where it is collected and recycled. In this manner the fins 14 are cooled by the recirculating refrigerant.

In FIG. 3 there is shown a cryostat 10. according to the invention disposed in a glass test dewar 40. The

cryostat 10' is disposed around a hollow mandrel 42. The mandrel 42 is sealed atthe end 44 inserted in the dewar 40 and has disposed therein a thermocouple 46 of the copper-constantan type.

The cryostat 10' contains an inner tube 26' connected through a porous filter 48 in a one branch of tee fitting 50 to a source of high pressure gas (not shown) such as Nitrogen. Thetube is fitted in the Tee 50 with a gas tight bushing 51 to prevent gas leakage. The outer tube 12 of cryostat 10' is connected through a tube connector 52 and bushing 53 to a second branch of Tee fitting 50 which communicates with a second supply path of high pressure gas. Disposed between the source of gas (not shown) and the entry end 28' of tube 12' is a porous filter 54. The Tee fitting 50 nowhas two available branches .56 and S8 for connection to a source of gas (not shown). The gas source can be the same for both connections, however, there must be suitable flow control means, e.g., a valve and flow meter, between each connection 56. 58 and the source of high pressure gas.

Enclosing the open end of dewar 40 is a cap 60 wherein is disposed a suitable sealing member 62 such as an O ring to assure a gas tight fit. The cap 60 holds the tube fitting 52, mandrel 42 and a return gas conduit 64 in fixed position and in a fluid tight arrangement with the dewar 40.

The fins 14 of cryostat terminate about twothirds of the length of the mandrel 42 projecting into the dewar 40. The nozzle of tube 12 and the projecting end of tube 26 continue beyond the finned portion of the cryostat to the end 44 of mandrel 42 with tube 26' being disposed adjacent the mandrel 42 and nozzle 20' surrounding the projecting length of tube 26'. The discharge ends 30' and 64 of tube 26 and nozzle 20 respectively project into the space 66 defined by the bottom of the inner flask 68 of dewar and the end of mandrel 42.

The voids 70,72 created by the wrapping of the tubes and finned tube against the walls of flask 68 can be filled with fiberglass string in order to force the returning refrigerant along the mandrel and into cap 60 and out through conduit 64 where it can be recycled.

In operation the device of FIG. 3 is connected to the source of high pressure gas (not shown) using branches 56 and 58 of Tee 50. Return conduit 64 can be put in the gas circuit or not as desired. The gas is adjusted so that a high flow rate is present in tube 26' and the normal steady state of refrigeration rate is flowing in conduit 12'. When the thermocouple 46 indicates operating temperature has been achieved the flow in conduit 26' can be reduced or stopped entirely. An inventory-of liquefied gas will be formed and maintained in the space 66 defined by the bottom of flask 68 in dewar 40. As long as the flow of gas is maintained in tube 12 the level of refrigeration the system should be constant.

It is also possible to use argon, air, oxygen, or

halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine atoms in place of nitrogen as the refrigerant depending upon the level of temperature desired.

While I have described my invention in the foregoing specification it is defined in the following claims:

1. A cryostat refrigeration system comprising: a mandrelwith temperature sensing means disposed therein, said temperature sensing means having electrical conduit means extending outwardly of said mandrel for connection to a temperature indicating means;

a dual circuit heat exchanger disposedaround said mandrel;

said heat exchanger comprisinga first tube with a first end'to be connected to a source of high pres sure gas and a second end containing a Joule- Thompson orifice having a plurality of fins disposed thereon generally perpendicular to the axis of the first tube,- a second tube smaller in diameter than said first tube and disposed within said first tube, said second tube having an inlet end connected to a source of high pressure gas and an exit end projecting beyond the end of said first tube containing the expansion orifice said projection being of a length to create a pressure drop of the high pressure gas in the projecting end of said second tube thereby achieving refrigeration; means for introducing high pressure gas into each of said tubes; whereby when operating said second tube promotes rapid cooldown of the system under an initial high rate of gas flow and after low temperature is indicated by the thermocouple the level of refrigeration can be maintained by throttling back the flow in the second tube substantially while maintaining a lesser flow in the first tube. 2. A refrigeration system according to claim 1 wherein the gas supplied to both tubes is the same and is selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, argon,

air, oxygen, and halogenated hydrocarbons containing at least one fluorine atom.

3. A cryogenic refrigeration system comprising: a coolant chamber having therein a reservoir for receiving a liquefied gaseous refrigerant; disposed within said chamber a cryostat for supplying said refrigerant to said reservoir in said chamber; said cryostat comprising a mandrel, disposed around said mandrel a first elongated finned tube with a first end connected to a source of high pressure gas and a second end containing a Joule-Thompson expansion orifice, a second elongated tube smaller in diameter than said first tube and disposed within said first tube, said second tube having an inlet end connected to a source of high pressure gas and an exit end projecting beyond the end of said first tube containing the expansion orifice said projection being of a length to create a pressure drop of the high pressure gas in the projecting end of ,said second tube to achieve refrigeration by expansion; means for introducing high pressure gas into each of said tubes thus providing an initial flow of high pressure gas in said second conduit promotes rapid cooldown of the chamber and refrigeration thereof is maintained by a lesser flow of high pressure gas only in the first tube.

Claims (3)

1. A cryostat refrigeration system comprising: a mandrel with temperature sensing means disposed therein, said temperature sensing means having electrical conduit means extending outwardly of said mandrel for connection to a temperature indicating means; a dual circuit heat exchanger disposed around said mandrel; said heat exchanger comprising a first tube with a first end to be connected to a source of high pressure gas and a second end containing a Joule-Thompson orifice having a plurality of fins disposed thereon generally perpendicular to the axis of the first tube, a second tube smaller in diameter than said first tube and disposed within said first tube, said second tube having an inlet end connected to a source of high pressure gas and an exit end projecting beyond the end of said first tube containing the expansion orifice said projection being of a length to create a pressure drop of the high pressure gas in the projecting end of said second tube thereby achieving refrigeration; means for introducing high pressure gas into each of said tubes; whereby when operating said second tube promotes rapid cooldown of the system under an initial high rate of gas flow and after low temperature is indicated by the thermocouple the level of refrigeration can be maintained by throttling back the flow in the second tube substantially while maintaining a lesser flow in the first tube.
1. A cryostat refrigeration system comprising: a mandrel with temperature sensing means disposed therein, said temperature sensing means having electrical conduit means extending outwardly of said mandrel for connection to a temperature indicating means; a dual circuit heat exchanger disposed around said mandrel; said heat exchanger comprising a first tube with a first end to be connected to a source of high pressure gas and a second end containing a Joule-Thompson orifice having a plurality of fins disposed thereon generally perpendicular to the axis of the first tube, a second tube smaller in diameter than said first tube and disposed within said first tube, said second tube having an inlet end connected to a source of high pressure gas and an exit end projecting beyond the end of said first tube containing the expansion orifice said projection being of a length to create a pressure drop of the high pressure gas in the projecting end of said second tube thereby achieving refrigeration; means for introducing high pressure gas into each of said tubes; whereby when operating said second tube promotes rapid cooldown of the system under an initial high rate of gas flow and after low temperature is indicated by the thermocouple the level of refrigeration can be maintained by throttling back the flow in the second tube substantially while maintaining a lesser flow in the first tube.
2. A refrigeration system according to claim 1 wherein the gas supplied to both tubes is the same and is selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, argon, air, oxygen, and halogenated hydrocarbons containing at least one fluorine atom.
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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3782129A (en) * 1972-10-24 1974-01-01 Gen Dynamics Corp Proportionate flow cryostat
US3952543A (en) * 1974-12-13 1976-04-27 Hughes Aircraft Company Quick cooling cryostat with valve utilizing Simon cooling and Joule Thompson expansion
FR2322337A1 (en) * 1975-08-26 1977-03-25 Air Liquide Coolant supply device of a refrigerator opened circuit and refrigeration system comprising such a device
FR2335806A1 (en) * 1975-12-15 1977-07-15 Texas Instruments Inc cryogenic cooler with thermal compensation device
EP0020111A2 (en) * 1979-05-23 1980-12-10 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Arrangement comprising a cryogenic refrigerator and an insulated enclosure, and an assembly including such an arrangement
FR2520131A1 (en) * 1982-01-19 1983-07-22 Telecommunications Sa Device for regulating a refrigerator to Joule-Thomson effect
EP0173599A1 (en) * 1984-07-25 1986-03-05 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Probe for cooling by the Joule-Thomson effect
EP0174470A1 (en) * 1984-08-24 1986-03-19 Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs-GmbH Refrigeration system
US4653284A (en) * 1984-06-29 1987-03-31 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Joule-Thomson heat exchanger and cryostat
FR2598206A1 (en) * 1986-05-05 1987-11-06 Air Liquide Joule-Thomson cooler.
FR2599128A1 (en) * 1986-05-26 1987-11-27 Air Liquide A method of supplying a Joule-Thomson cooler and cooling apparatus for its implementation
US5787713A (en) * 1996-06-28 1998-08-04 American Superconductor Corporation Methods and apparatus for liquid cryogen gasification utilizing cryoelectronics
US6173577B1 (en) 1996-08-16 2001-01-16 American Superconductor Corporation Methods and apparatus for cooling systems for cryogenic power conversion electronics
US20040187519A1 (en) * 2003-03-28 2004-09-30 Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha Cryogenic refrigerator
US7040099B2 (en) * 2001-11-21 2006-05-09 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Cryostat
US20070039351A1 (en) * 2003-02-28 2007-02-22 Cheolho Bai Refrigeration system having an integrated bypass system

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2991633A (en) * 1958-03-17 1961-07-11 Itt Joule-thomson effect cooling system
US3095711A (en) * 1962-01-31 1963-07-02 Jr Howard P Wurtz Double cryostat
US3353371A (en) * 1966-06-23 1967-11-21 Gen Dynamics Corp Dual tube regenerative cryostat
US3415078A (en) * 1967-07-31 1968-12-10 Gen Dynamics Corp Infrared detector cooler
US3431750A (en) * 1965-12-02 1969-03-11 Philips Corp Gas-expansion refrigerator

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2991633A (en) * 1958-03-17 1961-07-11 Itt Joule-thomson effect cooling system
US3095711A (en) * 1962-01-31 1963-07-02 Jr Howard P Wurtz Double cryostat
US3431750A (en) * 1965-12-02 1969-03-11 Philips Corp Gas-expansion refrigerator
US3353371A (en) * 1966-06-23 1967-11-21 Gen Dynamics Corp Dual tube regenerative cryostat
US3415078A (en) * 1967-07-31 1968-12-10 Gen Dynamics Corp Infrared detector cooler

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3782129A (en) * 1972-10-24 1974-01-01 Gen Dynamics Corp Proportionate flow cryostat
US3952543A (en) * 1974-12-13 1976-04-27 Hughes Aircraft Company Quick cooling cryostat with valve utilizing Simon cooling and Joule Thompson expansion
FR2322337A1 (en) * 1975-08-26 1977-03-25 Air Liquide Coolant supply device of a refrigerator opened circuit and refrigeration system comprising such a device
FR2335806A1 (en) * 1975-12-15 1977-07-15 Texas Instruments Inc cryogenic cooler with thermal compensation device
EP0020111A2 (en) * 1979-05-23 1980-12-10 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Arrangement comprising a cryogenic refrigerator and an insulated enclosure, and an assembly including such an arrangement
EP0020111A3 (en) * 1979-05-23 1981-02-11 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Cryogenic refrigerators, arrangement incorporating such cryogenic refrigerators and system incorporating such cryogenic refrigerators
FR2520131A1 (en) * 1982-01-19 1983-07-22 Telecommunications Sa Device for regulating a refrigerator to Joule-Thomson effect
EP0084308A2 (en) * 1982-01-19 1983-07-27 Societe Anonyme De Telecommunications (S.A.T.) Regulating device for a Joule-Thomson effect cooling apparatus
EP0084308A3 (en) * 1982-01-19 1983-08-03 Societe Anonyme De Telecommunications Regulating device for a joule-thomson effect cooling apparatus
US4468935A (en) * 1982-01-19 1984-09-04 Societe Anonyme De Telecommunications Device for regulating a Joule-Thomson effect refrigerator
US4653284A (en) * 1984-06-29 1987-03-31 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Joule-Thomson heat exchanger and cryostat
EP0173599A1 (en) * 1984-07-25 1986-03-05 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Probe for cooling by the Joule-Thomson effect
EP0174470A1 (en) * 1984-08-24 1986-03-19 Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs-GmbH Refrigeration system
FR2598206A1 (en) * 1986-05-05 1987-11-06 Air Liquide Joule-Thomson cooler.
EP0245164A1 (en) * 1986-05-05 1987-11-11 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Joule-Thomson cooler
FR2599128A1 (en) * 1986-05-26 1987-11-27 Air Liquide A method of supplying a Joule-Thomson cooler and cooling apparatus for its implementation
EP0247935A1 (en) * 1986-05-26 1987-12-02 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Feeding method for a Joule-Thomson cooler and cooling device for carrying it out
US6092372A (en) * 1996-06-28 2000-07-25 Russo; Carl J. Methods and apparatus for liquid cryogen gasification
US5787713A (en) * 1996-06-28 1998-08-04 American Superconductor Corporation Methods and apparatus for liquid cryogen gasification utilizing cryoelectronics
US6173577B1 (en) 1996-08-16 2001-01-16 American Superconductor Corporation Methods and apparatus for cooling systems for cryogenic power conversion electronics
US7040099B2 (en) * 2001-11-21 2006-05-09 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Cryostat
US20070039351A1 (en) * 2003-02-28 2007-02-22 Cheolho Bai Refrigeration system having an integrated bypass system
US20040187519A1 (en) * 2003-03-28 2004-09-30 Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha Cryogenic refrigerator
US7207191B2 (en) * 2003-03-28 2007-04-24 Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha Cryogenic refrigerator

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