US3650856A - Red phosphorus castable smoke producing composition - Google Patents

Red phosphorus castable smoke producing composition Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3650856A
US3650856A US3650856DA US3650856A US 3650856 A US3650856 A US 3650856A US 3650856D A US3650856D A US 3650856DA US 3650856 A US3650856 A US 3650856A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
composition
smoke
castable
cross
weight percent
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Glen D Artz
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Boeing Co
Original Assignee
North American Rockwell Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by North American Rockwell Corp filed Critical North American Rockwell Corp
Priority to US86415969A priority Critical
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3650856A publication Critical patent/US3650856A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C06EXPLOSIVES; MATCHES
    • C06BEXPLOSIVES OR THERMIC COMPOSITIONS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS EXPLOSIVES
    • C06B39/00Compositions containing free phosphorus or a binary compound of phosphorus, except with oxygen
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C06EXPLOSIVES; MATCHES
    • C06DMEANS FOR GENERATING SMOKE OR MIST; GAS-ATTACK COMPOSITIONS; GENERATION OF GAS FOR BLASTING OR PROPULSION (CHEMICAL PART)
    • C06D3/00Generation of smoke or mist (chemical part)
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S149/00Explosive and thermic compositions or charges
    • Y10S149/117Smoke or weather composition contains resin

Abstract

A castable pyrotechnic white smoke composition which comprises red phosphorous, an alkali metal nitrate, magnesium and a suitable castable polymeric binder.

Description

Artz

ited States Patent [451 Mar. 21, 1972 RED PHOSPHORUS CASTABLE SMOKE PRODUCING COMPOSITION Glen D. Artz, Canoga Park, Calif.

North American Rockwell Corporation Oct. 6, 1969 Inventor:

Assignee:

Filed:

Appl. No.:

U.S. Cl ..149/19,149/30,149/38, 149/43, 149/44, 149/61, 149/62, 149/88 Int. Cl; 3.1.? ..L';'. .,C06d 3/00 Field of Search 149/29, 30, 19, 38, 43, 44, 149/61, 62, 88

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 6/1922 Nichols 149/30 Primary Examiner-Carl D. Quarforth Assistant ExaminerE. A. Miller Attorney L. Lee Humphries and Thomas S. MacDonald [5 7] ABSTRACT A castable pyrotechnic white smoke composition which comprises red phosphorous, an alkali metal nitrate, magnesium and a suitable castable polymeric binder.

l 1 Claims, No Drawings RED PHOSPHORUS CASTABL'E SMOKE PRODUCING COMPOSITION Smoke markers or grenades are very useful in both military and commercial applications. In military applications, smoke markers can be used to identify target sites. Additionally, in both commercial and military applications such smoke markers are used for rescue operations to identify parties being retrieved. In order for a smoke marker to be readily handleable, it should be capable of being placed in a closed can or container which in some instances can actually be a grenade. If the smoke composition is so disposed in an enclosed container, it must be susceptible to generating smoke without the presence of oxygen or air. In other words, the composition should be self-sustaining. Further, smoke composition should be preferably capable of slow dissipation of the smoke over a given period of time, to allow for identification of the area in which the smoke is originating.

Prior to the herein invention, white phosphorous had often been utilized as the main smoke generating ingredient in various compositions. However, whitephosphorous has a drawback in that it is spontaneously combustible in air, which makes it extremely dangerous to handle. Further, white phosphorous rapidly dissipates smoke and does not allow for a gradual release thereof.

Little effort had been directed in the past to the use of red phosphorous smoke compositions. When red phosphorous was used it was in the form of pressed powder and was not cast as a grain. This is an expensive, time consuming and sometimes dangerous process. Further, pressed powders do not have the structural integrity of cast grains. The previous pressed red phosphorous compositions additionally need air in order to burn and were not self-sustaining, and thus could not be used in closed containers where air could not reach the material.

Thus an object of this invention is to provide a self-sustaining castable white smoke composition.

Another object of this invention is to provide a self-sustaining castable smoke composition containing red phosphorous.

Still another object of this invention is to provide a castable -white smoke composition which has a long and controlled burn time.

The above and other objects of this invention are accomplished by a novel castable white smoke composition of this invention based on red phosphorous which will burn in the absence of atmospheric oxygen. The composition of the invention contains red phosphorous as a primary fuel ingredient to generate the smoke. The composition additionally contains an alkaline metal nitrate as an oxidizer. Additionally, the composition contains a metallic fuel, such as magnesium, in a relatively small amount. Finally, the composition is held together by a castable binder which additionally serves as a fuel. Virtually any polymeric binder which is suitable for solid propellant utilization can be used. It is preferred that the binder have a relatively high oxygen content and that it cure to a rubbery state. A typical example of such a binder is the class of polysulphide rubbers. Additional other materials in small amounts, such as cross-linking agents, plasticizers, fillers and the'like can be present in the composition. The ingredients are typically mixed together in a suitable mixer, poured into the containers or hardware for the smoke composition, and cured at suitable curing conditions of temperature and pressure. By varying the composition and including the use of reactive plasticizers, one can subtly control the burning rate of the smoke compositions ofthis invention.

It is believed that the invention will be better understood from the following detailed description and examples.

The main component of the smoke composition of this invention is red phosphorous. As indicated, prior to this invention, red phosphorous was very seldom used in smoke compositions. For example, in an early patent, U.S. Pat. No. 528,5]5, red phosphorous was combined with nitrate and pressed in one embodiment to form a composition which would produce a bright flash of light. However, it was not disclosed as a smoke generating composition. Where red phosphorous has been previously used in an attempt to form a smoke generating composition, it additionally was in a pressed form, not cast, and required the presence of air to burn. White phosphorous, on the other hand, has been used mostly in the past in smoke compositions. However, it is spontaneously combustible in air, as indicated, and does not provide a slow controlled dissipation of smoke.

The red phosphorous used in this invention can vary from 31 to 47 weight percent of the smoke composition. Red phosphorous is normally in a fine particle form. It is not readily obtainable in various size particles. Because of this, one cannot readily achieve a high solid loading in a cast composition, and thus the upper limit of 47 weight percent of the material is determined by a solids loading capability for cast compositions.

An alkali metal nitrate is used in the composition of this invention as an oxidizer. Typical nitrates include sodium and potassium nitrates. One of the primary problems in forming a suitable composition is an unwanted reaction between the oxidizer and the phosphorous. Thus, highly reactive materials, such as the chlorates and perchlorates, are not suitable for the compositions of this invention. The nitrate is used in a solid particulate form in amounts varying from 18 to 32 weight percent of the smoke composition.

In order to generate a hot enough flame to sustain burning of the phosphorous, magnesium is added to the composition of the invention. Magnesium reacts with the nitrate present to generate the heat required for continued combustion of the phosphorous without snuffing out. Further, the reaction of the magnesium with the nitrate helps to provide reliable ignition of the smoke composition. It has been found that from 4 to 5 weight percent magnesium in the smoke composition serves to accomplish the aforegoing purposes.

In order to form a suitable castable smoke composition, a polymeric binder is used. Virtually any binder which has been found suitable for solid propellant compositions can be used herein. However, it is not desirable to have the smoke composition too rigid or brittle, since it is subject often to shock loads particularly when it is used as a grenade. In fact it is preferred that the polymer cure to a rubbery state.

Additionally, it has been found desirable to have a high oxygen containing binder because the quantity of solid oxidizer required can be reduced if the binder can supply some of the oxygen required for oxidation of the phosphorous and other fuels present in the composition. As a result, preferred binders include the polysulfide rubbers, polysulfide-epoxy mixtures such as Thiokol LP-3/Dow Epoxy DER 321 and DER 736 and polyesters produced from the reaction of dibasic acids with dihydric alcohols. A typical polyester binder is hydroxy-terminated polyester resin R-l 8 as supplied by Mobay Chemical Co. formed from adipic acid and diethylene glycol. Additionally, hydroxy and carboxy terminated butadienes are further contemplated. In fact, any of the polymeric binders set forth can be used herein. Together with the polymer material, there is generally utilized a suitable plasticizer and cross-linking agent.

Various suitable plasticizers are contemplated, which are conventional and well known in the art depending upon the binder selected. Typical plasticizers include, for example, triacetin, bis-dinitropropylacrylate-formal (BDNPA-F), and trimethylolethanetrinitrate (TMETN). Various other plasticizers, of course, are contemplated and can be used.

In addition to the plasticizers, the binder composition will have a certain amount of cross-linking material added thereto. Preferred cross-linking material is PAPI which is polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate. Additional cross-linking agents could include, but are not limited to for example, trimethylolpropane, hexanetriol, castor oil, toluene diisocyanate, diphenyl-methane diisocyanate and MAP0 which is tris [l-(2-methyl)-aziridinyl] phosphine oxide.

Generally, the binder and plasticizer, if present, will constitute from 25 to 35 weight percent of the smoke composition. The weight ratio of plasticizer to hinder can vary from :1 to 1.521. The cross-linking agent will vary from to 20 weight percent of the active binder material, depending upon the materials used and the state of cure desired in the end product.

Further, it has been found that FEAA, which is ferric acetylacetonate, can be added to the composition of this invention to provide accelerated cure. Generally from 0.001 to 0.01 weight percent of EEAA is added for this purpose. Other accelerators can be used to hasten the cure time. Selection of fuel accelerators will depend on the composition chosen. For example, when TMETN is a plasticizer then trimethylolpropane TMP, is a most suitable accelerator together with FEAA.

It should be pointed out that the aforegoing composition ranges set forth provide a smoke that is underoxidized. In other words, from a stoichiometric standpoint there is not enough oxidizer present to furnish oxygen for the full combustion of the fuel components. This is very important to the herein invention in that it has been found that in fully oxidized or over oxidized compositions the smoke will burn too vigorously in an uncontrollable manner. However, the composition does provide a castable smoke which does burn in the absence of atmospheric oxygen. Prior to the herein invention a castable red phosphorous smoke composition which will burn in the absence of air was not believed to be known.

The formulation of the smoke is simple and straightforward. Generally the magnesium, phosphorous, plasticizer, and binder are first added to a mixer and mixed at a suitable temperature for a period of time to achieve homogeneity. The nitrate is then added and additional mixing under vacuum is accomplished at the mixed temperature. A vacuum is utilized at this stage to remove any air entrapped in the composition so that more dense castings can be made. Finally, after the nitrate has been mixed into the composition the cross-linking agent and other additives such as the FEAA are added and the final mix continued until all the materials have been thoroughly dispersed. It is preferred to vacuum cast the mixture into prepared hardware used, such as cans or grenades or any other suitable containers for the smoke composition. Casting conditions will of course vary depending upon the binder and cross-linking agents utilized. As indicated, the cure should provide a rubbery final composition as compared to a brittle or rigid one.

In order to start or initially ignite the smoke composition an igniter is required. The smoke composition of this invention can be ignited by virtually any ignition technique utilized for solid propellant ignition. These include a boron/potassium nitrate pellet, electric squibs, electric detonators and explosive materials such as Detacord, Primacord, and Pyroeore. Additionally a first fire mix or igniter mix can be coated onto a surface. A typical ignition composition is comprised of silicon, lead oxide and cuprous oxide which would be mixed with nitrocellulose in a suitable solvent to form a lacquer that is spread onto the surface to be ignited. It is believed that the invention will be further understood from the following detailed examples.

EXAMPLE I A 5,000-gram batch of a smoke composition of this invention was prepared having the following composition expressed in weight percent. In this and the following examples the percent accelerator is added above the entire composition of the A standard l-gallon Baker-Perkins vertical mixer commonly used for solid propellant mixing was used to mix the ingredients of this invention. The polyester binder, triacetin, magnesium, and phosphorous were all initially added to the mixer and mixed for 15 minutes at F. The mixing was then stopped and the sodium nitrate was then added and mixing continued for an additional 10 minutes under vacuum at F. After completion of this time period the PAP! and FEAA were then finally added and the mixing was continued for an additional 10 minutes at 160 F. under vacuum. At this point, the mixing of the smoke composition was complete and ready for casting. The composition was vacuum cast into polyethylene tubes which were 2% inches long and had a diameter of three-fourths of an inch. The filled tubes were placed in an oven and cured at 160 F. for 16 hours to a rubbery state.

These filled tubes were ignited by an electric squib and the burn times evaluated by visual observation and a stopwatch. Standard solid propellant strand burning rate equipment (Atlantic Research Corp.), which provides automatic recording of burn times, has also been utilized for burn rate evaluation although open air tests are preferable for obvious reasons.

The aforegoing composition was determined to have a buming rate of 0.70 inch per minute. This composition was additionally found to have an autoignition temperature in excess of 500 F. and was insensitive to impact with a 5 pound weight from a height of at least 50 inches. The composition burned with a bright yellow flame and produced voluminous quantities of white smoke.

EXAMPLE II A slow burning formulation was tested as compared to that described in Example 1. The composition of the smoke in this example comprised:

Compound Wt.

Red Phosphorous 46.90 Sodium Nitrate 18.30 Magnesium 4.60 Mobay R-18 Polyester Binder 14.00 Triacetin 15.80 PAP] 1.40 FEAA (added) 0.02

EXAMPLE III A fast burning formulation in accord with this invention was formulated for this example using the procedures of Example I and the same polyethylene tubes for casting the grain. The composition used in this example comprised:

Compound Wt. 7:

Red Phosphorous 31.30 Sodium Nitrate 31.30 Magnesium 4.50 Mobay R-l8 Polyester Binder 1 1.60 PAPl 0.90 TMETN 20.30 TMP (added) 0.10 FEAA (added) 0.02

Because of the presence of the TMETN instead of the triacetin, together with the TMP, burning rates varying from 1.57 to 2.16 inches/minute were obtained from samples tested. This indicates that the burning rate of this composition was from two to three times as great as the composition set forth in Example I. Once again, this composition burned with a bright yellow flame producing large quantities of white smoke.

lclaim:

1. A castable smoke producing composition comprising from 31 to 47 weight percent red phosphorous, from 18 to 32 weight percent alkali metal nitrate, from 4 to 5 weight percent magnesium and from to 35 weight percent of a castable polymeric binder.

2. The composition of claim 1 in which said alkali metal nitrate is potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate.

31 The composition of claim 1 in which the castable polymeric binder is a castable polysulphide, polysulphideepoxy mixture, polyester or polybutadiene.

4. The composition of claim 3 in which the polybutadiene is a hydroxy or carboxy terminated polybutadiene.

5. The composition of claim 3 in which the polyester is prepared by the reaction of a dibasic acid with a dihydric a1- cohol.

6. The composition of claim 5 in which the dibasic acid is adipic acid and the dihydric alcohol is diethylene glycol.

7. The composition of claim 1 in which the castable polymeric binder includes a suitable plasticizer and cross-linking agent.

8. The composition of claim 7 in which the cross-linking agent is present in an amount of from 10 to 20 weight percent based on a total castable polymeric binder content.

9. The composition of claim 7 in which the plasticizer is trimethylolethanetrinitrate, triacetin, or bisdinitropropylacrylate-formal.

10. The composition otlciaim 7 in whichthe cross-linking agent is polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate.

l 1. The composition of claim 7 in which the composition includes from 0.001 to 0.01 weight percent of ferric acetylacetonate catalyst.

Claims (10)

  1. 2. The composition of claim 1 in which said alkali metal nitrate is potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate.
  2. 3. The composition of claim 1 in which the castable polymeric binder is a castable polysulphide, polysulphide-epoxy mixture, polyester or polybutadiene.
  3. 4. The composition of claim 3 in which the polybutadiene is a hydroxy or carboxy terminated polybutadiene.
  4. 5. The composition of claim 3 in which the polyester is prepared by the reaction of a dibasic acid with a dihydric alcohol.
  5. 6. The composition of claim 5 in which the dibasic acid is adipic acid and the dihydric alcohol is diethylene glycol.
  6. 7. The composition of claim 1 in which the castable polymeric binder includes a suitable plasticizer and cross-linking agent.
  7. 8. The composition of claim 7 in which the cross-linking agent is present in an amount of from 10 to 20 weight percent based on a total castable polymeric binder content.
  8. 9. The composition of claim 7 in which the plasticizer is trimethylolethanetrinitrate, triacetin, or bis-dinitropropylacrylate-formal.
  9. 10. The composition of claim 7 in which the cross-linking agent is polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate.
  10. 11. The composition of claim 7 in which the composition includes from 0.001 to 0.01 weight percent of ferric acetylacetonate catalyst.
US3650856D 1969-10-06 1969-10-06 Red phosphorus castable smoke producing composition Expired - Lifetime US3650856A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US86415969A true 1969-10-06 1969-10-06

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3650856A true US3650856A (en) 1972-03-21

Family

ID=25342649

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3650856D Expired - Lifetime US3650856A (en) 1969-10-06 1969-10-06 Red phosphorus castable smoke producing composition

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (1) US3650856A (en)
JP (1) JPS497207B1 (en)
AU (1) AU2055370A (en)
BE (1) BE757039A (en)
CA (1) CA931041A (en)
DE (1) DE2048583A1 (en)
GB (1) GB1325450A (en)

Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3726225A (en) * 1970-11-27 1973-04-10 Us Army Plastic bonded smoke
US3986907A (en) * 1975-03-07 1976-10-19 Thiokol Corporation Illuminating flare composition containing tetranitrocarbazole
US4129465A (en) * 1977-07-21 1978-12-12 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Smoke-generating composition
US4151233A (en) * 1977-10-19 1979-04-24 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Method for preparing a smoke agent
US4503004A (en) * 1984-03-12 1985-03-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Method of molding a red phosphorous pyrotechnic composition
US4534810A (en) * 1984-01-30 1985-08-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Red phosphorous smoke producing composition
US4860657A (en) * 1978-05-05 1989-08-29 Buck Chemisch-Technische Werke Gmbh & Co. Projectile
US5522320A (en) * 1993-07-12 1996-06-04 Thiokol Corporation Low-toxicity obscuring smoke formulation
US20080245252A1 (en) * 2007-02-09 2008-10-09 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Non-toxic percussion primers and methods of preparing the same
US7700679B2 (en) 2005-02-18 2010-04-20 Tyco Electronics Corporation Heat-recoverable article and composition therefor
DE102008060573A1 (en) * 2008-12-04 2010-06-10 Diehl Bgt Defence Gmbh & Co. Kg Pyrotechnic active mass, useful to produce a smokescreen, comprises red phosphorus in surplus, metal nitrate, preferably e.g. sodium nitrate, silicon in porous or powdered single-crystalline state and binder preferably e.g. polyacrylate
US20100288403A1 (en) * 2006-03-02 2010-11-18 Busky Randall T Nontoxic, noncorrosive phosphorus-based primer compositions
US20110000390A1 (en) * 2007-02-09 2011-01-06 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Non-toxic percussion primers and methods of preparing the same
US8206522B2 (en) 2010-03-31 2012-06-26 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Non-toxic, heavy-metal free sensitized explosive percussion primers and methods of preparing the same
RU2472763C1 (en) * 2011-10-10 2013-01-20 Открытое акционерное общество "Чебоксарское производственное объединение им. В.И. Чапаева" Aerosol-generating composition for creation of smoke masking curtains
RU2478600C1 (en) * 2011-10-10 2013-04-10 Открытое акционерное общество "Чебоксарское производственное объединение им. В.И. Чапаева" Composition for forming smokescreen
US8460486B1 (en) 2005-03-30 2013-06-11 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Percussion primer composition and systems incorporating same
US8540828B2 (en) 2008-08-19 2013-09-24 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Nontoxic, noncorrosive phosphorus-based primer compositions and an ordnance element including the same
US8641842B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2014-02-04 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Propellant compositions including stabilized red phosphorus, a method of forming same, and an ordnance element including the same

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3028933C1 (en) * 1980-07-30 1989-11-23 Buck Chem Tech Werke Heavy-duty Nebelformkoerper with Breitbandtarnwirkung
GB2188921B (en) * 1983-04-05 1988-03-09 Haley & Weller Ltd Pyrotechnic composition for producing radiation-blocking screen
JP4969841B2 (en) * 2005-01-19 2012-07-04 日本工機株式会社 Infrared shielding fuming composition

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1419295A (en) * 1921-03-30 1922-06-13 Harry J Nichols Pyrotechnic composition
US2658874A (en) * 1944-11-07 1953-11-10 John P Clay Smoke agent
US3147161A (en) * 1961-06-19 1964-09-01 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Propellant composition cured with aziridinyl compounds
US3193422A (en) * 1962-02-19 1965-07-06 Buck Hedwig Smoke agents
US3245849A (en) * 1959-07-20 1966-04-12 Aerojet General Co Solid propellant compositions containing polyurethane resins of low cure temperature
US3418184A (en) * 1968-01-16 1968-12-24 Navy Usa Smoke producing propellant
US3431153A (en) * 1967-10-16 1969-03-04 Us Army Solidified plastic matrix containing white phosphorous
US3467558A (en) * 1967-09-01 1969-09-16 Dow Chemical Co Pyrotechnic disseminating composition containing an agent to be disseminated
US3488711A (en) * 1966-06-24 1970-01-06 Knapsack Ag Process for impregnating red phosphorus

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1419295A (en) * 1921-03-30 1922-06-13 Harry J Nichols Pyrotechnic composition
US2658874A (en) * 1944-11-07 1953-11-10 John P Clay Smoke agent
US3245849A (en) * 1959-07-20 1966-04-12 Aerojet General Co Solid propellant compositions containing polyurethane resins of low cure temperature
US3147161A (en) * 1961-06-19 1964-09-01 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Propellant composition cured with aziridinyl compounds
US3193422A (en) * 1962-02-19 1965-07-06 Buck Hedwig Smoke agents
US3488711A (en) * 1966-06-24 1970-01-06 Knapsack Ag Process for impregnating red phosphorus
US3467558A (en) * 1967-09-01 1969-09-16 Dow Chemical Co Pyrotechnic disseminating composition containing an agent to be disseminated
US3431153A (en) * 1967-10-16 1969-03-04 Us Army Solidified plastic matrix containing white phosphorous
US3418184A (en) * 1968-01-16 1968-12-24 Navy Usa Smoke producing propellant

Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3726225A (en) * 1970-11-27 1973-04-10 Us Army Plastic bonded smoke
US3986907A (en) * 1975-03-07 1976-10-19 Thiokol Corporation Illuminating flare composition containing tetranitrocarbazole
US4129465A (en) * 1977-07-21 1978-12-12 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Smoke-generating composition
US4151233A (en) * 1977-10-19 1979-04-24 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Method for preparing a smoke agent
US4860657A (en) * 1978-05-05 1989-08-29 Buck Chemisch-Technische Werke Gmbh & Co. Projectile
US4534810A (en) * 1984-01-30 1985-08-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Red phosphorous smoke producing composition
US4503004A (en) * 1984-03-12 1985-03-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Method of molding a red phosphorous pyrotechnic composition
US5522320A (en) * 1993-07-12 1996-06-04 Thiokol Corporation Low-toxicity obscuring smoke formulation
US7700679B2 (en) 2005-02-18 2010-04-20 Tyco Electronics Corporation Heat-recoverable article and composition therefor
US8460486B1 (en) 2005-03-30 2013-06-11 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Percussion primer composition and systems incorporating same
US9199887B2 (en) 2006-03-02 2015-12-01 Orbital Atk, Inc. Propellant compositions including stabilized red phosphorus and methods of forming same
US8524018B2 (en) * 2006-03-02 2013-09-03 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Percussion primers comprising a primer composition and ordnance including the same
US20100288403A1 (en) * 2006-03-02 2010-11-18 Busky Randall T Nontoxic, noncorrosive phosphorus-based primer compositions
US7857921B2 (en) * 2006-03-02 2010-12-28 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Nontoxic, noncorrosive phosphorus-based primer compositions
US20110100246A1 (en) * 2006-03-02 2011-05-05 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Percussion primers comprising a primer composition and ordnance including the same
US8454769B2 (en) 2007-02-09 2013-06-04 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Non-toxic percussion primers and methods of preparing the same
US8202377B2 (en) 2007-02-09 2012-06-19 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Non-toxic percussion primers and methods of preparing the same
US20080245252A1 (en) * 2007-02-09 2008-10-09 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Non-toxic percussion primers and methods of preparing the same
US20110000390A1 (en) * 2007-02-09 2011-01-06 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Non-toxic percussion primers and methods of preparing the same
US8454770B1 (en) 2007-02-09 2013-06-04 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Non-toxic percussion primers and methods of preparing the same
US8192568B2 (en) 2007-02-09 2012-06-05 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Non-toxic percussion primers and methods of preparing the same
US8540828B2 (en) 2008-08-19 2013-09-24 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Nontoxic, noncorrosive phosphorus-based primer compositions and an ordnance element including the same
DE102008060573B4 (en) * 2008-12-04 2016-08-11 Diehl Bgt Defence Gmbh & Co. Kg Pyrotechnic active mass for the production of a camouflage nebula
DE102008060573A1 (en) * 2008-12-04 2010-06-10 Diehl Bgt Defence Gmbh & Co. Kg Pyrotechnic active mass, useful to produce a smokescreen, comprises red phosphorus in surplus, metal nitrate, preferably e.g. sodium nitrate, silicon in porous or powdered single-crystalline state and binder preferably e.g. polyacrylate
US8206522B2 (en) 2010-03-31 2012-06-26 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Non-toxic, heavy-metal free sensitized explosive percussion primers and methods of preparing the same
US8470107B2 (en) 2010-03-31 2013-06-25 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Non-toxic, heavy-metal free explosive percussion primers and methods of preparing the same
US8641842B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2014-02-04 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Propellant compositions including stabilized red phosphorus, a method of forming same, and an ordnance element including the same
RU2478600C1 (en) * 2011-10-10 2013-04-10 Открытое акционерное общество "Чебоксарское производственное объединение им. В.И. Чапаева" Composition for forming smokescreen
RU2472763C1 (en) * 2011-10-10 2013-01-20 Открытое акционерное общество "Чебоксарское производственное объединение им. В.И. Чапаева" Aerosol-generating composition for creation of smoke masking curtains

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
BE757039A (en) 1971-03-16
BE757039A1 (en)
GB1325450A (en) 1973-08-01
AU2055370A (en) 1972-04-13
DE2048583A1 (en) 1971-04-15
CA931041A (en) 1973-07-31
CA931041A1 (en)
JPS497207B1 (en) 1974-02-19

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5449423A (en) Propellant and explosive composition
US4608102A (en) Primer composition
EP0693044B1 (en) Ignition compositions for inflator gas generators
US4758287A (en) Porous propellant grain and method of making same
US3972820A (en) Fire extinguishing composition
CA1070952A (en) Gas forming deflagrating compositions and method
US2783138A (en) Propellant compositions
US5074938A (en) Low pressure exponent propellants containing boron
US3901747A (en) Pyrotechnic composition with combined binder-coolant
US3257801A (en) Pyrotechnic composition comprising solid oxidizer, boron and aluminum additive and binder
US3669020A (en) Firebomb igniter devices and components therefor
ES2224118T3 (en) Lead free fulminant mix for percussion fulminant.
US5792982A (en) Two-part igniter for gas generating compositions
US3325316A (en) Pyrotechnic compositions of metal matrix with oxide dispersed therein
US5084118A (en) Ignition composition for inflator gas generators
US2416639A (en) Slow-burning powder composition
US2477549A (en) Explosive composition
US4697521A (en) Method for opaquing visible and infrared radiance and smoke-producing ammunition which implements this method
US4237787A (en) Incendiary projectile
US3898112A (en) Solid 5-aminotetrazole nitrate gas generating propellant with block copolymer binder
US3986909A (en) Boron-fuel-rich propellant compositions
US3865035A (en) Multi-use munition
US7584702B1 (en) Melted metal dispersal warhead
US2574466A (en) Smoke agent
FR2867469A1 (en) Reactive composition, useful in military and industrial explosives, comprises a metallic material defining a continuous phase and having an energetic material, which comprises oxidant and/or explosive of class 1.1