US3638859A - Fluid atomizers - Google Patents

Fluid atomizers Download PDF

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Publication number
US3638859A
US3638859A US3638859DA US3638859A US 3638859 A US3638859 A US 3638859A US 3638859D A US3638859D A US 3638859DA US 3638859 A US3638859 A US 3638859A
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US
United States
Prior art keywords
nozzle
orifice
stem
fluid atomizer
annular
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
John James Macfarlane
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National Research Development Corp UK
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National Research Development Corp UK
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Publication date
Priority to GB3739668A priority Critical patent/GB1207609A/en
Application filed by National Research Development Corp UK filed Critical National Research Development Corp UK
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Publication of US3638859A publication Critical patent/US3638859A/en
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Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • F23D11/34Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space by ultrasonic means or other kinds of vibrations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B1/00Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means
    • B05B1/26Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with means for mechanically breaking-up or deflecting the jet after discharge, e.g. with fixed deflectors; Breaking-up the discharged liquid or other fluent material by impinging jets
    • B05B1/262Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with means for mechanically breaking-up or deflecting the jet after discharge, e.g. with fixed deflectors; Breaking-up the discharged liquid or other fluent material by impinging jets with fixed deflectors
    • B05B1/265Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with means for mechanically breaking-up or deflecting the jet after discharge, e.g. with fixed deflectors; Breaking-up the discharged liquid or other fluent material by impinging jets with fixed deflectors the liquid or other fluent material being symmetrically deflected about the axis of the nozzle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B17/00Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups
    • B05B17/04Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods
    • B05B17/06Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods using ultrasonic or other kinds of vibrations
    • B05B17/0692Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods using ultrasonic or other kinds of vibrations generated by a fluid
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • F23D11/10Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space the spraying being induced by a gaseous medium, e.g. water vapour

Abstract

Air issuing at high velocity from an annular nozzle under choked flow conditions is directed at a resonator constituted by a well formed in a cup spaced from the nozzle and coaxial with it. The airflow is thus induced to vibrate and liquid is injected within the annular curtain and in the same direction to impinge on the vibrating air mass by which it is atomized into fine droplets.

Description

I United States Patent n51 3,638,859 MacFarlane Feb. 1, 1972 [54] FLUID ATOMIZERS 3,064,619 11/1962 Fortman ..239/102 3,070,313 12/1962 Fortman ..239/102 72 Inventor. John James MacFarlane, Church Crookham England 3,084,868 4/1963 Faler et al ..239/l02 [73] Assignee: National Research Development Corpora- F N ATENTS OR APPLICATIONS England 14,600 6/1914 England .239/421 [7.21 1'l1Cl1' Aug.1,1969

Primary Drummer-Lloyd L. King [M J Appl Assistant Examiner-Rcinhold W. Thieme Attorney-Cushman, Darby & Cushmun [30] Foreign Application Priority Data Aug. 6, 1968 Great Britain ..37,396/68 [571 ABSTRACT Air issuing at high velocity from an annular nozzle under [52] US. Cl ..239/l02, 239/421 choked flow conditions is dimmed at a resonator constituted [51] I111. y a We" formed in a p spaced from the nozzle and coaxial [58] Field of Search ..239/l02, 505, 520, 523, 421 with it The airflow is thus induced to vibrate and liquid is 56 R f Ct d jected within the annular curtain and in the same direction to 1 e erences l e impinge on the vibrating air mass by which it is atomized into UNlTED STATES PATENTS fine droplets- 3,478,963 1 H1969 Winn, Jr. ..239/l02 6 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure lirIlIIlII/Y PATENIED FEB 1 m2 A itarneys FLUID ATOMIZERS The invention relates to fluid atomizers in which a fluid is directed into a vibrating gaseous mass.

A vibratory sound field can be generated by the discharge of a high-velocity stream of gas into a tuned cavity. A resonance will be set up by the periodical loading and discharging of the cavity which can occur over an appreciable range of separation distances between the discharge point and the cavity. The resultant high intensity acoustic output possesses considerable energy and liquid directed into the zone of vibration can, according to the operating conditions, be atomized into exceedingly small droplets from about micron size upwards.

Various spray nozzles have utilized this feature with generally successful results. However, there is tendency for liquid from wetted surfaces to be reentrained in the form of large droplets which is unacceptable in many cases.

The present invention seeks to effect some improvement in this respect.

A fluid atomizer according to the invention comprises a body having an annular nozzle connected to discharge a highvelocity gas stream and at least one orifice located inside the nozzle and connected to discharge a stream of liquid in substantially the same axial direction as the gas stream, an openended resonator spaced from the nozzle and substantially coaxial therewith, with its mouth directed towards the nozzle, and a stem extending along the nozzle axis between the resonator well and the body.

in a preferred embodiment, the liquid discharge orifice is of annular configuration and is concentric with the nozzle.

According to a feature of the invention, a circumferential knife edge may be formed at the mouth of the resonator by an internal chamfer.

An embodiment of the invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying diagrammatic drawing which represents a fluid atomizer shown in partial section.

The fluid atomizer shown in the drawing comprises a cylindrical body 1 bored out axially to receive a sleeve 2 which carries a stem 3. The stem 3 has an intermediate portion 4 of the increased diameter which fits into a counterbore in the upper part (as shown in the drawing) of the sleeve 2 with radial clearance to define an axially extending annular passage 5. A passage 6 (shown in dotted lines) extends along the axis ofthe stem 3 from the lower end of the latter, where it communicates with an inlet union 7, to the midpoint of the enlarged portion 4 where it branches into a series of radially extending ducts terminating in holes 8 which communicate with the annular passage 5. The upper part of the body 1 is counterbored to form a cavity 9 and is also internally screw threaded to receive a ring member 10 having a tapered bore and being bevelled on its outer surface in the same direction as the taper of the bore. The ring member 10 surrounds the sleeve 2 and,

with the outer surface of the sleeve, defines a convergent nozzle in communication with the cavity 9 and having an annular outlet. A duct 11 extending through the body I in an axial direction serves to connect the cavity 9 with a second inlet union 12.

The upper end of the stem 3 carries a cup l3 comprising a bluff body counterbored to form a well and having an internal chamfer 14 which defines an annular knife edge at the mouth of the cup. The mouth of the cup is directed towards the nozzle aforementioned and spaced from it to give an axial clearance between the nozzle and the knife edge.

In operation, the inlet union 12 is connected to a gas supply, usually compressed air, the gas flowing from the nozzle outlet at near sonic velocity, as indicated by the arrows A. The gas passes from the nozzle into the well of the cup 13 which acts as a resonator in known fashion, the frequency being determined by the depth of the well and its spacing from the nozzle, the upper part of the stem 3 acting as a stabilizer.

Liquid introduced into the inlet nozzle 7 will flow to the annular passage 5 and thence as an annular stream as indicated by the arrows B to impinge on the vibrating as by which it is atomized and entrained to flow over the km e edge of the cup 13 into the surrounding atmosphere.

Providing the liquid is discharged within the curtain of gas and in the same general direction, it need not be discharged as an annular sheet, but can, according to circumstances, pass from a series of arcuate slots spaced circumferentially, from a ring of holes or even from a single hole.

lclaim:

l. A fluid atomizer comprising a body having an annular nozzle arranged to discharge a high-velocity gas stream and at least one orifice located inside the nozzle and arranged to discharge a stream of liquid in substantially the same axial direction as the gas stream, an open-ended resonator spaced from the nozzle and substantially coaxial therewith, with its mouth directed towards the nozzle, and a stem extending along the nozzle axis between the resonator and the body, means for feeding a liquid to said orifice, said liquid-feeding means including a passage in said stem and an annular passage communicating with said orifice, said passage in said stem and said annular passage communicating with each other at a point spaced from said orifice.

2. A fluid atomizer according to claim 1 in which the orifice is of annular configuration and is concentric with the nozzle.

3. A fluid atomizer according to claim 1 in which the orifice is defined in part by the stem.

4. A fluid atomizer according to claim 1 in which the stem serves to connect the resonator and the body.

5. A fluid atomizer according to claim 1 having a circumferential knife edge formed at the mouth of the resonator.

6. A fluid atomizer according to claim 5 in which the knife edge is defined by an internal chamfer.

Claims (6)

1. A fluid atomizer comprising a body having an annular nozzle arranged to discharge a high-velocity gas stream and at least one orifice located inside the nozzle and arranged to discharge a stream of liquid in substantially the same axial direction as the gas stream, an open-ended resonator spaced from the nozzle and substantially coaxial therewith, with its mouth directed towards the nozzle, and a stem extending along the nozzle axis between the resonator and the body, means for feeding a liquid to said orifice, said liquid-feeding means including a passage in said stem and an annular passage communicating with said orifice, said passage in said stem and said annular passage communicating with each other at a point spaced from said orifice.
2. A fluid atomizer according to claim 1 in which the orifice is of annular configuration and is concentric with the nozzle.
3. A fluid atomizer according to claim 1 in which the orifice is defined in part by the stem.
4. A fluid atomizer according to claim 1 in which the stem serves to connect the resonator and the body.
5. A fluid atomizer according to claim 1 having a circumferential knife edge formed at the mouth of the resonator.
6. A fluid atomizer according to claim 5 in which the knife edge is defined by an internal chamfer.
US3638859D 1968-08-06 1969-08-01 Fluid atomizers Expired - Lifetime US3638859A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB3739668A GB1207609A (en) 1968-08-06 1968-08-06 Improvements in or relating to fluid atomisers

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US3638859A true US3638859A (en) 1972-02-01

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DE (1) DE1940054A1 (en)
GB (1) GB1207609A (en)

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3784104A (en) * 1972-05-01 1974-01-08 Kennecott Copper Corp Gas cooler and atomizing spray nozzle thereof
DE2815085A1 (en) * 1977-04-08 1978-12-14 Nathaniel Hughes Device for generating stable air vortex
US4386738A (en) * 1981-10-02 1983-06-07 Combustion Engineering, Inc. Sonic atomizing spray nozzle
US4564375A (en) * 1983-07-18 1986-01-14 Evelyn Munk Humidification apparatus
EP1048358A2 (en) * 1999-04-29 2000-11-02 Genio Migliorati Water atomizing nozzle of impact type for dust suppression
US20060278410A1 (en) * 2005-06-13 2006-12-14 Reilly William J Fire suppression system using high velocity low pressure emitters
US20080105442A1 (en) * 2006-11-06 2008-05-08 Victualic Company Dual extinguishment fire suppression system using high velocity low pressure emitters
RU2534123C1 (en) * 2013-07-16 2014-11-27 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт химии Дальневосточного отделения Российской академии наук (ИХ ДВО РАН) Making of protective coatings on valve metals and their alloys
RU2536959C1 (en) * 2013-07-26 2014-12-27 Андрей Николаевич Дубровский Pneumatic-acoustic fluid sprayer
RU2536957C1 (en) * 2013-07-26 2014-12-27 Андрей Николаевич Дубровский Pneumatic-acoustic rod-type atomiser
RU2570678C1 (en) * 2014-06-04 2015-12-10 Российская Федерация, От Имени Которой Выступает Министерство Промышленности И Торговли Российской Федерации Pneumoacoustic fluid sprayer
US10532237B2 (en) 2010-08-05 2020-01-14 Victaulic Company Dual mode agent discharge system with multiple agent discharge capability

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB191414600A (en) * 1914-06-17 1915-06-17 Luigi Vittorio Nicolai Atomising or Spraying Apparatus.
US3064619A (en) * 1960-03-11 1962-11-20 Gen Precision Inc Acoustic generator and shock wave radiator
US3070313A (en) * 1962-03-05 1962-12-25 Astrosonics Inc Apparatus for the acoustic treatment of liquids
US3084868A (en) * 1962-07-09 1963-04-09 Kolene Corp Sonic nozzles
US3478963A (en) * 1967-07-17 1969-11-18 Archilithic Co Dispensing gun for fiber rovings and cementitious materials

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB191414600A (en) * 1914-06-17 1915-06-17 Luigi Vittorio Nicolai Atomising or Spraying Apparatus.
US3064619A (en) * 1960-03-11 1962-11-20 Gen Precision Inc Acoustic generator and shock wave radiator
US3070313A (en) * 1962-03-05 1962-12-25 Astrosonics Inc Apparatus for the acoustic treatment of liquids
US3084868A (en) * 1962-07-09 1963-04-09 Kolene Corp Sonic nozzles
US3478963A (en) * 1967-07-17 1969-11-18 Archilithic Co Dispensing gun for fiber rovings and cementitious materials

Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3784104A (en) * 1972-05-01 1974-01-08 Kennecott Copper Corp Gas cooler and atomizing spray nozzle thereof
DE2815085A1 (en) * 1977-04-08 1978-12-14 Nathaniel Hughes Device for generating stable air vortex
US4386738A (en) * 1981-10-02 1983-06-07 Combustion Engineering, Inc. Sonic atomizing spray nozzle
US4564375A (en) * 1983-07-18 1986-01-14 Evelyn Munk Humidification apparatus
EP1048358A2 (en) * 1999-04-29 2000-11-02 Genio Migliorati Water atomizing nozzle of impact type for dust suppression
EP1048358A3 (en) * 1999-04-29 2001-11-21 Genio Migliorati Water atomizing nozzle of impact type for dust suppression
US20060278410A1 (en) * 2005-06-13 2006-12-14 Reilly William J Fire suppression system using high velocity low pressure emitters
US20060278736A1 (en) * 2005-06-13 2006-12-14 Reilly William J High velocity low pressure emitter
US8376059B2 (en) 2005-06-13 2013-02-19 Victaulic Company Fire suppression system using emitter with closed end cavity deflector
US8141798B2 (en) 2005-06-13 2012-03-27 Victaulic Company High velocity low pressure emitter with deflector having closed end cavity
US7721811B2 (en) 2005-06-13 2010-05-25 Victaulic Company High velocity low pressure emitter
US7726408B2 (en) 2005-06-13 2010-06-01 Victaulic Company Fire suppression system using high velocity low pressure emitters
US20100193609A1 (en) * 2005-06-13 2010-08-05 Victaulic Company High Velocity Low Pressure Emitter with Deflector Having Closed End Cavity
US20100193203A1 (en) * 2005-06-13 2010-08-05 Victaulic Company Fire Suppression System Using Emitter with Closed End Cavity Deflector
US20100181081A1 (en) * 2006-11-06 2010-07-22 Victaulic Company Gaseous and Liquid Agent Fire Suppression System Using Emitters with Closed End Cavity Deflector
US7921927B2 (en) 2006-11-06 2011-04-12 Victaulic Company Gaseous and liquid agent fire suppression system using emitters with closed end cavity deflector
US7686093B2 (en) 2006-11-06 2010-03-30 Victaulic Company Dual extinguishment fire suppression system using high velocity low pressure emitters
US20080105442A1 (en) * 2006-11-06 2008-05-08 Victualic Company Dual extinguishment fire suppression system using high velocity low pressure emitters
US10532237B2 (en) 2010-08-05 2020-01-14 Victaulic Company Dual mode agent discharge system with multiple agent discharge capability
RU2534123C1 (en) * 2013-07-16 2014-11-27 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт химии Дальневосточного отделения Российской академии наук (ИХ ДВО РАН) Making of protective coatings on valve metals and their alloys
RU2534123C9 (en) * 2013-07-16 2016-12-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт химии Дальневосточного отделения Российской академии наук (ИХ ДВО РАН) Making of protective coatings on valve metals and their alloys
RU2536957C1 (en) * 2013-07-26 2014-12-27 Андрей Николаевич Дубровский Pneumatic-acoustic rod-type atomiser
WO2015012717A1 (en) * 2013-07-26 2015-01-29 Dubrovsky Andrey Nikolaevich Pneumo-acoustic liquid atomizer
WO2015012716A1 (en) * 2013-07-26 2015-01-29 Dubrovsky Andrey Nikolaevich Pneumo-acoustic rod-shaped atomizer
RU2536959C1 (en) * 2013-07-26 2014-12-27 Андрей Николаевич Дубровский Pneumatic-acoustic fluid sprayer
RU2570678C1 (en) * 2014-06-04 2015-12-10 Российская Федерация, От Имени Которой Выступает Министерство Промышленности И Торговли Российской Федерации Pneumoacoustic fluid sprayer

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GB1207609A (en) 1970-10-07
DE1940054A1 (en) 1970-02-26

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