US3605350A - Modular housing structure - Google Patents

Modular housing structure Download PDF

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US3605350A
US3605350A US3605350DA US3605350A US 3605350 A US3605350 A US 3605350A US 3605350D A US3605350D A US 3605350DA US 3605350 A US3605350 A US 3605350A
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Prior art keywords
beams
side
roof
modular
frame
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William Stewart Bowers
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WILLIAM STEWART BOWERS
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WILLIAM STEWART BOWERS
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34815Elements not integrated in a skeleton
    • E04B1/3483Elements not integrated in a skeleton the supporting structure consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2466Details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2472Elongated load-supporting part formed from a number of parallel profiles
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2484Details of floor panels or slabs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2496Shear bracing therefor

Abstract

A MODULATOR SRUCTURE SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED FOR USE AS PORTABLE SCHOOL ROOMS COMPRISES AT LEAST TWO MODULAR END SECTIONS, EACH HAVING A STEEL FRAMEWORK CONSISTING OF A BASE FRAME, CORNER POSTS SECURED TO THE BASE FRAME, A ROOF FRAME SECURED TO THE CORNER POSTS, PREFABRICATED, NON-LOAD BEARING SIDE AND END WALLS, AND CLAMPING MEANS ADAPTED TO MECHANICALLY CLAMP THE ADJACENT INNER EDGES OF THE TWO MODULAR END SECTION ROOF FRAMES, THUS TO BUTT THE INNER SIDE OF THE ADJACENT BASE FRAMES AND THE ADJACENT INNER CORNER POSTS TIGHTLY TOGETHER SUCH THAT THE SECTION ROOFS, FLOORS AND SIDE WALLS WILL BE JOINED TO PROVIDE AN INTEGRAL STRUCTURE. EACH MODULAR SECTION IS SPECIALLY ADAPTED TO BE PLANT FABRICATED AND TRANSPORTED TO THE SITE AND THERE HOISTED ONTO A PERPHERAL FOUNDATION. THE MODULATE STRUCTURES ARE DESIGNED SUCH THAT AN OPEN-SPAN RELOCATABLE STRUCTURE IS FORMED AND CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES ARE MADE NOT CRITICAL WITHOUT SACRIFICING STRUCTURAL RIGIDITY AND WEATHER-TIGHTNESS. A DIAGONAL FRAMING MEMBER IS PROVIDED TO ALLOW THE MODULE PERIMETER TO OVERHANGE THE FOUNDATION. HORIZONTAL PLATES ARE WELDED TO ONE MODULE FOR SUPPORTING A SIDE OF THE OTHER. OTHER FEATURES INCLUDE TUBULAR POSTS CONCEALING THE DOWNSPOUTS, INSET BEAMS FOR EASE OF WALL CONSTRUCTION, STEEL POCKETS FOR RECEIVING FOUNDATION POSTS, AND THE USE OF REINFORCING RODS WELDED TO THE STEEL STRUCTURE AT CRITICAL STRESS POINTS TO INCREASE THE STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY OF THE STEEL.

Description

Sept. 20, 1971 w. s. BOWERS MODULAR HOUSING STRUCTURE 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 5, 1969 9 WILLIAM S. BOWERS INVENTOR. BY mw ATTORNEYS p 1971 w. s. BOWERS 3,605,350

MODULAR HOUSING STRUCTURE Filed June 5, 1969 5 t s 2 m i k m. Q

w @F NN E27 v6 7? 42 8 w WILLIAM s. aqyqsns l\\ INTOR ATTORNEYS p 20, 1971 w. s. BOWERS 3,605,350

MODULAR HOUSING STRUCTURE Filed June 3. 1969 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 WILLIAM S. BOWERS INVENTOR.

ATTORNE Y5 P 20, 1971 w. s. BOWERS 3,605,350

MODULAR HOUSING STRUCTURE IO 05 IO wu um s. aowsns INVENTOR.

ATTORNEYS P 20, 197'i w. s. BOWERS 3,605,350

MODULAR HOUSING STRUCTURE Filed June 3, 1969 v 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 20 I64 84 9O 8O 84 8O 9O lF'lIG. 110 I FIG 115 WILLIAM s. aowsns 2O INVENTOR.

ATTORNEYS BY v United States Patent 01 ice 3,605,350 MODULAR HOUSING STRUCTURE William Stewart Bowers, 22800 76th W., Edmonds, Wash. 98020 Filed June 3, 1969, Ser. No. 829,887 Int. Cl. E04b 1/348 US. CI. 52-16 17 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A modular structure specifically designed for use as portable school rooms comprises at least two modular end sections, each having a steel framework consisting of a base frame, corner posts secured to the base frame, a roof frame secured to the corner posts, prefabricated, non-load bearing side and end walls, and clamping means adapted to mechanically clamp the adjacent inner edges of the two modular end section roof frames, thus to butt the inner side of the adjacent base frames and the adjacent inner corner posts tightly together such that the section roofs, floors and side walls will be joined to provide an integral structure. Each modular section is specially adapted to be plant fabricated and transported to the site and there hoisted onto a peripheral foundation. The modular structures are designed such that an open-span relocatable structure is formed and construction tolerances are made not critical without sacrificing structural rigidity and weather-tightness. A diagonal framing member is provided to allow the module perimeter to overhang the foundation. Horizontal plates are welded to one module for supporting a side of the other. Other features include tubular posts concealing the downspouts, inset beams for ease of wall construction, steel pockets for receiving foundation posts, and the use of reinforcing rods welded to the steel structure at critical stress points to increase the strength and rigidity of the steel.

This invention relates to modular housing structures which are fabricated in modular sections that can be transported to a site and joined together on site to provide a completed building. More particularly, this invention relates to structures of the type wherein the joined sections are relocatable, that is, may be detached and transported to another site.

Due to a combination of increasing construction costs and rapidly expanding school age populations, school districts are finding it increasingly difficult to meet school room requirements. So-called temporary classrooms, fabricated from wood have been employed for years to meet the need. Such structures, however, are usually relatively expensive unless fabricated in the unattractive barracks style, and furthermore such structures are not portable and therefore cannot be relocated to meet changing school district needs. The requirement of portability has been only partially met by the school districts utilizing house trailer structures inasmuch as house trailer structures do not possess sufiicient durability, rigidity and versatility to justify their expense on any basis other than emergency school needs.

From the standpoint of school districts, so-called portable school rooms should embody a versatile design that permits on-site assembly into a variety of floor plans at reasonable cost, and should be sufiiciently durable and transportable that they can be moved to other sites as room requirements change.

The above objects are met by the present invention which comprises in its broadest form a relocatable modular structure suitable for school rooms, homes, etc. having an interior open-span, that is no interior load bearing walls, and that is of sufficient structural strength that 3,605,350 Patented Sept. 20, 1971 two such modular structures may be joined or spanned to increase the interior, open-span floor space. Another broad concept of the invention is to provide two relocatable, open-span modular buildings each having a completely integral structural frame unit which when combined together derives strength from each to increase the overall structural strength of the combined unit.

A more specific feature of the invention includes combining two or more modular building units, each having an integral structural frame by supporting one from the other so that leveling of one end of each successive unit is automatically accomplished by supporting directly from the preceding unit.

Another feature of the invention is to employ on a relocatable building having an integral frame structure additional frame members that span the corners of rigid end and side beams to allow placement of the building on inaccurate foundations and/or foundations of dimensions less than the building perimeter.

Still another feature is to incorporate on a relocatable building having a rigid base frame structure a plurality of integral pockets which allow placement of the building on foundation posts and thus provide a high strength, easily detached connection with the foundation posts.

Other features of the invention are to provide laborsaving construction techniques that uniquely improve the appearance of a building, such as, a rigid, integral-frame, relocatable building. One such feature employs tubular post members which house, and thus conceal, the conventional down-spouts from a roof. Another such feature provides roof beams inset from vertical posts so that lsjidewall construction can be placed outside of the roof eam.

Still another feature is the use of reinforcing rods placed at critical stress points on an integral steel frame, relocatable building so that greater rigidity and strength are obtained without a substantial increase in the overall weight of the building.

These and other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following description and the accom panying drawings, of which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an exemplary single room school building embodying the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a modular half section of the FIG. 1 structure;

FIG. 3 is a plan view of the floor assembly of the FIG. 2 structure;

FIGS. 4 and 5 are detail views of the floor assembly taken along the lines 44 and 55 of FIG. 3;

FIG. 6 is a plan view of the roof assembly of the FIG. 2 structure;

FIGS. 7 and 8 are detail views of the roof assembly taken along the lines 7-7 and 8-8 of FIG. 6;

FIG. 9 is a segmented vertical cross section along the line 9-9 of FIG. 2 depicting the structure of the two joined modular sections;

FIG. 10 is a segmented horizontal cross section along the line 1010 of FIG. 2 depicting structure of two joined modular sections;

FIG. 11 is a top plan roof detail view, partially in section, further depicting the corner roof detail;

FIG. 12 is a vertical cross section of a downspout detail taken along the line 1212 of FIG. 11;

FIG. 13 is a perspective view of an exemplary modular section roof joining clamp;

FIG. 14 is a perpendicular detail view of an exemplary roof assembly-to-corner post joint;

FIG. 15 is a vertical exterior elevation view of an exemplary sidewall framework;

FIG. 16 is a vertical exterior elevation view of an exemplary endwall framework; and

FIG. 17 is a schematic illustration of a typical tunnel incorporated into a building structure.

In brief, a preferred form of relocatable building structure having a rigid integral frame, particularly a modulartype building, comprises two open-sided prefabricated modular end sections, each having two end walls and a side wall, a roof and a floor. The modular sections are designed to be connected at their open sides with their respective side walls, roof and floor edges in abutment to provide an enclosed, open-span floor area equal to the sum of their individual floor areas. Alternately, one or more intermediate sections or tunnels having two end walls, a roof and a floor may be positioned between the modular sections to enlarge the enclosed, open-span floor area. Such intermediate sections also may be prefabricated in modules of a unit size equal to the modular end sections.

Each modular end section comprises an integral steel frame formed of a steel base frame and a steel roof frame supported from the base frame by four steel posts attached to the base frame corners. A fioor is mounted on the base frame. End walls and an outer side wall are supported on the floor and connected to the roof frame. Both the base frame and the roof frame comprise parallel inner and outer side beams joined together by a plurality of parallel cross beams. The inner and outer beams are of steel. Preferably the cross beams are also of steel; however, the cross beams may be of wood. The base frame cross beams are sized such that sub-flooring may be carried by the cross beams with the sub-flooring top surface being flush with the top of the base frame side beams. The roof frame cross beams are sized such that subroofing may be carried by the cross beams with the subroofing top surface being above the top of the roof frame side beams. As a result of this construction, the flooring can be laid on top of the base frame side beams and the roofing can be laid above the roof frame side beams such that two modular sections can be positioned adjacent to one another to form an enclosed structure with their respective inner base and roof side beams at the same elevation and with their respective flooring and roofing in edgeto-edge adjacency. Also as a result of this construction, the respective roof frame inner side beams of two adjacent modular sections can be mechanically joined together from below without disrupting the integrity of the roofing at the roof joint. The roof frame is assembled in a manner that permits all sidewall and endwall framing to be pre-fabricated in equal heights with reasonable dimensional tolerance variations. The steel framework consisting of base, roof and posts provide a rigid frame structure that eliminates any requirement for the end and side walls to be load bearing, and also provides an integral structure that can be hoisted for transport and for placement on a foundation without structural damage to the frame or to the wall structures, and without requiring special base or roof reinforcing to obtain alignment with adjacent modular frame structures.

Referring now to FIGS. 2-5 and 9, the steel base frame for the modular end section depicted comprises parallel horizontal inner and outer steel channel side beams 12 and 14 positioned on edge and opening outward, and a plurality of horizontal steel channel intermediate cross beams 16 positioned on edge that extend between the side beams and are fillet welded to the vertical bases of the side beams in such a position that the bottom side of beams 12, 14 and 16 are flush. The ends of the inner side beam 12 are fillet welded to the sides of rectangular vertical tubular steel inner corner posts 1818 such that the outer edges of beam 12 are flush with the respective outer edges of inner corner posts 1818 and such that the bottom side of beam 12 and the bases of posts 1818 are fiush. The ends. of the outer side beam 14 are fillet welded to the sides of rectangular vertical tubular steel outer corner posts 2020 such that the outer edges of beam 14 are inset slightly from the adjacent outer edges of outer corner posts 2020 and such that the bottom side of beam 14 and the bases of posts 2020 are flush. Two outer horizontal steel channel cross beams 2222, identical to beams 16, are positioned on edge, opening outward, between the inner and outer posts and fillet welded to the sides of the respective posts 18 and 20 such that the outer edge of one end of each beam 22 is flush with the outer edge of the adjacent inner corner post 18, such that the inner edge at the other end of each beam 22 is flush with the inner edge of the adjacent outer corner post 20, and such that the bottom side of each beam 22 and the bases of the adjacent posts 18 and 20 are flush. Corner beams 24, identical to beams 16 and 22, are fillet welded to the vertical bases of the adjacent end portions of beams 12, 22 and 14, 22 on the bias as shown in FIG. 3. The corner beams provide supports for resting the modular section on a foundation of dimensions out of true with those of the base frame or of dimensions smaller than the inside perimeter of the base frame.

The sub-flooring matrix 26 is applied to the base frame 10 preparatory to flooring the base frame. This matrix consists of a plurality of rectangular wood stringers 28 laid across the cross beams 16 and 22 at equispaced intervals parallel to the side beams 12 and 14, and a plurality of rectangular wood spacers 30 overlaid on the cross beams and toenailed to the stringers. The cross beams are of a vertical width relative to the vertical side beam width such that the top surface of the sub-flooring matrix will be coplanar to the top surface of the side beams 12 and 14. Flooring 32 in sheet form, such as plywood, is applied to the sub-flooring matrix and nailed thereto. The flooring overlaps the side beams and is secured thereto by suitable means such as expansion bolts 34 as depicted in FIG. 4. By securing the flooring sheets to the sub-flooring matrix and to the side beams, the sub-flooring position will be maintained even though not itself directly secured to the base frame. This construction greatly simplifies fabrication of the modular structure floor while permitting use of a wood sub-flooring as a cushion between the flooring and the steel base frame. In the preferred form of the invention, the base frame width, from side beam to side beam, is some multiple of two feet and its length, from end cross beam to end cross beam, is some multiple of four feet and the cross beams are spaced four feet on centers. Thus, by spacing the wood stringers 28 two feet on centers, 4 x 8 foot plywood sheet flooring may be applied to the sub-flooring rapidly and efficiently. To increase fiooring to sub-flooring rigidity, the plywood sheets are staggered as shown in FIG. 3. At the corner posts, the corner plywood sheets will be notched to fit against the two inner sides of the adjacent posts. It has been found that dimensional lumber having a nominal 2 x 4 inch section laid on face is desirable for use as the stringers 28 and spacers 30, and that a plywood thickness of one inch is desirable for the flooring 32. A suitable floor covering such as carpeting may be installed over the plywood following assembly to a complete structure.

Referring now to FIGS. 2, 6-9, 11 and 14 the steel roof frame for the modular end section depicted comprises parallel horizontal inner and outer steel I side beams 52 and 54 positioned on edge, and a plurality of horizontal steel channel intermediate cross beams 56 positioned on edge between the side beams and are fillet welded to the vertical webs of the side beams. The ends of the outer side beams are each fillet welded to one side of an angle bracket 58, the other side of which is welded to one of the inner sides of the adjacent outer post 20 such that the outer side beam 54 is inset inwardly of the outer posts 30-30 and such that the top of beam 54 is flush with the top of outer posts 2020. The outer side beam is slightly shorter than the distance between the opposing sides of the outer posts 2020. The ends of the inner side beams 52 are fillet welded to the sides of the inner posts 1818 such that the top of beam 52 is flush with the top of inner posts 1818. Two outer horizontal steel channel cross beams 60-60 identical to beams 56, are positioned on edge inwardly of the adjacent ends of beams 52-54 and fillet welded to the vertical webs of beams 52-54 such that the outer side edges of beams 60- 60 are clear of the transverse space between the corner posts 18-20 at each end of the modular end structure.

A sub-roofing matrix 62 is applied to the roof frame preparatory to roofing the roof frame. This matrix consists of several prefabricated wooden ladders laid across the cross beams 56 and 60. Each ladder consists of a pair of horizontal stringers 64-64 and a plurality of equi-spaced horizontal trasverse rails 66 nailed to the stringers 64-64. The ladders are individually laid on the cross beams and laterally retained by upstanding tabs 67 welded to the cross beams 56-60. The adjacent ladder stringers then are nailed together. The cross beams 56 and 60 are of vertical width and positioned relative to the side beams 52-54 that the top surface of the subroofing matrix will be above the top surface of the side beams 52-54. Roofing 68 in sheet form, such as plywood, is applied to the sub-roofing matrix and nailed thereto. The roofing extends to the outer edges of the side beams 52-54. All of the ladders preferably are provided in four foot widths to accommodate 4 x 8 foot plywood sheet roofing, except one which is of a width necessary to fit the remaining transverse roof frame width. Since the strongers 64 extend above the side beams 52-54, wood filler blocks 70 are positioned between the outermost stringers and the vertical web of the side beams, as shown in FIG. 7. The sub-roofing matrix is secured to the roof frame by bolts 72 extended through the outermost stringers, the filler blocks 70 and the web of the adjacent side beam. It has been found that dimensional lumber having a nominal 2 x 4 inch section laid on edge is desirable for use as the stringers 64 and rails 66, and that a plywood thickness of one-half inch is desirable for the roofing 68.

Referring now to FIGS. 2, 9-11 and 15-16, the wall end and side wall frameworks 80 and 82 of the modular end structure comprises a lurality of vertical wooden studs 84 nailed to wooden top and base plates 86 and '88. The studs are of equal floor-to-roof lengths and the plates are of a length slightly less than the spacing between the corner posts within which the respective walls are to be installed. The frameworks are prefabricated and the exterior siding 90 therefore is applied before the walls are installed as shown in FIG. 10. The studs and plates are preferably cut from dimensional lumber having a 2 x 4 inch nominal section and the siding is preferably provided in the form of architecturally surfaced plywood panels. As the studs are positioned exterior to the end beam 54, for example, the length of the studs need not be tailored to critical lengthwise dimension and thus the fabrication of a sidewall is greatly simplified.

The prefabricated end walls are installed with the plate outer edges flush with the outer surface of the inner posts 18 such that the inner end of the end wall siding can be extended across the outer side of the respective inner post and butted against the outer posts as shown in FIG. 10. The prefabricated side wall is installed with the plate outer edges inset from the outer surfaces of the outerposts 20 such that the ends of the side wall siding can be abutted against the outer posts as shown in FIG. 10. The end wall plates are secured to the floor by nailing to the flooring 32 and to the roof by nailing and bolting through the horizontal steel flanges 92 welded to the corner posts 18-20 or to the corner brackets '58 at the proper height. The side wall plates are secured to the floor by nailing to the floor 32 and to the roof by nailing through horizontal steel flanges 94 welded to the top of the outer side beam 54 at the proper height. If the outer side beam 54 is not inset from the outer corner by a distance at least equal to the width of the side wall studs, the upper ends of these studs must be notched as shown in FIG. 9 to enable the side wall to be vertically aligned. As required or desired any of the walls can be provided with doorways or window openings as shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 15.

The corner posts 18-20 at one end of the modular end structure depicted are longer than the posts at the outer end so that the roof structure will be sloped. The slope should be suflicient to ensure proper drainage toward the lowerroof end. To accommodate the slope, the side wall is provided with a tapered top wooden filler 96 to which the flanges 94 are secured. Also, the end Wall to be positioned at the higher end is provided with one or more top wooden fillers 98 to which their respective flanges 92 are secured.

To stiffen the steelwork of the modular unit depicted, a vertical steel rod 100 is positioned within the side wall and welded under tension to the outer roof and base side beams. If the side wall studs are notched, the notch may serve to position the outer roof side beam 54 when the rod 100 is welded. Also, the roof inner side beam 52. is bowed upwardly to provide a slight concave chamber and a top steel bar 102 and is welded to the top flange of the beam to hold the chamber. Steel rods 104 are also welded to the inner roof beam web at critical stress points to impart added strength and stiffness. The base inner side beam 12 is also preferably stiffened by a steel rod 106 welded against its vertical base.

Upon assembly of the modular end structure as above described, the interior and underside of the structure is sprayed with a urethane form insulant 120, depicted in FIG. 10 but excluded from the other figures for clarity.

When two modular end structures are to be joined to provide a complete structure such as shown in FIG. 1, a perimeter concrete foundation is poured sufficient to accommodate the two structures. Preferably, the perimeter foundation will be inset slightly from the sides of the completed structure to reduce the dimensional criticality thereof such that the edges of the completed structure will be supported through the corner base beams 24 of the modular end structure as shown in FIG. 3. Also, concrete foundation posts 152 will be poured to support the base inner side beam 12 of each modular end structure as shown in FIG. 9. In the event that a perimeter foundation is not employed, tubular foundation retainers or pockets 153 are welded to the base frame outer side beams for receipt of foundation posts. Each pocket includes a top wall 153a against which a post may be abutted. An important aspect of the pockets is that they hold the foundation post securely with failure occurring only through complete shearing of the post.

To assemble the two modular end units together, each unit is separately hoisted onto the foundation and positioned closely to the final position desired. The first such unit to be positioned is provided with horizontal flanges or plates 154 welded to the underside of its base outer beam 12 as shown in FIGS. 3 and 9 and adapted to receive the outer beam '12 of the other unit to ensure that the bases of the two units will mate correctly at their respective inner edges. In addition, the plates allow simplification of the leveling procedure for successively joined modular sections. Once the first modular section is leveled the next modular section is automatically leveled at one end due to its being supported by the first. This procedure is carried out for the entire building with only the free end of each section requiring leveling. An inner roof beam clamp 156 will be applied to the adjacent beams 52-52 and tightened to draw the two beams together as shown in FIG. 9. This beam clamp .156 includes, as shown in FIG. 13, a top plate 158 of sufficient width to contact the top flanges of both beams 52-52 and a centered rectangular wedge 160 depending from plate 158 which spaces the top flanges of the beams 5 2- 52, a base plate 162 of a width greater than the widths of the bottom flanges of the beams 52-52 having a pair of lateral stops 163, and a pair of vertical bolts 164-164 inserted through the plates 158-162 at each end and threaded at their bottom ends. The lower flanges of the beams 52-52 are also clamped between the end nuts of the bolts 164-164 and nuts. A horizontal bolt 166 is inserted through the webs of the beams 52-52 between the vertical bolts 164-164. The clamp top plate 158 including bolts 164-164 is first positioned, the nuts are installed, and the base plate 162 is inserted over bolts 164--164 and the bolt end nuts applied. Then bolt 166 is inserted through the beam webs and tightened to draw the top flanges of beams 52-52 tightly against the wedge 160 and then bolts 164-164 are tightened to draw the clamp plates 158-162 tightly against the flanges of beams 52-52 and against the nuts 165. Because the beams 52-52 are inset slightly from the inner edges of their respective inner corner posts 18, tightening of the beam clamp 156 will cause the adjacent inner corner plates 18-18 to be drawn tightly together and also cause the adjacent inner base beams 12-12 to be drawn tightly together, resulting in the inner edges of the flooring 32-32, the roofing 68-68, and the end wall siding 90-90 to be drawn together tightly. The adjacent inner corner posts 18-18 will be covered by the siding such that the center end wall joint will be completely masked. The abutting inner posts 18 are preferably spot welded together. A suitable waterproof roofing material \160, such as asbestos felt overlaid by Du Ponts Tedlar sheeting is applied to the roofing 68-68 and folded over and down onto the upper edge portion of the siding. Facia boards 62 are then applied around the top periphery of the siding to cover the roofing material 160', to mask the roof slope, to prevent water from pouring over the roof edges, and to complete the appearance of the completed structure. If desired, framing lumber 163 can be fastened to brackets 165 on the inner faces of base frame beams 22-22 and 14 to depend therefrom to provide railing strips for the application of peripheral skirt siding 167. The skirt siding will serve to make the foundation underpinnings of the completed structure.

A preferred feature of the present invention is the utilization of one or more of the outer corner posts 20 as a downspout as shown in FIGS. -12. To this end, a plastic line 164 is inserted into a post and Water-tightly sealed at the top thereof and the waterproof roofing material 160 is funneled into the post.

The interior panelling of the modular end structures may be installed either prior to assembly of the structures into a completed unit or after such assembly. To facilitate application of the interior panelling, horizontal chair rails 85 may be built into the walls during their prefabrication. In the preferred construction of the invention, the inner posts 18-18 are preferably provided in the same width as the end wall studs such that the interior panelling will overlay the inner posts to mask the post-to-post joints.

Upon completion of the structural joinder of the two modular end structures, a dropped ceiling assembly 200 can be suspended from the roof structure. Sufiicient space is provided between the roof beams and the ceiling assembly for the necessary electrical and lighting apparatus and air conditioning ductwork.

Another embodiment of this invention is shown in FIG. 17 and can be provided by incorporating an inter mediate unit or tunnel 205 between the two modular end structures to expand the enclosed floor area of the completed structure. For such an embodiment, although conventional spanning techniques may be employed, it is preferred that one or more intermediate units be fabricated on the same modular basis as the modular end units. The base frame construction is substantially similar to that described above except that all four corner posts of each intermediate section will be provided as inner corner posts and the joinder thereto to the base frame beams will be identical to that described above in reference to the inner posts. Of particular importance is the provision of the plates 154 on one side of the tunnel base frame so that the next tunnel or end section may be easily leveled with respect to the previous one. The roof frame construction is substantially similar to that de scribed above except that the corner post joinder of the side beams will be identical to that described above in reference to the inner corner posts. Between each intermediate unit, if there is more than one, and between the end units and the intermediate units, the adjacent roof frame side beams will be clamped together by mechanical clamps as described above.

When the modular units are to be separated the mechanical clamp or clamps 156 are unbolted and the spot welds along the adjacent inner corner posts are severed. The separate units may then be hoisted off their foundations for transport to another location.

It is believed that the invention will have been clearly understood from the foregoing detailed description of my now-preferred illustrated embodiment. Changes in the details of construction may be resorted to Without departing from the spirit of the invention and it is accordingly my intention that no limitations be implied and that the hereto annexed claims be given the broadest interpretation to which the employed language fairly admits.

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:

1. A relocatable, open-span modular building structure which comprises at least two modular sections having integral frameworks defining open-span interiors, means joining said frameworks together, the frameworks of said sections each includes a pair of lower side beams having ends and a generally central portion, and wherein at least one of said sections is provided with laterally extending plates secured to a side beam inwardly from the ends thereof for supporting the generally central portion of the side beam of the other section.

2. A relocatable open-span modular building structure which comprises at least two modular sections having integral frameworks defining open-span interiors, each framework including generally rectangular base and roof frames having steel side beams and a plurality of cross beams extending between and joining said side beams, steel corner posts mounted to the corners of said base. and roof frames and supporting said roof frame, a tunnel spanning said two modular sections to expand the open span interior of the building structure, said tunnel including a roof frame, a base frame and two opposed side walls, the tunnel roof frame also including steel side beams adjacent the respective steel side beams of the roof frames of said two modular sections, and means joining said two modular sections and said tunnel together, said joining means including beam clamp means having a base plate abutting the bottom surfaces of said adjacent side beams of said tunnel and modular section roofs, said base plate having laterally spaced stops extending upwardly alongside said side beams, top plate means abutting the top surfaces of the side beams and a pair of fastening means interconnecting the top plate means and the base plate whereby said adjacent side beams are held tightly together with the bottom surfaces of the side beams being restricted against lateral movement by the stops.

3. The structure defined by claim 2 wherein one side of said tunnel base frame includes a plurality of lateral plates for supporting an adjacent modular section and the opposite adjacent modular section also includes a plurality of lateral plates for supporting said tunnel, said plates being spaced inwardly from the ends of the respective tunnel and adjacent modular section for supporting the generally central portion of the adjacent tunnel or modular section.

4. A relocatable, open-span modular building structure which comprises at least two modular sections having integral frameworks defining open-span interiors, means joining said frameworks together, each framework including generally rectangular base and roof frames, each having steel side beams and a plurality of cross beams extending between and joining said side beams, steel corner posts mounted to the corners of said base and roof frames and supporting said roof frames, each of said base frames including means spanning at least two corners of said base frame, foundation means below said base frame and spaced inwardly of at least three sides of said base frame and engaging said spanning means for supporting said base frame a substantial distance in from the perimeter of said base frame whereby the base frame overhangs said foundation means to conceal at least a portion of the foundation means.

5. A relocatable, open-span modular building structure which comprises at least two modular sections having integral frameworks defining open-span interiors, means joining said frameworks together, each framework including generally rectangular base and roof frames each having steel side beams and a plurality of cross beams extending between and joining said side beams, steel corner posts mounted to the corners of said base and roof frames and supporting said roof frames, each of said base frames includes a plurality of vertical pockets for retaining a vertical wooden foundation post, said pockets each including a peripheral side wall integrally connected with a top wall whereby the vertical foundation posts may be received in said vertical pockets and abut-against said top wall and peripheral side wall so that the base frame can move horizontally relative to said foundation posts only by shearing the foundation posts.

6. A relocatable, open-span modular building structure which comprises at least two modular sections having integral frameworks defining open-span interiors, means joining said frameworks together, each framework including generally rectangular base and roof frames each having side beams and a plurality of cross beams extending between and joining said side beams, steel corner posts mounted to the corners of said base and roof frames and supporting said roof frames, said side beams of said roof frame of each of said modular sections being inset with respect to said corner posts and wherein side wall studs are secured against the outer face of each of said side beams whereby the side wall studs are outside of the vertical confines of the steel side beams of said roof frame.

7. A relocatable, open-span modular building structure which comprises at least two modular sections having integral frameworks defining open-span interiors, means joining said frameworks together, each framework including generally rectangular base and roof frames each having steel side beams and a plurality of cross beams extending between and joining said side beams, steel corner posts mounted to the corners of said base and roof frames and supporting said roof frames, further including stiffening rods welded to said steel side beams for increasing the rigidity of said steel beams, and at least one vertical steel rod secured in tension to each opposite outer roof and base side beams whereby the outer roof and base side beams are drawn toward one another to form a rigid framework.

8. A relocatable, open-span modular building structure which comprises at least two modular sections having integral frameworks defining open-span interiors, each framework including generally rectangular base and roof frames each having steel side beams and a plurality of cross beams extending between and joining said beams, steel corner posts mounted to the corners of said base and roof frames and supporting said roof frame, and means joining said frameworks together, said joining means including beam clamp means joining adjacent side beams of said roof frames, said beam clamp means including a base plate abutting the bottom surfaces of the side beams and of a width greater than the combined width of the bottom surfaces of the side beams, said base plate having a pair of laterally spaced stops extending upwardly alongside said side beams, top plate means abutting the top surfaces of the side beams and a pair of fastening means interconnecting the top plate means and the base plate whereby the two adjacent side beams are held tightly together with the bottom surfaces of the side beams being restrained against lateral movement by the stops.

9. In a relocatable, open-span modular structure provided in at least two sections which are adapted to be connected together on site, a first open-span modular section which comprises a rectangular steel base frame having parallel side beams and a plurality of parallel cross beams extending between and joining the side beams, steel corner posts mounted to the corners of said base and extending upwardly therefrom, a rectangular steel roof frame mounted on the upper ends of said corner posts and having parallel side beams and a plurality of cross beams extending between and joining the side beams, a floor mounted on said base frame, a roof mounted on said roof frame, prefabricated first and second end walls positioned on said floor at opposite ends thereof and connected to said roof frame; and a second modular section which comprises a rectangular steel base frame having parallel side beams and a plurality of parallel cross beams extending between and joining the side beams; steel corner posts mounted to the corners of said base and extending upwardly therefrom, a rectangular steel roof frame mounted on the upper ends of said corner posts and having parallel side beams and a plurality of cross beams extending between and joining the side beams, a floor mounted on said base frame, a roof mounted on said roof frame, prefabricated first and second end walls positioned on said floor at opposite ends thereof and connected to said roof frame; and means for joining the two sections along their inner sides when the respective roof and base side beams are positioned adjacent one another. 10. The structure of claim 9 wherein said section joinmg means comprises beam clamp means adapted to engage the adjacent roof side beams of the two modular sections; and wherein the adjacent corner posts and base side beams of the first and second modular sections are drawn against one another in butting relation upon appli cation of said beam clamp means to said adjacent roof beams.

11. The structure of claim 9 wherein each modular section is so constructed that: the base frame side beam ends are each butted against and joined to the side wall of an adjacent corner post, the base frame cross beams are each butted against and joined to the side beams such that their topsides are coplanar and below the side beam topsides, and base frame outer cross beams are provided with their ends each butted against and joined to the sidewall of an adjacent corner post at right angles to said side beams such that their topsides are coplanar with the intermediate cross beam topsides; and the floor comprises a sub-flooring matrix of wood stringers laid across said cross beams parallel to said side beams and wood spacers laid on said cross beams between said stringers are fastened to said stringers, the topsides of said stringers and spacers being flush with said side beam topsides, and sheet flooring overlaid on said sub-flooring matrix and on said side beams and fastened to said sub-flooring matrix and to said side beams such that the adjacent inner sheet flooring edges of the two modular sections will be butted together when the two moduar sections are joined.

12. The structure of claim 9 wherein each modular section is so constructed that: the roof frame side beam ends are each joined to the sidewall of an adjacent corner post, and the roof frame cross beams are each butted against and joined to the side beams such that their topsides are coplanar, the outermost cross beams being positioned inward of the transverse space between the adjacent corner posts; and the roof comprises a sub-roofing matrix of wood ladders laid across said cross beams with adjacent ladder stringers fastened together, the topsides of said ladders being above the topsides of said side beams, and sheet roofing overlaid on said sub-roofing matrix and fastened thereto and cantilevered over said side beams such that the adjacent inner sheet roofing edges of the two modular sections will be butted together when the two modular sections are joined.

13. The structure of claim 9 wherein each modular section is so constructed that: the walls each comprise a wooden framework prefabricated in a height generally equal to the distance between said floor and the topside of said roof frame and in a width slightly less than the spacing between the corner posts within which the wall is to be positioned, and exterior siding applied to the wooden framework such that inner corner posts will be covered by the siding when the two modular sections are joined, the wooden framework being positioned on said floor in the space between the adjacent corner posts and fastened to said floor; and fastening means mounted to the steel framework and extending into the space between corner posts and secured to the wooden framework to hold and stabilize the upper end of the wall.

14. The structure of claim 9 wherein each modular section is so constructed that: the base frame side beam ends are each butted against and joined to the sidewall of an adjacent corner post, the base frame cross beams are each butted against and joined to the side beams such that their topsides are coplanar and below the side beam topsides, and base frame outer cross beams are provided with their ends each butted against and joined to the sidewall of an adjacent corner post at right angles to said side beams such that their topsides are coplanar with the intermediate cross beam topsides; the floor comprises a sub-flooring matrix of wood stringers and spacers laid on said crossbeams with the matrix topside coplanar with the side beam topsides, and sheet flooring overlaid on said sub-flooring matrix and on said side beams and fastened to said subfiooring matrix and to said side beams such that the adjacent inner sheet flooring edges of the two modular sections will be butted together when the two modular sections are joined; the roof frame side beam ends are each joined to the sidewall of an adjacent corner post, and the roof frame cross beams are each butted against and joined to the side beams such that their topsides are coplanar; the walls each comprise a wooden framework prefabricated in a height generally equal to the distance between said floor and the topside of said roof frame and in a width slightly less than the spacing between the corner posts within which the wall is to be positioned, and exterior siding applied to the wooden framework such that inner corner posts will be covered by the siding when the two modular sections are joined, the wooden framework being positioned on said floor in the space between the adjacent corner posts and fastened to said floor, and fastening means mounted to the steel framework and extending into the space between corner posts and secured to the wooden framework to hold and stabilize the upper end of the wall; and the roof comprises a wood sub-roofing matrix of wood laid on said cross beams with the subroofing matrix topside being above the topsides of said side beams, sheet roofing overlaid on said sub-roofing and fastened thereto and cantilevered over said side beams such that the adjacent inner sheet roofing edges of the two modular sections will be butted together when the two modular sections are joined; and waterproof roofing ma- 12 terial overlaying the roofs of the two modular sections when joined and extending over the peripheral edges of the joined roofs and secured to the upper ends of the exterior wall siding.

15. The structure of claim 14 wherein at least one of the corner posts is tubular and wherein a downspout liner is provided in such posts and watertightly joined to said waterproof roofing material to provide a concealed and protected roof drainage downspout.

16. The structure of claim 14 wherein said section joining means comprises beam clamp means adapted to engage the adjacent roof side beams of the two modular sections; and wherein the adjacent corner posts and base side beams of the first and second modular sections are drawn against one another in butting relation upon application of said beam clamp means to said adjacent roof beams.

17. The structure of claim 14 wherein said first modular section is an end section with said base side beams provided as one inner and one outer side beam, said posts provided as two inner and two outer corner posts, said roof side beams provided as one inner and one outer side beam; wherein the base inner side beam ends are joined to an inner corner post such that the outer edges of said inner base side beam are inset from the outer edges of said inner corner posts; wherein the ends of said roof outer side beam are joined to outer corner posts such that the outer edge of said roof outer side beam is inset from the inner edges of said outer corner posts to enable a prefabricated side wall to extend vertically upward alongside said roof outer side beam; and wherein said modular section joining means comprises a top clamp plate adapted to seat on top of the inner roof side beams to the two modular structures and provide with a wedge adapted to space said inner roof side beams when the two modular structures are joined, first means connecting said inner roof side beams and adapted to draw them tightly against said wedge, and second means adapted to engage the undersides of said inner roof side beams and firmly clamp them to said top clamp plate.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,048,938 12/1912 Broughton 5216 2,089,059 8/1937 Harley 5279 2,205,545 6/1940 Schmitt 52704X 2,217,184 10/1940 Rugg et a1 52234 2,287,229 6/ 1942 Carpenter 5279 3,011,601 12/1961 Perlin 52582X 3,397,494 8/ 1968 Waring 52-274X 3,461,633 8/1969 Ziegelman et al. 52584X 3,470,657 10/ 1969 Irwin 5279X PRICE C. FAW, 111., Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

US3605350A 1969-06-03 1969-06-03 Modular housing structure Expired - Lifetime US3605350A (en)

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Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3913286A (en) * 1974-01-04 1975-10-21 Envex Corp Modular building unit
US4106243A (en) * 1977-01-25 1978-08-15 Pepsico Inc. Sloped roof construction for modular building structures
FR2455135A1 (en) * 1979-04-27 1980-11-21 Fillod Const Light prefabricated module frame-work - has multi purpose open metal girders fitting in identical floor and roof frames
US4332415A (en) * 1978-10-12 1982-06-01 Williams Thomas P Open cart roof structure
EP0058354A1 (en) * 1981-02-07 1982-08-25 Portakabin Limited Portable building unit
EP0128777A2 (en) * 1983-06-14 1984-12-19 Polyfab S.A.R.L. Transportable building modules and building structures incorporating such modules
US4644708A (en) * 1985-10-03 1987-02-24 Constructions Metalliques Fillod Prefabricated modular building element and a building comprising such elements
US4738061A (en) * 1985-04-24 1988-04-19 Herndon Thomas W Foundation system for manufactured homes
US4833841A (en) * 1987-12-16 1989-05-30 Systems Craft Transportable building module
US4862654A (en) * 1988-05-02 1989-09-05 Macias Curt B Floor aligning jack
US4882883A (en) * 1987-02-25 1989-11-28 Pbs Building Systems, Inc. Architectural modular system
EP0665341A1 (en) * 1994-01-26 1995-08-02 Heinrich Amlang Accomodation unit and method for manufacturing as well as floor frame therefore
US5848513A (en) * 1996-02-07 1998-12-15 International Building Concepts, Ltd. Building jig and box beam therefor
US5870866A (en) * 1997-07-08 1999-02-16 Foundation Manufacturing, Inc. Foundation and support system for manufactured structures
WO1999040267A1 (en) * 1998-02-09 1999-08-12 Ayrshire Metal Products Plc Modular building unit
US6035584A (en) * 1998-04-09 2000-03-14 Barreto; Jaime A Building system using replaceable insulated panels
US20020020141A1 (en) * 2000-01-03 2002-02-21 Payer William J. Match framing system
EP1087068A3 (en) * 1999-09-23 2002-07-24 AK-Bausystem GmbH Building skeleton
US7086209B1 (en) * 2001-03-09 2006-08-08 Nelson, L.C. Method for constructing a building and resulting building
US20060265971A1 (en) * 2002-12-03 2006-11-30 John Window Modular building unit and method of assembly
US20070118390A1 (en) * 2005-10-06 2007-05-24 Coit Elizabeth A Interactive resource management educational system and method
US7325362B1 (en) 2004-12-06 2008-02-05 David Rowland Steel roof truss system
US9441359B1 (en) * 2015-01-13 2016-09-13 Tommy Hsieh Structurally independent frame for component based multi-unit buildings

Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3913286A (en) * 1974-01-04 1975-10-21 Envex Corp Modular building unit
US4106243A (en) * 1977-01-25 1978-08-15 Pepsico Inc. Sloped roof construction for modular building structures
US4332415A (en) * 1978-10-12 1982-06-01 Williams Thomas P Open cart roof structure
FR2455135A1 (en) * 1979-04-27 1980-11-21 Fillod Const Light prefabricated module frame-work - has multi purpose open metal girders fitting in identical floor and roof frames
EP0058354A1 (en) * 1981-02-07 1982-08-25 Portakabin Limited Portable building unit
EP0128777A2 (en) * 1983-06-14 1984-12-19 Polyfab S.A.R.L. Transportable building modules and building structures incorporating such modules
EP0128777A3 (en) * 1983-06-14 1986-05-07 Polyfab S.A.R.L. Transportable building modules and building structures incorporating such modules
US4738061A (en) * 1985-04-24 1988-04-19 Herndon Thomas W Foundation system for manufactured homes
US4644708A (en) * 1985-10-03 1987-02-24 Constructions Metalliques Fillod Prefabricated modular building element and a building comprising such elements
FR2588302A1 (en) * 1985-10-03 1987-04-10 Fillod Const Modular prefabricated element building and building comprising such elements
US4882883A (en) * 1987-02-25 1989-11-28 Pbs Building Systems, Inc. Architectural modular system
US4833841A (en) * 1987-12-16 1989-05-30 Systems Craft Transportable building module
US4862654A (en) * 1988-05-02 1989-09-05 Macias Curt B Floor aligning jack
EP0665341A1 (en) * 1994-01-26 1995-08-02 Heinrich Amlang Accomodation unit and method for manufacturing as well as floor frame therefore
US5848513A (en) * 1996-02-07 1998-12-15 International Building Concepts, Ltd. Building jig and box beam therefor
US5870866A (en) * 1997-07-08 1999-02-16 Foundation Manufacturing, Inc. Foundation and support system for manufactured structures
WO1999040267A1 (en) * 1998-02-09 1999-08-12 Ayrshire Metal Products Plc Modular building unit
US6035584A (en) * 1998-04-09 2000-03-14 Barreto; Jaime A Building system using replaceable insulated panels
EP1087068A3 (en) * 1999-09-23 2002-07-24 AK-Bausystem GmbH Building skeleton
US20020020141A1 (en) * 2000-01-03 2002-02-21 Payer William J. Match framing system
US7086209B1 (en) * 2001-03-09 2006-08-08 Nelson, L.C. Method for constructing a building and resulting building
US20060248812A1 (en) * 2001-03-09 2006-11-09 Pruitt Richard A Methods for constructing a building and resulting building
US20060254161A1 (en) * 2001-03-09 2006-11-16 Pruin Richard A Method for constructing a building and resulting building
US20060265971A1 (en) * 2002-12-03 2006-11-30 John Window Modular building unit and method of assembly
US7325362B1 (en) 2004-12-06 2008-02-05 David Rowland Steel roof truss system
US20070118390A1 (en) * 2005-10-06 2007-05-24 Coit Elizabeth A Interactive resource management educational system and method
US9441359B1 (en) * 2015-01-13 2016-09-13 Tommy Hsieh Structurally independent frame for component based multi-unit buildings

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