US3581564A - Method for detecting roller bit bearing failure - Google Patents

Method for detecting roller bit bearing failure Download PDF

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US3581564A
US3581564A US3581564DA US3581564A US 3581564 A US3581564 A US 3581564A US 3581564D A US3581564D A US 3581564DA US 3581564 A US3581564 A US 3581564A
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parameter
drilling
torque
penetration rate
rotary
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Farrile S Young
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ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co
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Exxon Production Research Co
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B44/00Automatic control systems specially adapted for drilling operations, i.e. self-operating systems which function to carry out or modify a drilling operation without intervention of a human operator, e.g. computer-controlled drilling systems; Systems specially adapted for monitoring a plurality of drilling variables or conditions
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B12/00Accessories for drilling tools
    • E21B12/02Wear indicators
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B45/00Measuring the drilling time or rate of penetration

Abstract

A method for detecting failure of bearings in roller drill bits used in rotary drilling. Two drilling parameters-rotary torque and drilling rate-are measured and plotted with a third parameter ( psi ) equals ratio of the parameter of rotary torque divided by the parameter of drilling rate. A sharp increase in the third parameter psi indicates bearing failure.

Description

Ullllcu DlalcD .l aecue Inventor Farrile S. Young, Jr.
Houston, Tex. Appl. No. 824,497 Filed May 14, 1969 Patented June 1, 1971 Assignee Esso Production Research Company METHOD FOR DETECTING ROLLER BIT BEARING FAILURE [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,298,226 1/1967 Hildebrandt 73/151 3,324,717 6/1967 Brooks etal... 73/152 3,345,867 10/1967 Arps 73/151 Primary Examiner.lerry W. Myracle Att0rneys-Th0mas B. McCulloch, Melvin F. F incke, John S.
Schneider, Sylvester W. Brock, Jr., Kurt S. Myers and Timothy L. Burgess ABSTRACT: A method for detecting failure of bearings in roller drill bits used in rotary drilling. Two drilling parameters- --rotary torque and drilling rate-are measured and plotted with a third parameter (d1) equals ratio of the parameter of rotary torque divided by the parameter of drilling rate. A sharp increase in the third parameter \pindicates bearing failure.
TAKE-UP REEL 55 PENETRATION RATE SIGNAL I 7 Claims, 1 Drawing Fig.
[1.5. CI 73/151, 175/39 Int. Cl E21b 45/00 Field of Search 175/39, 50; 73/15l,151.5,152,136
SWlVEL PATENIED JUN 1 I97! 33 L TAKE-UP REEL DIVIDER W PENETRATION RATE SIGNAL P. R RATIO TORQUE SIGNAL CHART DRIVE INVIiN'IHR. FARRILE S. YOUNG,JR.,
ATTORNEY.
ROLLER BIT METHOD FOR DETECTING ROLLER BIT BEARING FAILURE FIELD OF THE INVENTION Background of the Invention When drilling boreholes with rotary well-drilling rigs, the time to roller bit bearing failure is difficult to predict. In the drilling of nonabrasive formations, the achievement of minimum drilling cost per foot is obtained by maximizing hours of rotation of the drill bit. The. prediction of bit bearing failure is, therefore,'critical since under such conditions, drill bits are totally consumed as a result of bit bearing failures.
It has been observed that drill pipe torque increases rapidly upon cone lockup. However, other drilling conditions such as hole deviation and gauge may give rise to premature high values of torque which can be misinterpreted. By observing the response of both torque and drilling rate during the life of the drill bit, it is possible to distinguish between bit bearing failure and other spurious torque responses.
SUMMARY or THE INVENTION Briefly, the invention concerns use of two drilling parameters, (l) rotary torque or torsional stress in the drill string and (2) drilling rate or rate of penetration of the drill bit to evaluate bit bearing failure. The method involves determining a third parameter q T/R; where T rotary torque and R penetration rate of the drill bit. At bit bearing failure, T increases, but R decreases, thereby defining a uniquely high value of ll.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING The sole FIG. is a schematic illustration of a system capable of performingthe method of this invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to the FIGURE, there is shown a well '10 that penetrates subsurface hydrocarbon-containing formation 11. Well has a surface casing 13 installed and cemented in place in accordance with conventional procedures. The well is drilled by means of a conventional rotary drill bit 15 rotated by means of a drill string 16 which extends to the surface where it passes through a conventional wellhead 18 that includes suitable blowout preventers and other equipment well known to those skilled in the art of rotary well drilling. Drill string 16 is rotated by a rotary table 20. The upper end of drill string I6 is connected by a swivel 21 and hooks 22 to a traveling block 23 supported from a stationary crown block 24 mounted on table 25. A cable or follow-line 30 connected at one end to traveling block 23 extends over pulley 31 to a takeup reel 32, both supported from table 25 along with an optical tachometer 33 moveable by cable 30 and capable of generating an electrical signal proportional to rate of rotation of tachometer 33.
Rotary drive motors 40 drive rotary 29 through the belt and shaft transmission generally designated 41. Low resistant shunts are placed in series with generators 42 which supply power to rotary drive motors 40. Low voltage signals are developed by the current passing through these shunts. These signals are amplified and calibrated so that the measurement of voltage drop across the shunt becomes proportional to the torsional stress in the drill pipe. The signals proportional to the torsional stress are sent along line 45 to a pen operator 46 connected to a pen 47 mounted on a chart 58, rotated by a drive 49. Signals indicative of the torque are also sent to an electronic divider means 50, e.g., an operational amplifier. The electrical signals proportional to rate of penetration resulting from movement of cable 30 downwardly in response to movement of block 23 are transmitted along line 55 to a pen operator 56 connected to a pen 57 mounted on chart 48. Signals indicative of rateof penetration are also transmitted to divider means 50 which functions to divide the torque by the rate of chart 48. Thus, line 63 on chart 48 indicates torque; line 64 on chart 48 indicates rate of penetration of the drill bit; and line 65 on chart 48 indicates ill, the relation of torque divided by rate of penetration.
In operation, as indicated in the drawing, the ratio of torque divided by penetration rate is essentially constant throughout the life of the drill bit up to the point of bearing failure. As the hard metal surfaces on the roller race spall, torque increases as a result of the cone lockup and the rate of penetration is reduced. There could be several reasons for a reduction in penetration rate, but when a cone locks, efficiency of the drilling mechanism is reduced by one-third. ln soft formations, when torque increases, penetration rate normally increases also, but at a slower rate, Conversely, in harder formations, such as dense shale, where penetration rate is slower, torque is reduced but, again, disproportionately. Accordingly, the ratio of torque divided by penetration rate remains constant up to the point of bearing failure. As indicated at 66 on the chart, a substantial increase in ii: indicates bearing lock.
Field practice will result in defining a maximum value of ill. The parameter ml: may be computed by means of an analog or digital computer programmed for solution using feedback values of torque and drilling rate. It also may be conveniently displayed or recorded for observation.
Other techniques are available for obtaining signals-electrical or pneumatic-proportional to torsional stress in the drill pipe and rate of penetration other than those illustrated and described above. Thus, another method for obtaining electrical signals proportional to torsional stress is shown and described in US. Pat. No. 3,298,226, issued to Hildebrandt, Jan. 17, 1967, entitled, System for Recording Work Done During Rotary Drilling Operations. In this method, a loadcell device measures the stress in the chain which drives the rotary table and also generates a signal calibrated in terms of rotary torque. A third technique uses an electronic device installed on the drilling equipment, shown and described in US. Pat. No. 3,295,367, issued to Rundell, Jan. 3, 1967, entitled, Sensitive Torque Meter."
Having fully described the objects, advantages, apparatus and operation of my invention, 1 claim:
I. A method for detecting roller bit bearing failure of a roller drill bit attached at the lower end of a rotatable drill pipe string when drilling boreholes through earth formations comprising:
measuring and displaying the ratio parameter ii: of the parameter of rotary torque in said drill string divided by the parameter of penetration rate of said drill bit through said earth formations when drilling said borehole.
2. A method as recited in claim 1 including displaying also said parameter of rotary torque and said parameter of penetration rate.
3. A method as recited in claim 2 including plotting on a chart said ratio parameter iii.
4. A method as recited in claim 3 including plotting on said chart said parameter of rotary torque and said parameter of penetration rate.
5. A method for detecting roller bit bearing failure of a roller drill bit attached at the lower end of a rotatable drill pipe string whendrilling boreholes through earth formations comprising:
measuring parameters of rotary torque in said drill string and penetration rate of said drill bit through said earth fonnations when drilling a borehole; and
obtaining the ratio parameter lb of said parameter of rotary torque divided by said parameter of penetration rate.
6. A method as recited in claim 5 including plotting on a chart said ratio parameter 11.
7. A method as recited in claim 6 including plotting on said chart said parameter of rotary torque and said parameter of penetration rate.

Claims (7)

1. A method for detecting roller bit bearing failure of a roller drill bit attached at the lower end of a rotatable drill pipe string when drilling boreholes through earth formations comprising: measuring and displaying the ratio parameter psi of the parameter of rotary torque in said drill string divided by the parameter of penetration rate of said drill bit through said earth formations when drilling said borehole.
2. A method as recited in claim 1 including displaying also said parameter of rotary torque and said parameter of penetration rate.
3. A method as recited in claim 2 iNcluding plotting on a chart said ratio parameter psi .
4. A method as recited in claim 3 including plotting on said chart said parameter of rotary torque and said parameter of penetration rate.
5. A method for detecting roller bit bearing failure of a roller drill bit attached at the lower end of a rotatable drill pipe string when drilling boreholes through earth formations comprising: measuring parameters of rotary torque in said drill string and penetration rate of said drill bit through said earth formations when drilling a borehole; and obtaining the ratio parameter psi of said parameter of rotary torque divided by said parameter of penetration rate.
6. A method as recited in claim 5 including plotting on a chart said ratio parameter psi .
7. A method as recited in claim 6 including plotting on said chart said parameter of rotary torque and said parameter of penetration rate.
US3581564D 1969-05-14 1969-05-14 Method for detecting roller bit bearing failure Expired - Lifetime US3581564A (en)

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Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3703096A (en) * 1970-12-28 1972-11-21 Chevron Res Method of determining downhole occurrences in well drilling using rotary torque oscillation measurements
US3752966A (en) * 1971-05-28 1973-08-14 Santa Fe Int Corp Drill bit utilization optimizer
US3774445A (en) * 1971-11-24 1973-11-27 Texaco Inc Method and apparatus for monitoring the wear on a rotary drill bit
US3782190A (en) * 1972-08-03 1974-01-01 Texaco Inc Method and apparatus for rotary drill testing
US3805606A (en) * 1972-08-11 1974-04-23 Texaco Inc Method and apparatus for transmission of data from drill bit in wellbore while drilling
USRE28436E (en) * 1970-12-28 1975-06-03 Method op determining downhole occurences in well drilling using rotary torque oscillation measurements
US4250758A (en) * 1978-12-22 1981-02-17 Texaco Inc. Combination for use in a rotary drilling system with torque meter
US4346591A (en) * 1981-08-21 1982-08-31 Evans Robert F Sensing impending sealed bearing and gage failure
US4627276A (en) * 1984-12-27 1986-12-09 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Method for measuring bit wear during drilling
US4685329A (en) * 1984-05-03 1987-08-11 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Assessment of drilling conditions
US4697650A (en) * 1984-09-24 1987-10-06 Nl Industries, Inc. Method for estimating formation characteristics of the exposed bottomhole formation
US4730681A (en) * 1986-08-29 1988-03-15 Rock Bit Industries U.S.A., Inc. Rock bit cone lock and method
US4852399A (en) * 1988-07-13 1989-08-01 Anadrill, Inc. Method for determining drilling conditions while drilling
EP0336491A1 (en) * 1988-04-04 1989-10-11 Anadrill International SA Method for detecting drilling events from measurement while drilling sensors
US5448911A (en) * 1993-02-18 1995-09-12 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method and apparatus for detecting impending sticking of a drillstring
US6186248B1 (en) 1995-12-12 2001-02-13 Boart Longyear Company Closed loop control system for diamond core drilling
US6363780B1 (en) * 1999-04-19 2002-04-02 Institut Francais Du Petrole Method and system for detecting the longitudinal displacement of a drill bit
US20030042049A1 (en) * 2001-04-26 2003-03-06 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Roller cone bits with reduced packing
US6631772B2 (en) 2000-08-21 2003-10-14 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Roller bit rearing wear detection system and method
US6634441B2 (en) 2000-08-21 2003-10-21 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. System and method for detecting roller bit bearing wear through cessation of roller element rotation
US6648082B2 (en) 2000-11-07 2003-11-18 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Differential sensor measurement method and apparatus to detect a drill bit failure and signal surface operator
US6691802B2 (en) 2000-11-07 2004-02-17 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Internal power source for downhole detection system
US6712160B1 (en) 2000-11-07 2004-03-30 Halliburton Energy Services Inc. Leadless sub assembly for downhole detection system
US6722450B2 (en) 2000-11-07 2004-04-20 Halliburton Energy Svcs. Inc. Adaptive filter prediction method and system for detecting drill bit failure and signaling surface operator
US6817425B2 (en) 2000-11-07 2004-11-16 Halliburton Energy Serv Inc Mean strain ratio analysis method and system for detecting drill bit failure and signaling surface operator

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3298226A (en) * 1963-06-04 1967-01-17 Exxon Production Research Co System for recording work done during rotary drilling operations
US3324717A (en) * 1963-10-28 1967-06-13 Mobil Oil Corp System and method for optimizing drilling operations
US3345867A (en) * 1964-09-03 1967-10-10 Arps Corp Method and apparatus for measuring rock bit wear while drilling

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3298226A (en) * 1963-06-04 1967-01-17 Exxon Production Research Co System for recording work done during rotary drilling operations
US3324717A (en) * 1963-10-28 1967-06-13 Mobil Oil Corp System and method for optimizing drilling operations
US3345867A (en) * 1964-09-03 1967-10-10 Arps Corp Method and apparatus for measuring rock bit wear while drilling

Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3703096A (en) * 1970-12-28 1972-11-21 Chevron Res Method of determining downhole occurrences in well drilling using rotary torque oscillation measurements
USRE28436E (en) * 1970-12-28 1975-06-03 Method op determining downhole occurences in well drilling using rotary torque oscillation measurements
US3752966A (en) * 1971-05-28 1973-08-14 Santa Fe Int Corp Drill bit utilization optimizer
US3774445A (en) * 1971-11-24 1973-11-27 Texaco Inc Method and apparatus for monitoring the wear on a rotary drill bit
US3782190A (en) * 1972-08-03 1974-01-01 Texaco Inc Method and apparatus for rotary drill testing
US3805606A (en) * 1972-08-11 1974-04-23 Texaco Inc Method and apparatus for transmission of data from drill bit in wellbore while drilling
US4250758A (en) * 1978-12-22 1981-02-17 Texaco Inc. Combination for use in a rotary drilling system with torque meter
US4346591A (en) * 1981-08-21 1982-08-31 Evans Robert F Sensing impending sealed bearing and gage failure
US4685329A (en) * 1984-05-03 1987-08-11 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Assessment of drilling conditions
US4697650A (en) * 1984-09-24 1987-10-06 Nl Industries, Inc. Method for estimating formation characteristics of the exposed bottomhole formation
US4627276A (en) * 1984-12-27 1986-12-09 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Method for measuring bit wear during drilling
US4730681A (en) * 1986-08-29 1988-03-15 Rock Bit Industries U.S.A., Inc. Rock bit cone lock and method
EP0336491A1 (en) * 1988-04-04 1989-10-11 Anadrill International SA Method for detecting drilling events from measurement while drilling sensors
US4876886A (en) * 1988-04-04 1989-10-31 Anadrill, Inc. Method for detecting drilling events from measurement while drilling sensors
US4852399A (en) * 1988-07-13 1989-08-01 Anadrill, Inc. Method for determining drilling conditions while drilling
US5448911A (en) * 1993-02-18 1995-09-12 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method and apparatus for detecting impending sticking of a drillstring
US6186248B1 (en) 1995-12-12 2001-02-13 Boart Longyear Company Closed loop control system for diamond core drilling
US6363780B1 (en) * 1999-04-19 2002-04-02 Institut Francais Du Petrole Method and system for detecting the longitudinal displacement of a drill bit
US6634441B2 (en) 2000-08-21 2003-10-21 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. System and method for detecting roller bit bearing wear through cessation of roller element rotation
US6631772B2 (en) 2000-08-21 2003-10-14 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Roller bit rearing wear detection system and method
US6648082B2 (en) 2000-11-07 2003-11-18 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Differential sensor measurement method and apparatus to detect a drill bit failure and signal surface operator
US6817425B2 (en) 2000-11-07 2004-11-16 Halliburton Energy Serv Inc Mean strain ratio analysis method and system for detecting drill bit failure and signaling surface operator
US6691802B2 (en) 2000-11-07 2004-02-17 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Internal power source for downhole detection system
US6712160B1 (en) 2000-11-07 2004-03-30 Halliburton Energy Services Inc. Leadless sub assembly for downhole detection system
US6722450B2 (en) 2000-11-07 2004-04-20 Halliburton Energy Svcs. Inc. Adaptive filter prediction method and system for detecting drill bit failure and signaling surface operator
US7357197B2 (en) 2000-11-07 2008-04-15 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Method and apparatus for monitoring the condition of a downhole drill bit, and communicating the condition to the surface
US20030042049A1 (en) * 2001-04-26 2003-03-06 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Roller cone bits with reduced packing
US7044242B2 (en) 2001-04-26 2006-05-16 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Roller cone bits with reduced packing

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