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US3580253A - Sanitary napkin and flushable wrapper therefor - Google Patents

Sanitary napkin and flushable wrapper therefor Download PDF

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Publication number
US3580253A
US3580253A US3580253DA US3580253A US 3580253 A US3580253 A US 3580253A US 3580253D A US3580253D A US 3580253DA US 3580253 A US3580253 A US 3580253A
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Prior art keywords
web
fibers
wrapper
ph
sanitary
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Leo J Bernardin
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Kimberly-Clark Corp
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Kimberly-Clark Corp
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L15/00Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings or absorbent pads
    • A61L15/16Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads for physiological fluids such as urine or blood, e.g. sanitary towels, tampons
    • A61L15/22Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads for physiological fluids such as urine or blood, e.g. sanitary towels, tampons containing macromolecular materials
    • A61L15/28Polysaccharides or their derivatives
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10S428/913Material designed to be responsive to temperature, light, moisture
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/31504Composite [nonstructural laminate]
    • Y10T428/31971Of carbohydrate
    • Y10T428/31975Of cellulosic next to another carbohydrate
    • Y10T428/31978Cellulosic next to another cellulosic

Abstract

A flushable pad wrapper for sanitary napkins comprising a nonwoven web of cellulosic fibers in which the fibers are bonded together by sodium carboxymethylcellulose acidified to a pH of between 2.2 to 2.0. This wrapper has sufficient wet strength and abrasion resistance to perform satisfactorily in normal use but disintegrates readily when immersed and agitated in water.

Description

United States Patent Leo J. Bernardin Appleton, Wis.

Dec. 9, 1968 May 25, 1971 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Neenah, Wis.

inventor Appl. No. Filed Patented Assignee SANITARY NAPKIN AND FLUSHABLE WRAPPER THEREFOR Primary Examiner-Charles F. Rosenbaum Attorneys-Daniel J. Hanlon, Jr. and Raymond J. Miller ABSTRACT: A flushable pad wrapper for sanitary napkins comprising a nonwoven web of cellulosic fibers in which the fibers are bonded together by sodium carboxymethylcellulose acidified to a pH of between 2.2 to 2.0. This wrapper has sufii cient wet strength and abrasion resistance to perform satisfactorily in normal use but disintegrates readily when immersed and agitated in water.

SANITARY NAIKIN AND FLUSHABLE WRAPPER THEREFOR BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The disposal of sanitary napkins after use is a problem which could be simplified if their construction was such that the entire element could be flushed away in a conventional toilet system. Ordinarily the absorbent core of sanitary napkins can be so disposed of quite readily, if it is separated from its outer wrapper, sincesuch cores are customarily made of easily disintegratable materials such as wood pulp fluff, cellulose wadding, or absorbent cotton batts. However, the task of removing the outer wrapper is generally considered to be an inconvenient, disagreeable and unsanitary task. As a result the most common method of disposal is to roll up the soiled pad, tie the tab ends, and discard it in a waste basket. Because of odor problems, this method of disposal is generally considered undesirable. Individual disposal bagswith self-sealing means are therefore frequently used for the purpose to avoid residual odor problems.

It would be highly desirable if a pad could be developed which has a wrapper strong enough to withstand tearing and scuffing when worn, but which would disintegrate readily in water, so that the complete structure could be dropped in a toilet and flushed away. This would eliminate the need for stripping the wrapper from the pad before disposing of the latter.

This invention is directed to a wrapper construction which solves that problem.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (hereinafter identified as CMC), sometimes referred to as sodium cellulose glycolate, is a water-soluble gum which, among other things, has been used as a binder for some types of nonwoven webs and also for what is known as dissolving paper. CMC swells readily in the presence of moisture and disperses rapidly when contacted with water. In common use as a binder it is applied in solution form having a pH of between 6.58.0.

It is now been found that if, after application as a binder to a nonwoven web of fibers, the CMC is carefully acidified down to a pH of 2.2 to 2.0, washed free of the acidifying solution and dried, the CMC will not. readily swellin the presence of moisture, but will nevertheless dissolve rapidly when dropped in an excess of water such as in a toilet bowl.

A nonwoven web of this type therefore makes an excellent flushable wrapper for sanitary napkins. It will remain intact in the presence of body moisture and fluids, yet will disintegrate into its fibrous components in water.

Accordingly it is the principal object of this invention to provide a flushable wrapper for sanitary napkins.

It is another important object to provide a process for fabricating such a wrapper.

Still another object is toprovide a sanitary napkin construction in which the entire structuremay be disposed of by flushing in conventional toilet systems.

These and other objects and advantages ,will become apparent by reference to the following specification wherein there is described various selected embodiments of the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS A wrapper in accordance with this invention was made by forming a lightweight, carded web comprised of 1.5 denier rayon fibers cut to l 9/l6 inches staple length. The weight of the web was about 14 grams per square yard. The web was impregnated by spraying it with a 2 percent CMC solution in an amount to provide a pickup of IO percent-CMC based on the dry fiber weight. The impregnated web was then passed through a squeeze roll nip to distribute theCMC uniformly and then passed through a solution of hydrochloric acid to acidify the CMC. This acid bath treatment was conducted on three separate batches of the CMC bonded web at three predetermined pH levels; i.e., at a pH of 2.0, 2.2 and 2.4, respectively. Each of the impregnated and acidified webs were then washed in de-ionized water and dried by heating. The water need not necessarily be de-ionized, but preferably should not be alkaline in order not to reverse the acidification process. The heating was done at about l05 C., and for a period sufficient to dry but not to embrittle the web.

Sanitary napkins were made using conventional sanitary napkin fillers as the absorbent, and enwrapping these cores with webs having the CMC binder acidified at each of the above-defined pH levels.

These napkins were tested in actual use by a group of panelists. The absorption performance of the napkins having binders acidified to a pH range of 2.0 and 2.2 was in the same range as conventional napkins, while that of the napkin with the binder acidified to a pH range of2.4 was about 25 percent less. The reason for the lower fluid pickup of the napkins wrapped with webs acidified to a pH of 2.4 was not directly explainable, but it is theorized that this may have occurred because the pads were probably worn for shorter periods. The latter may have been due to the fact that end tabs tore off on some pH 2.4 samples, or because on other pH 2.4 samples the binder was softened by body fluids and stuck to the skin.

In the pads acidified to pH 2.2 and pH 2.0 no end tab tearing occurred nor was there any sticking to the skin.

The pad wrappers in all three cases disintegrated rapidly when flushed in excess water in the toilet.

The above results indicated that CMC binder acidified to a pH of between 2.0 and 2.2 is effective as a flushable binder for nonwoven pad wrappers. The acidified CMC in this range is sufficiently stable in the presence of body moisture and menstrual fluids to maintain the wrapper intact during use and disintegrates easily in conventional toilet systems. Above pH 2.2 the CMC swells too easily in the presence of body moisture and fluids, whereby the bonded web does not remain stable enough during use to retain its integrity. In addition the gelatinizing effect of moisture on the CMC in this higher pH range causes it to stick to the body during use, which is another disadvantage.

If the CMC is acidified to a pH substantially below 2.0, the CMC is no longer chemically stable and tends to disintegrate. In addition the highly acid condition of the binder is detrimental to strength and aging properties since it tends to cause degradation of cellulosic fibers such as rayon, especially during oven drying.

This binder system is applicable to cellulosic fibers, in general, including natural and regenerated cellulose. Rayon fibers in the deniers and lengths adapted for carding processes are especially suitable. Minor amounts of synthetic fibers may also be blended into the webs.

While the specific example refers to carded webs as the base material, other methods of forming, such as airlaying, wetforming using papermaking techniques, and the like, may be used.

In the acid bath, other strong mineral acids such as sulfuric or phosphoric may be used.

The type of absorbent filler employed in the complete sanitary napkin is not critical. Preferably of course, it should be of a structure which easily disintegrates in water if the flushable properties of the wrapper are to be fully utilized. The fillers for most commercial napkins are made of woodpulp fluff, creped cellulose wadding, orabsorbent cotton or rayon fiber batts, which will easily disintegrate if separated from their supporting wrappers. Some pads contain plastic film'baffles, but these are generally so small and thin that they crumple easily into a size which passes through conventional plumbing without trouble.

The base fiber webs may have the fibers aligned substantially in one direction, may have the fibers in random isotropic arrangement or may contain crosslaid layers depending upon the strength characteristics desired.

The amount of binder used will depend on the final strength desired as well as on the speed of solution. Pickups as low as ing a nonwoven web of cellulosic fibers bonded by an adhesive comprising sodium carboxymethylcellulose; said binder being acidified to a pH in the range of 2.2 to 2.0.

2. The wrapper of claim 1 in which said fibers are selected from the group consisting of natural cellulose and regenerated cellulose.

3. The wrapper of claim 1 in which said web comprises carded fibers.

4. The wrapper of claim 2 in which said web comprises carded textile length rayon fibers.

5. The wrapper of claim 3 in which said web comprises multiple carded webs crosslaid with respect to one another.

6. The wrapper of claim 1 in which the pH of said binder is 2.2.

7. A sanitary napkin comprising an absorbent core enwrapped with a fluid-pervious wrapper comprising a nonwoven web of textile fibers bonded by an adhesive comprising sodium carboxymethylcellulose; said binder being acidified to a pH in the range of2.2 to 2.0.

8. A sanitary napkin in accordance with claim 7 in which said fibers are selected from the group consisting of natural cellulose and regenerated cellulose.

9. A sanitary napkin in accordance with claim 7 in which said web comprises carded fibers.

10. A sanitary napkin in accordance with claim 8 in which the fibers in said web comprises a carded web of staple length rayon fibers.

l l. A process for producing a flushable wrapper for sanitary napkins which comprises forming a lightweight nonwoven web from cellulosic fibers, impregnating said web with a dilute solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, passing said impregnated web through an acidifying solution having a pH of from 2.2 to 2.0, washing said web free of said acidifying solution, and drying said web with heat.

12. The process of claim 11 in which said web is caused to pick up said sodium carboxymethylcellulose in an amount of between about 2 percent and 20 percent by weight of the fibers. I

13. The process of claim 11 in which said web is formed by carding the fibers. I

147 The process of claim 11 in which said web is formed by airlaying the fibers.

' 15. The process of claim 13 in which said carded webs are crosslaid before impregnation and acidification

Claims (14)

  1. 2. The wrapper of claim 1 in which said fibers are selected from the group consisting of natural cellulose and regenerated cellulose.
  2. 3. The wrapper of claim 1 in which said web comprises carded fibers.
  3. 4. The wrapper of claim 2 in which said web comprises carded textile length rayon fibers.
  4. 5. The wrapper of claim 3 in which said web comprises multiple carded webs crosslaid with respect to one another.
  5. 6. The wrapper of claim 1 in which the pH of said binder is 2.2.
  6. 7. A sanitary napkin comprising an absorbent core enwrapped with a fluid-pervious wrapper comprising a nonwoven web of textile fibers bonded by an adhesive comprising sodium carboxymethylcellulose; said binder being acidified to a pH in the range of 2.2 to 2.0.
  7. 8. A sanitary napkin in accordance with claim 7 in which said fibers are selected from the group consisting of natural cellulose and regenerated cellulose.
  8. 9. A sanitary napkin in accordance with claim 7 in which said web comprises carded fibers.
  9. 10. A sanitary napkin in accordance with claim 8 in which the fibers in said web comprises a carded web of staple length rayon fibers.
  10. 11. A process for producing a flushable wrapper for sanitary napkins which comprises forming a lightweight nonwoven web from cellulosic fibers, impregnating said web with a dilute solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, passing said impregnated web through an acidifying solution having a pH of from 2.2 to 2.0, washing said web free of said acidifying solution, and drying said web with heat.
  11. 12. The process of claim 11 in which said web is caused to pick up said sodium carboxymethylcellulose in an amount of between about 2 percent and 20 percent by weight of the fibers.
  12. 13. The process of claim 11 in which said web is formed by carding the fibers.
  13. 14. The process of claim 11 in which said web is formed by airlaying the fibers.
  14. 15. The process of claim 13 in which said carded webs are crosslaid before impregnation and acidification.
US3580253A 1968-12-09 1968-12-09 Sanitary napkin and flushable wrapper therefor Expired - Lifetime US3580253A (en)

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Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3800797A (en) * 1973-01-15 1974-04-02 Johnson & Johnson Body fluid barrier films
US3804092A (en) * 1973-01-15 1974-04-16 Johnson & Johnson Water dispersible nonwoven fabric
US3939836A (en) * 1974-02-07 1976-02-24 Johnson & Johnson Water dispersible nonwoven fabric
US4117187A (en) * 1976-12-29 1978-09-26 American Can Company Premoistened flushable wiper
US4164595A (en) * 1976-12-29 1979-08-14 American Can Company Premoistened flushable wiper
WO1989006142A1 (en) * 1988-01-05 1989-07-13 Liam Patrick Forde pH CONTROLLING ABSORBENT PRODUCT AND METHOD FOR PREPARING THE SAME
EP0639381A1 (en) * 1993-08-17 1995-02-22 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Binder compositions and web materials formed thereby
US5509913A (en) * 1993-12-16 1996-04-23 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Flushable compositions
US5580910A (en) * 1993-04-12 1996-12-03 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Self sealing film
US5700553A (en) * 1995-11-16 1997-12-23 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Multilayer hydrodisintegratable film
US5868991A (en) * 1996-07-26 1999-02-09 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Method for low temperature injection molding of hydrodisintegratable compositions
US6384297B1 (en) 1999-04-03 2002-05-07 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Water dispersible pantiliner
US6433245B1 (en) 1997-11-25 2002-08-13 The Procter & Gamble Company Flushable fibrous structures
US20110305855A1 (en) * 2008-12-18 2011-12-15 Georgia-Pacific France Water-degradable paper sheet, and tube for a paper roll consisting of such a sheet
US9034478B2 (en) 2008-12-18 2015-05-19 Sca Tissue France Method for making a sheet of degradable paper, use of said sheet for making a mandrel defining a roll carrier, degradable paper sheet, and mandrel including at least one of said sheets
US9039651B2 (en) 2009-08-03 2015-05-26 Sca Tissue France Fibrous sheet that disintegrates in water, process for manufacturing said fibrous sheet, core consisting of strips of said fibrous sheet
ES2560354A1 (en) * 2015-11-18 2016-02-18 Juan SALVADOR VALERO hygienic microfibre water-dispersible
ES2613889A1 (en) * 2015-11-25 2017-05-26 Juan SALVADOR VALERO hygienic microfibre water-dispersible, perfected

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2833283A (en) * 1954-12-28 1958-05-06 Chicopee Mfg Corp Nonwoven fabric and absorbent products
US2862251A (en) * 1955-04-12 1958-12-02 Chicopee Mfg Corp Method of and apparatus for producing nonwoven product
US2890700A (en) * 1954-02-18 1959-06-16 Ethel C Lonberg-Holm Disposable diaper
US3067745A (en) * 1959-08-12 1962-12-11 Johnson & Johnson Absorbent product
US3111948A (en) * 1956-09-07 1963-11-26 Johnson & Johnson Absorbent pad and wrapper therefor

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2890700A (en) * 1954-02-18 1959-06-16 Ethel C Lonberg-Holm Disposable diaper
US2833283A (en) * 1954-12-28 1958-05-06 Chicopee Mfg Corp Nonwoven fabric and absorbent products
US2862251A (en) * 1955-04-12 1958-12-02 Chicopee Mfg Corp Method of and apparatus for producing nonwoven product
US3111948A (en) * 1956-09-07 1963-11-26 Johnson & Johnson Absorbent pad and wrapper therefor
US3067745A (en) * 1959-08-12 1962-12-11 Johnson & Johnson Absorbent product

Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3800797A (en) * 1973-01-15 1974-04-02 Johnson & Johnson Body fluid barrier films
US3804092A (en) * 1973-01-15 1974-04-16 Johnson & Johnson Water dispersible nonwoven fabric
US3939836A (en) * 1974-02-07 1976-02-24 Johnson & Johnson Water dispersible nonwoven fabric
US4117187A (en) * 1976-12-29 1978-09-26 American Can Company Premoistened flushable wiper
US4164595A (en) * 1976-12-29 1979-08-14 American Can Company Premoistened flushable wiper
WO1989006142A1 (en) * 1988-01-05 1989-07-13 Liam Patrick Forde pH CONTROLLING ABSORBENT PRODUCT AND METHOD FOR PREPARING THE SAME
US5580910A (en) * 1993-04-12 1996-12-03 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Self sealing film
EP0639381A1 (en) * 1993-08-17 1995-02-22 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Binder compositions and web materials formed thereby
US5466518A (en) * 1993-08-17 1995-11-14 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Binder compositions and web materials formed thereby
FR2709055A1 (en) * 1993-08-17 1995-02-24 Kimberly Clark Co fibrous web incorporating a binder making the water-disintegratable and corresponding binder composition.
US5576364A (en) * 1993-08-17 1996-11-19 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Hydrodisintegratable binder compositions
US5509913A (en) * 1993-12-16 1996-04-23 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Flushable compositions
US5700553A (en) * 1995-11-16 1997-12-23 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Multilayer hydrodisintegratable film
US5868991A (en) * 1996-07-26 1999-02-09 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Method for low temperature injection molding of hydrodisintegratable compositions
US6433245B1 (en) 1997-11-25 2002-08-13 The Procter & Gamble Company Flushable fibrous structures
US6384297B1 (en) 1999-04-03 2002-05-07 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Water dispersible pantiliner
US20110305855A1 (en) * 2008-12-18 2011-12-15 Georgia-Pacific France Water-degradable paper sheet, and tube for a paper roll consisting of such a sheet
US8758564B2 (en) * 2008-12-18 2014-06-24 Sca Tissue France Water-degradable paper sheet, and tube for a paper roll consisting of such a sheet
US9034478B2 (en) 2008-12-18 2015-05-19 Sca Tissue France Method for making a sheet of degradable paper, use of said sheet for making a mandrel defining a roll carrier, degradable paper sheet, and mandrel including at least one of said sheets
US9353482B2 (en) 2008-12-18 2016-05-31 Sca Tissue France Water-degradable paper sheet, and tube for a paper roll consisting of such a sheet
US9039651B2 (en) 2009-08-03 2015-05-26 Sca Tissue France Fibrous sheet that disintegrates in water, process for manufacturing said fibrous sheet, core consisting of strips of said fibrous sheet
US9139957B2 (en) 2009-08-03 2015-09-22 Sca Tissue France Fibrous sheet disintegrating in water, process for manufacturing said fibrous sheet, use of said fibrous sheet for the manufacture of a core
US9518360B2 (en) 2009-08-03 2016-12-13 Sca Tissue France Fibrous sheet disintegrating in water, process for manufacturing said fibrous sheet, use of said fibrous sheet for the manufacture of a core
US9896803B2 (en) 2009-08-03 2018-02-20 Sca Tissue France Fibrous sheet that disintegrates in water, process for manufacturing said fibrous sheet, core consisting of strips of said fibrous sheet
ES2560354A1 (en) * 2015-11-18 2016-02-18 Juan SALVADOR VALERO hygienic microfibre water-dispersible
ES2613889A1 (en) * 2015-11-25 2017-05-26 Juan SALVADOR VALERO hygienic microfibre water-dispersible, perfected

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