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US3568206A - Transmission line loaded annular slot antenna - Google Patents

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Publication number
US3568206A
US3568206A US3568206DA US3568206A US 3568206 A US3568206 A US 3568206A US 3568206D A US3568206D A US 3568206DA US 3568206 A US3568206 A US 3568206A
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Prior art keywords
cavity
spiral
probe
conductor
antenna
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Expired - Lifetime
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Austin R Sisson
Dale W Milligan
Robert D Wanselow
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Northrop Grumman Systems Corp
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Northrop Grumman Systems Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QAERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short aerials having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant aerials
    • H01Q9/16Resonant aerials with feed intermediate between the extremities of the aerial, e.g. centre-fed dipole
    • H01Q9/26Resonant aerials with feed intermediate between the extremities of the aerial, e.g. centre-fed dipole with folded element or elements, the folded parts being spaced apart a small fraction of operating wavelength
    • H01Q9/27Spiral aerials

Abstract

A probe is connected to the bottom of a cavity, and a spiraled conductor is connected to the top of the probe, where the outer turns of the spiral are spaced from the cavity top edges to form an electrically small slot. This antenna is fed from the cavity bottom near the probe by the extension of the center conductor of a terminated coaxial line.

Description

United States Patent [72] Inventors Austin R- SiSSOl! [56] References Cited S3 5; w Ch h R UNITED STATES PATENTS e 2,359,620 /1944 Carter 343/795x Wanselow, Calabasas, Calif. {21] A I No 705 841 2,850,732 9/1958 Kandoian et al.... 343/752 [22] Y 1968 3,427,624 2/1969 Wanselow et al.. 343/895X Patented 2 l971 3,432,858 3/1969 Brown 343/895X [73] Assignee Northrop Corporation OTHER REFERENCES Beverly Hills, Calif. Rhodes, D. R., Flush-mounted Antenna for Mobile Application, Electronics, 3-1949, pp. 115 117 Fenwick, R. C., A New Class of Electrically Small Antennas, IEEE. Trans. on Antennas & Propagation, 5- 1965, pp. 379- 3 83 Primary Examiner-Herman K. Saalbach 4 s SION LINE LOADED ANNULAR SLOT Assistant Examiner-Wm. H. Punter [5 1 Attorneys-William W. Rundle and Willard M. Graham 4 Claims, 3 Drawing Figs. [52] US. Cl 343/750, ABSTRACT: A probe is connected to the bottom of a cavity, 343/769, 343/789, 343/895 and a spiraled conductor is connected to the top of the probe, {51] Int. Cl H01q 9/26, where the outer turns of the spiral are spaced from the cavity HOlq 13/ 1 8, HOlq 1/36 top edges to form an electrically small slot. This antenna is fed Field of Search 343/895, from the cavity bottom near the probe by the extension of the center conductor of a terminated coaxial line.

TRANSMISSION LINE LOADED ANNULAR SLQT ANTENNA The present invention relates to antennas, and more particularly, to a miniature transmission line loaded slot antenna.

Conventional annular slot antennas are approximately onehalf wavelength in diameter. It is an object of the present invention to provide a similar antenna having a diameter of only approximately 0.05 wavelength.

The accompanying drawings illustrate one embodiment of our invention. In the drawings, 1

FIG. 1 is a top pr perspective view of the present slot antenna.

FIG. 2 is a cross section taken as indicated by broken line 2-2 in FIG. 1.

FlG. 3 is a plan view diagram of an alternate form of spiral conductor.

Referring first to FIGS. 1 and 2, a substantially square metal cavity 1 is provided, having a bottom surface 2, sides 4, and upper surfaces 5. A conductive probe 6 is electrically connected to the bottom surface 2 and projects upwardly to the plane of upper surfaces 5. The center of a spiral conductor 7 is connected to the upper end of probe 6. The spiral conductor 7 is wound substantially in the plane of the upper surfaces of the cavity, and an annular space S acting as a slot is left between the outer spiral turns and the cavity sides 4. The diameter D of slot S is only approximately 0.05 wavelength. The diameter D is nominally either the outside diameter of the slot when the latter is round or the longest side of a rectangular slot when the slot has square corners. It is the same as the diameter of the cavity from sidewall to sidewall.

This antenna is shunt fed by a coaxial cable 9 having its outer sheath it) connected to the bottom surface 2 and its center wire 11 brought up through an insulated aperture 12 to connect to the spiral conductor 7 near the probe 6. The feed connection wire 11 shown herein may alternatively be connected to the side of the probe 6'instead of to the spiral, as shown by dotted line 11a in F IG. 2. The choice as to location of this connection is dependent upon the antenna quality factor, Q, and the antenna input impedance which is desired at the terminals of the cable 9. The cavity 1 may have a ground connection 13.

The spiral conductor 7 loads the probe 6. This combination excites the radial mode of electromagnetic propagation inside the cavity 1. The radial mode across the top cavity surface 5 does not radiate substantially when the cavity is small whereas the vertical mode propagates along the upper surfaces 5 outward in the form of radiation. Along the'plane of the spiral 7 and inside the cavity, these two modes are coupled to the transmission line and cavity conductors. The current flowing in the conductors transfers energy between the two modes as a function ofposition and time. At the frequency of resonance, the position of maximum current is in the proper phase-time lag to create standing waves in the structure. In this way, a real input impedance is achieved. The radiation pattern is similar to that of a quarter-wave monopole on a ground plane. In the position shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the polarization is vertical. In other mounting positions of the assembly, the polarization is in the direction perpendicular to the surfaces 5 regardless of whether the probe 6 is perpendicular to the cavity bottom 2 or not.

A substantially square spiral is shown herein as an example. However, the slot 8 can be rectangular, circular, elliptical, or other shapes, while of course using a similarly shaped spiral.

In a conventional slot antenna as 'mentioned above, when the diameter of the slot is decreased below approximately onehalf wavelength, the antenna becomes inadequate due to the high impedance which develops. The cavity top wall behaves as a small capacity, and insufficient current flows in the probe. However, the present invention circumvents this problem.

The image theory of a conductor above a conducting ground plane is well known in the art. The spiral conductor 7 of the present invention with its image below the ground plane can be treated as a two-wire transmission line which terminates the ends of the probe 6 and its image. Since current flow in the image conductor of the transmission line is opposite to that in the conductor itself, cancellation occurs and there is essentially no radiation from the transmission line (spiral conductor 7). However, current flow in the probe image (not shown) is in phase with that in the probe 6 itself, so that radiation from the probe image reinforces that from the probe 6.

In this case the spiral conductor 7 is made effectively onequarter wavelength long, and the structure thus formed becomes resonant, resulting in high current flow in the probe 6. The probe thus efficiently excites the cavity in the radial mode.

This antenna can be tuned to various frequencies for a given configuration by means of one or more variable reactances as shown in FIG. 3. Here, two variable capacitors 14 are connected in series with the spiral conductor 7, for series tuning. Alternatively, a shunt capacitor 15 may be used, between the spiral and ground, or a combination of both series and shunt tuning elements may be used. These elements change the effective electrical length of the spiral, thus changing the resonant operating frequency.

Thus it is seen that the present antenna is only one-tenth the diameter of the convention annular slot antenna. This small diameter is a great advantage in aircraft, ground vehicles, and other applications, particularly in the HF and VHF ranges. The probe 6 and spiral 7 may conveniently be a single piece of metal tubing, supported if necessary bynonconductive supports. The antenna is preferably mounted with the upper cavity surfaces 5 flush with the outer skin of the object on which it is carried. A nominal preferred value for the depth of the cavity 1, i.e., the length of probe 6, is about 0.01 wavelength, but this value may vary considerably according to the antenna efficiency desired and other parameters. I

While in order to comply with the statute, the invention has been described in language more .or less specific as to structural features, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific features shown, but that the means and construction herein disclosed comprise the preferred form of putting the invention into effect, and the invention is therefore claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the legitimate and valid scope of the appendedclaims.

We claim:

1. An antenna comprising a conductive cavity, a spiral conductor lying substantially in the plane of the outer opening of said cavity with the outermost portion of said spiral conductor spaced from the sides of said cavity to form substantially an annular slot, and a conductive probe member electrically connecting the inner end of said spiral to the bottom of said cavity, the nominal diameter of said cavity being only approximately 0.05 wavelength at the opening frequency.

2. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 including a first transmission line feed connection at the bottom of said cavity and a second such connection at said spiral conductor nea said probe.

3. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 including a first transmission line feed connectionat the bottom of said cavity and a second such connection to the side of said probe.

4. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 including tuning means connected to said spiral conductor.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION I! I I Patent No. 3 568 206 D t d March 2 y 1971 lnventofls) Austin R. Sisson et a1 It is certified that error appears in the above-identified paten and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 2 line 58 "opening" should read operating Signed and sealed this 20th day of July 1971 (SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD M.FLETCI-IER,JR. WILLIAM SCHUYLER JR Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

Claims (4)

1. An antenna comprising a conductive cavity, a spiral conductor lying substantially in the plane of the outer opening of Said cavity with the outermost portion of said spiral conductor spaced from the sides of said cavity to form substantially an annular slot, and a conductive probe member electrically connecting the inner end of said spiral to the bottom of said cavity, the nominal diameter of said cavity being only approximately 0.05 wavelength at the opening frequency.
2. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 including a first transmission line feed connection at the bottom of said cavity and a second such connection at said spiral conductor near said probe.
3. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 including a first transmission line feed connection at the bottom of said cavity and a second such connection to the side of said probe.
4. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 including tuning means connected to said spiral conductor.
US3568206A 1968-02-15 1968-02-15 Transmission line loaded annular slot antenna Expired - Lifetime US3568206A (en)

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Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2323244A1 (en) * 1975-09-08 1977-04-01 American Electronic Lab Antenna broadband
FR2461373A1 (en) * 1979-07-12 1981-01-30 Emi Ltd Antenna cylindrical cavity
US4652829A (en) * 1984-12-28 1987-03-24 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Electromagnetic logging apparatus with button antennas for measuring the dielectric constant of formation surrounding a borehole
US4704581A (en) * 1985-12-28 1987-11-03 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Electromagnetic logging apparatus using vertical magnetic dipole slot antennas
US4743918A (en) * 1984-01-13 1988-05-10 Thomson-Csf Antenna comprising a device for excitation of a waveguide in the circular mode
WO1988007266A1 (en) * 1987-03-16 1988-09-22 Hughes Aircraft Company Capacitance loaded helical monopole antenna
US4857852A (en) * 1986-06-20 1989-08-15 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Induction well logging apparatus with transformer coupled phase sensitive detector
US5025264A (en) * 1989-02-24 1991-06-18 The Marconi Company Limited Circularly polarized antenna with resonant aperture in ground plane and probe feed
US5039996A (en) * 1987-02-16 1991-08-13 N.V. Nederlandsche Apparatenfabriek Nedap Method of placing an electronic responder in or near an electrically conductive article, as well as an electrically conductive article provided with an electronic responder
US5168234A (en) * 1990-09-07 1992-12-01 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Method and apparatus for measuring azimuthal as well as longitudinal waves in a formation traversed by a borehole
US5341148A (en) * 1991-11-29 1994-08-23 Trw Inc. High frequency multi-turn loop antenna in cavity
WO1997047054A1 (en) * 1996-06-05 1997-12-11 Intercell Wireless Corporation Dual resonance antenna for portable telephone
US5714937A (en) * 1995-02-24 1998-02-03 Ntp Incorporated Omidirectional and directional antenna assembly
US5777587A (en) * 1993-10-12 1998-07-07 Murata Mfg. Co., Ltd. Surface-mounted antenna
US6337628B2 (en) * 1995-02-22 2002-01-08 Ntp, Incorporated Omnidirectional and directional antenna assembly
US6362784B1 (en) 1998-03-31 2002-03-26 Matsuda Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Antenna unit and digital television receiver
US6445354B1 (en) * 1999-08-16 2002-09-03 Novatel, Inc. Aperture coupled slot array antenna
US6473134B1 (en) 1996-06-19 2002-10-29 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Television receiver that detects electric field information from a received television signal and stabilizes a detected synchronizing signal according to the electric field information
US6486847B1 (en) * 1999-03-02 2002-11-26 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Monopole antenna
US20040150575A1 (en) * 2003-02-03 2004-08-05 Silver Spring Networks, Inc. Flush-mounted antenna and transmission system
US20040160372A1 (en) * 2002-12-19 2004-08-19 Fred Pulver Systems and methods for wireless telecommunications
WO2005013422A1 (en) 2003-08-05 2005-02-10 Nippon Antena Kabushiki Kaisha Reflecting plate-equipped planar antenna
US6906677B2 (en) 2000-05-26 2005-06-14 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Antenna, antenna device, and radio equipment
US20070103373A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-05-10 Infineon Technologies Ag Miniaturized integrated monopole antenna
US8059061B2 (en) * 2005-10-04 2011-11-15 Emw Co., Ltd. Subminiature internal antenna

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2359620A (en) * 1942-06-13 1944-10-03 Rca Corp Short wave antenna
US2850732A (en) * 1955-10-03 1958-09-02 Itt Antenna for mobile communications
US3427624A (en) * 1966-07-13 1969-02-11 Northrop Corp Low profile antenna having horizontal tunable top loading member
US3432858A (en) * 1964-12-14 1969-03-11 Allan R Brown Short dipole antenna

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2359620A (en) * 1942-06-13 1944-10-03 Rca Corp Short wave antenna
US2850732A (en) * 1955-10-03 1958-09-02 Itt Antenna for mobile communications
US3432858A (en) * 1964-12-14 1969-03-11 Allan R Brown Short dipole antenna
US3427624A (en) * 1966-07-13 1969-02-11 Northrop Corp Low profile antenna having horizontal tunable top loading member

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Fenwick, R. C., A New Class of Electrically Small Antennas, IEEE. Trans. on Antennas & Propagation, 5 1965, pp. 379 383 *
Rhodes, D. R., Flush-mounted Antenna for Mobile Application, Electronics, 3-1949, pp. 115 117 *

Cited By (36)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4032921A (en) * 1975-09-08 1977-06-28 American Electronic Laboratories, Inc. Broad-band spiral-slot antenna
FR2323244A1 (en) * 1975-09-08 1977-04-01 American Electronic Lab Antenna broadband
FR2461373A1 (en) * 1979-07-12 1981-01-30 Emi Ltd Antenna cylindrical cavity
US4369447A (en) * 1979-07-12 1983-01-18 Emi Limited Annular slot antenna
US4743918A (en) * 1984-01-13 1988-05-10 Thomson-Csf Antenna comprising a device for excitation of a waveguide in the circular mode
US4652829A (en) * 1984-12-28 1987-03-24 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Electromagnetic logging apparatus with button antennas for measuring the dielectric constant of formation surrounding a borehole
US4704581A (en) * 1985-12-28 1987-11-03 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Electromagnetic logging apparatus using vertical magnetic dipole slot antennas
US4857852A (en) * 1986-06-20 1989-08-15 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Induction well logging apparatus with transformer coupled phase sensitive detector
US5039996A (en) * 1987-02-16 1991-08-13 N.V. Nederlandsche Apparatenfabriek Nedap Method of placing an electronic responder in or near an electrically conductive article, as well as an electrically conductive article provided with an electronic responder
WO1988007266A1 (en) * 1987-03-16 1988-09-22 Hughes Aircraft Company Capacitance loaded helical monopole antenna
US4896162A (en) * 1987-03-16 1990-01-23 Hughes Aircraft Company Capacitance loaded monopole antenna
US5025264A (en) * 1989-02-24 1991-06-18 The Marconi Company Limited Circularly polarized antenna with resonant aperture in ground plane and probe feed
US5168234A (en) * 1990-09-07 1992-12-01 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Method and apparatus for measuring azimuthal as well as longitudinal waves in a formation traversed by a borehole
US5341148A (en) * 1991-11-29 1994-08-23 Trw Inc. High frequency multi-turn loop antenna in cavity
US5777587A (en) * 1993-10-12 1998-07-07 Murata Mfg. Co., Ltd. Surface-mounted antenna
US6337628B2 (en) * 1995-02-22 2002-01-08 Ntp, Incorporated Omnidirectional and directional antenna assembly
US5714937A (en) * 1995-02-24 1998-02-03 Ntp Incorporated Omidirectional and directional antenna assembly
WO1997047054A1 (en) * 1996-06-05 1997-12-11 Intercell Wireless Corporation Dual resonance antenna for portable telephone
US6473134B1 (en) 1996-06-19 2002-10-29 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Television receiver that detects electric field information from a received television signal and stabilizes a detected synchronizing signal according to the electric field information
US6362784B1 (en) 1998-03-31 2002-03-26 Matsuda Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Antenna unit and digital television receiver
US6486847B1 (en) * 1999-03-02 2002-11-26 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Monopole antenna
US6452560B2 (en) * 1999-08-16 2002-09-17 Novatel, Inc. Slot array antenna with reduced edge diffraction
US6445354B1 (en) * 1999-08-16 2002-09-03 Novatel, Inc. Aperture coupled slot array antenna
US6906677B2 (en) 2000-05-26 2005-06-14 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Antenna, antenna device, and radio equipment
US20040160372A1 (en) * 2002-12-19 2004-08-19 Fred Pulver Systems and methods for wireless telecommunications
US6900772B2 (en) * 2002-12-19 2005-05-31 Fred Pulver Systems and methods for wireless telecommunications
US6859186B2 (en) * 2003-02-03 2005-02-22 Silver Spring Networks, Inc. Flush-mounted antenna and transmission system
US20040150575A1 (en) * 2003-02-03 2004-08-05 Silver Spring Networks, Inc. Flush-mounted antenna and transmission system
WO2005013422A1 (en) 2003-08-05 2005-02-10 Nippon Antena Kabushiki Kaisha Reflecting plate-equipped planar antenna
EP1653560A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2006-05-03 Nippon Antena Kabushiki Kaisha Reflecting plate-equipped planar antenna
EP1653560A4 (en) * 2003-08-05 2006-08-02 Nippon Antenna Kk Reflecting plate-equipped planar antenna
US20060238432A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2006-10-26 Koichi Mikami Reflecting plate-equipped planar antenna
US7439926B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2008-10-21 Nippon Antena Kabushiki Kaisha Planar antenna fitted with a reflector
US20070103373A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-05-10 Infineon Technologies Ag Miniaturized integrated monopole antenna
US7675463B2 (en) * 2005-09-15 2010-03-09 Infineon Technologies Ag Miniaturized integrated monopole antenna
US8059061B2 (en) * 2005-10-04 2011-11-15 Emw Co., Ltd. Subminiature internal antenna

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AS Assignment

Owner name: NORTHROP CORPORATION, A DEL. CORP.

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:NORTHROP CORPORATION, A CA. CORP.;REEL/FRAME:004634/0284

Effective date: 19860516