US3520297A - Iontophoretic toothbrush - Google Patents

Iontophoretic toothbrush Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3520297A
US3520297A US3520297DA US3520297A US 3520297 A US3520297 A US 3520297A US 3520297D A US3520297D A US 3520297DA US 3520297 A US3520297 A US 3520297A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
ions
fluoride
metals
metal
brush
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Arthur W Bechtold
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Chemway Corp
Original Assignee
Chemway Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Chemway Corp filed Critical Chemway Corp
Priority to US61293467A priority Critical
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3520297A publication Critical patent/US3520297A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61QSPECIFIC USE OF COSMETICS OR SIMILAR TOILET PREPARATIONS
    • A61Q11/00Preparations for care of the teeth, of the oral cavity or of dentures; Dentifrices, e.g. toothpastes; Mouth rinses
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A46BRUSHWARE
    • A46BBRUSHES
    • A46B15/00Other brushes; Brushes with additional arrangements
    • A46B15/0002Arrangements for enhancing monitoring or controlling the brushing process
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A46BRUSHWARE
    • A46BBRUSHES
    • A46B15/00Other brushes; Brushes with additional arrangements
    • A46B15/0002Arrangements for enhancing monitoring or controlling the brushing process
    • A46B15/0016Arrangements for enhancing monitoring or controlling the brushing process with enhancing means
    • A46B15/0022Arrangements for enhancing monitoring or controlling the brushing process with enhancing means with an electrical means
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/18Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition
    • A61K8/19Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing inorganic ingredients
    • A61K8/20Halogens; Compounds thereof
    • A61K8/21Fluorides; Derivatives thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/20Applying electric currents by contact electrodes continuous direct currents
    • A61N1/30Apparatus for iontophoresis, i.e. transfer of media in ionic state by an electromotoric force into the body, or cataphoresis
    • A61N1/303Constructional details
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A46BRUSHWARE
    • A46BBRUSHES
    • A46B2200/00Brushes characterized by their functions, uses or applications
    • A46B2200/10For human or animal care
    • A46B2200/1066Toothbrush for cleaning the teeth or dentures
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K2800/00Properties of cosmetic compositions or active ingredients thereof or formulation aids used therein and process related aspects
    • A61K2800/80Process related aspects concerning the preparation of the cosmetic composition or the storage or application thereof
    • A61K2800/83Electrophoresis; Electrodes; Electrolytic phenomena

Description

July 14, 1970 A. w. BECHTOLD IONTOPHOHETIC TOOTHBRUSH Filed Jan. 31, 1967 LIPS TOUCHING METAL STRIP INVENTOR ARTHUR W. BECHTOLD ATTORNEYJI United States Patent r 3,520,291 IONTOPHORETIC TOOTHBRUSH Arthur W. Bechtold, Boonton, N.J., assignor to Chemway Corporation Filed Jan. 31, 1967, Ser. No. 612,934 Int. Cl. A61n 1/30 US. Cl. 128-1721 12 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The use of certain fluoride compounds as additives to drinking water or for topical application on the teeth, e.g. by incorporating such compounds as stannous fluoride in toothpaste, to prevent tooth decay is well known. The success of fluoride compounds as caries preventive agents has been tacitly assumed to be related to the uptake of fluoride ions by sound tooth enamel. Physiochemical studies, however, indicate that the enamel pore wall is negatively charged and acts as an ionic sieve, facilitating the penetration of positively charged ions and resisting the penetration of negatively charged ions. Thus, the penetration of fluoride ions which are strongly negative is normally resisted by the enamel and the fluoride ions which re main on the surface of the enamel are readily washed off.

Recently studies have indicated that the effectiveness of fluoride ions should be increased if the naturally occurring negative charge of the enamel is reversed to become positive, since the amount and depth of penetration by the negative fluoride ions are facilitated. The process of influencing ionic motion known as iontophoresis has been suggested as a way to facilitate the amount and depth of penetration of the fluoride ions. Iontophoresis is the introduction by means of an electric current of ions of soluble salts into the tissues of the body for therapeutic purposes and has been in use some fifty or more years. In the case of anti-caries therapy with fluoride ion, increased penetration of the enamel by fluoride ions is obtained by the use of iontophoresis.

An iontophoresis toothbrush is presently marketed which includes an electric circuit having a dry cell arranged in the handle to provide the current, see U. S. Pat. 2,834,344 to Kauai. This arrangement is disadvantageous, however, since it requires a wet hand to grip the handle and the dry cell limits the design of the brush, makes it bulky, adds to its cost and increases maintenance since it must be periodically replaced. Additionally, the circuit which extends through the arm and head is substantially longer than through the lips as in this invention and persons using the brush can experience headaches.

It is also known that iontophoresis can be used to introduce ions of other soluble medicaments into the body tissues such as fingernails and skin. For example, the penetration of pharmagel into the nail in the treatment of brittle nails can be facilitated by iontophoresis. Also, the use of sulfacetamide in gum infections and the use of selenium compounds in scalp treatments for dandruff causing organisms can be assisted. The apparatus and system of this invention is suitable for these uses, and others, although hereinbelow for simplicity it will be described with reference to the penetration of tooth enamel by fluoride ions.

In general this invention is directed to a self-energizing iontophoresis apparatus for introducing ions into the body tissues which generally comprises a brush having a handle 3,520,297 Patented July 14, 1970 mice made of an electrical non-conductor carrying a plurality of bristles and two dissimilar metal pieces. The two metal pieces are arranged so that they do not touch and one metal piece is arranged so that it does not contact the body tissue during use of the brush. The other metal piece is affixed in such a position on the brush handle that it contacts the body tissues, e.g. the lips adjacent the teeth which are to be treated by iontophoresis.

It is known that dissimilar metals when placed in an electrolyte exhibit an electrical potential therebetweeu. The Electromotive Force Series of Elements is a compilation of the electrode potentials of various metals utilizing a standard hydrogen reference electrode. In the system of this invention, a solution containing the ions to be introduced into the body tissues, e.g. a saliva solution of tooth cleansers containing a fluoride salt, forms an electrolyte, and since the human body is electrically conductive, when the brush is used with the solution, an electrical circuit is closed through the two metal pieces, the body and the saliva solution through which circuit flows a current generated by the dilference in potentials of the two metals. The direction of current flow in the circuit is controlled by choosing the particular metals. If the metal piece touching the body has a higher potential than the other metal piece, a positive charge will be applied to the body tissues at the electrolyte. This system is desirable when the ions to be introduced into the body tissues, such as fluoride ions, sulfacetamide, etc., have a negative charge, since the positively charged tissue attracts the negatively charged ions facilitating penetration of the tissues by the ions. Reversing the position of the metals reverses the flow of current and applies a negative charge to the body tissues at the electrolyte. Utilizing this system with positively charged therapeutically active ions such as those found in anesthetics, zinc sulfate, streptomycin HCl, epinephrine HCl, copper sulfate, etc. facilitates their penetration. It is apparent that if both metal pieces touched the body, a short circuit occurs between the two points of contact rather than at the desired area of treatment so this is avoided.

The two dissimilar metals in this invention are selected from the Electromotive Force Series of Metals to provide a cell voltage and generate a current sufiicient to place a charge on the body tissues, e.g. a positive charge on the teeth having sufficient strength to attract the desired ions and increase the penetration thereof into the body tissues. Generally, the cell voltage will be between about 0.3 v. and 2 v., preferably about 0.5 to about 1 v. and the current strength between about 20 and 2000 microamps, preferably about 40 to 600 microamps. The current should generally not exceed about 2000 microam-ps due to physical discomfort such as tingling of the tissues, sore fillings and headaches which can develop with higher currents. The current flow is affected not only by the particular metal combination, but also by the relative surface areas of the two metals in contact with the ionic solution of the medicament, the particular medicament and concentration of ions, etc. Suitable sizes of the electrodes vary over a wide range and are limited only by brush size. In general, the greater the area of the more positive metal piece exposed to the ionic solution, the larger the current generated. Also, the size of the negative, or less positive, metal piece will affect the life of the brush since it is used up to provide the electron flow. In either case only a small portion of the metal piece need touch the body tissue. The ionic solution should generally be either acidic or basic and, preferably will have a pH below about 5 or above about pH 8.

In general, any metal combination which exhibits the desired EMF and generates the desired current can be used in this invention. Since the apparatus is designed for use on human tissue, however, non-toxic materials are used. Suitable metals include generally those above copper in the electromotive series, such as iron, tin, nickel, zinc, magnesium, aluminum, etc., as well as non-toxic compounds such as oxides of these materials and hereinafter when metals are referred to it is intended to include such compounds. Carbon, e.g. in the form of graphite, and silver can also be used. Also, when selecting metals for toothbrushes, it is desirable to use metals having an EMF above the constituents of dental filings in the electromotive series since otherwise use of the toothbrush would cause deterioration of the filings. Desirable metal combinations are tin-zinc, tin-magnesium, tin-aluminum, zinc-silver, copper-zinc, silver-magnesium, etc. Although described as strips, or pieces, the metals can be present in various forms such as a powder embedded in the bristles of the brush or in the back surface of the brush handle, as well as actual strips or foils afiixed to the brush, and the terms strips and pieces are intended to encompass such forms.

Referring now to the attached drawing, the sole figure therein illustrates an embodiment of the apparatus in accordance with this invention which is in the form of a toothbrush. In this figure, the toothbrush, generally designated as 10, includes bristles 16 and a body having a handle portion 12 and a head portion 14 of conventional construction. Two dissimilar metal pieces 18 and 20 are afiixed to head 14 by conventional means. As afiixed, the metal pieces do not touch and only piece 20 will touch the body tissues, e.g., the lips, when the brush is used. If desired, piece 20 can extend rearward on handle 12 to where it touches the hand. The signs and are intended to show that metal piece 20 has a higher, more positive, electrode potential than does metal piece 18. With this arrangement a positive charge will be applied to the teeth, represented by tooth 22 by an electrical circuit, depicted by line 24, established through metal piece 20 and the body which is closed to metal piece 18 when the two metal pieces 18 and 20 contact the saliva in the mouth. The saliva becomes the medium in which ions commence their selective movement. Negative ions flow toward the now positively charged teeth 22 and positive ions to the negatively charged area at bristles 16 as shown by the positively and negatively marked arrows.

The following examples serve to further illustrate this invention.

EXAMPLE I Tin and magnesium foils were fastened to a toothbrush head. The tin foils used had areas of 600 sq. mm., 150 sq. mm. and 75 sq. mm. and the magnesium foil an area of about sq. mm. Approximately /3 inch of dentifrice was applied to a wetted brush and the toothbrush heads were dipped in a slurry of toothpaste containing equal parts of water and toothpaste. Current readings were taken at room temperature as the toothbrush was moved in the slurry in a circuit formed by connecting the metal pieces. The electrical potential reached 1.08 volt. Table I sets forth the current flow obtained using the tin foils with several commercial dentifrices.

2 Containing toothpaste (about 0.4%), pH 9.1. 3 Containing toothpaste (about 0.4%), pH 5.6. 4 A stannous fluoride containing toothpaste (about 0.4%), pH 4.6. 5 A stannous fluoride containing toothpaste (about 0.4%), pH 4.5.

EXAMPLE II Using three brushes having, respectively, tin areas of 75 sq. mm., 135 sq. mm. and 850 sq. mm., and each having a zinc area 30 sq. mm. in a slurry of equal parts of toothpaste and water in a procedure similar to Ex ample I, the following readings were obtained.

TABLE II Tin (microamps) Brand of toothpaste 850 sq. mm. 135 sq. mm. sq. mm.

Amm-i-dent fluoride 145 56 66 Oral B (fluoride) 82 58 28 Fact (fluoride) 148 Crest (fluoride). 75 80 72 Cue (fluoride) 114 70 84 The following readings of Table III were obtained using the brushes in the mouth with the participant brushing sufliciently to create a foam.

TABLE III Tin (microamps) Brand of toothpaste 850 sq. mm. sq. mm. 75 sq. mm.

Amrn-i-dent fluoride 40 10 Oral B (fluoride) 200 8 8 Fact (fluoride) 108 110 Crest (fluoride) 180 26 22 Cue (fluoride) 200 35 32 EXAMPLE III The amount and depth of penetration of tooth enamel by fluoride ions is improved with the following dentrifrice when using a brush constructed as in Examples I and II.

Approximate pH 5.0

What is claimed is:

1. An article of manufacture adapted to be held which comprises a bristle carrying and handle means made of electrically non-conductive material, a plurality of bristles carried by said first-mentioned means, first and second metal pieces aifixed in open circuit relationship to said first-mentioned means at said bristles, said first and second metal pieces being of dissimilar metals, one of said first and second metal pieces being arranged on said firstmentioned means so that it is adapted to touch the holder during use of the article and the other of said first and second metal pieces being arranged on said first-mentioned means so that it does not normally touch the holder during use of the article, said metal pieces each being arranged with respect to said bristles whereby each will communicate electrically with an electrically conductive liquid carried by said bristles, said dissimilar metals having an electrode potential therebetween on the standard hydrogen reference electrode scale, said electrode potential and the relative sizes of said first and second metal pieces being effective to provide a cell voltage therebetween and generate a current of above 20 microamps when placed in contact with said electrically conductive liquid.

2. The article of claim 1 wherein the metals used as said first and second pieces are each non-toxic to humans.

3. The article of claim 1 wherein the metals used as said first and second pieces are each above copper in the electromotive series.

4. The article of claim 1 wherein the metals used as said first and second pieces and the relative sizes thereof generate a current of below about 2000 microamps when placed in contact with said electrically conductive solution.

5. The article of claim 4 wherein said metal pieces have an electrode potential therebetween of between about 0.3 and 2 volts.

6. The article of claim 1 wherein the metals. used as said first and second pieces and the relative sizes thereof generate a current of between about 40 and 600 microamps when placed in contact with said electrically conductive solution.

7. A system for the introduction of medicaments into body tissues of humans by iontophoresis comprising an electrically conductive ionic solution of said medicament arranged on the tissue to be treated, and brush means adapted to be held in contact with said solution at the tissue to be treated comprising bristle carrying and handle means made of electrically non-conductive material, a plurality of bristles carried by said bristle carrying means, first and second metal pieces affixed in open circuit relationship to said bristle carrying means at said bristles, said first and second metal pieces being of dissimilar nontoxic metals having, respectively, a higher and a lower electrode potential on the standard hydrogen reference electrode scale, said metal pieces being arranged with respect to said bristles so that each will communicate electrically with said ionic solution as it is carried by the bristles, one of said first and second metal pieces being arranged one said bristle carrying means so that it is adapted to touch the holder during use of the brush means and the other of said metal pieces being arranged on said bristle carrying means so that it does not normally touch the holder during use of the brush means, said one of the metal pieces having the higher electrode potential when the ions of said medicament have a negative charge and said one of the metal pieces having the lower electrode potential when the ions of said medicament have a positive charge,

the difierence between the higher and lower electrode potentials and the relative sizes of said first and second metal pieces being effective to provide a cell voltage therebetween and generate a current in excess of 20 microamps through said solution and the body tissues.

8. The system of claim 7 wherein said ions are negative and the first metal piece is said one metal piece and has the higher electrode potential.

9. The system of claim 8 wherein said ions are fluoride ions, said brush means is a toothbrush and the body tissues touched by said first metal piece are the lips.

10. The article of claim 7 wherein the metals used as said first and second pieces are each above copper in the electromotive series.

11. The article of claim 10 wherein the metals used as said first and second pieces and the relative sizes thereof generate a current of below about 2000 microamps when placed in contact with said electrically conductive solu tion.

12. The article of claim 11 wherein said metal pieces have an electrode potential therebetween of between about 0.3 and 2 volts.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 415,274 11/1889 Kane 128--38l XR 2,834,344 5/1958 Kanai 128-172.1 3,412,731 11/1968 Reynolds 128-1721 WILLIAM E. KAMM, Primary Examiner

US3520297D 1967-01-31 1967-01-31 Iontophoretic toothbrush Expired - Lifetime US3520297A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US61293467A true 1967-01-31 1967-01-31

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3520297A true US3520297A (en) 1970-07-14

Family

ID=24455195

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3520297D Expired - Lifetime US3520297A (en) 1967-01-31 1967-01-31 Iontophoretic toothbrush

Country Status (9)

Country Link
US (1) US3520297A (en)
AT (1) AT299439B (en)
BE (1) BE710152A (en)
CH (1) CH499286A (en)
DE (1) DE1639155A1 (en)
ES (1) ES350272A1 (en)
FR (1) FR1583683A (en)
GB (1) GB1219632A (en)
NL (1) NL6800928A (en)

Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4502497A (en) * 1983-01-28 1985-03-05 Joseph Siahou Toothbrush for polarizing the active ingredients of toothpaste
US4526570A (en) * 1982-10-25 1985-07-02 Shiken, Ltd. Dental hygienic device
US4632135A (en) * 1984-01-17 1986-12-30 U.S. Philips Corporation Hair-grooming means
US4691718A (en) * 1985-06-29 1987-09-08 Kabushiki Kaisha Sangi Toothbrush
US4702732A (en) * 1984-12-24 1987-10-27 Trustees Of Boston University Electrodes, electrode assemblies, methods, and systems for tissue stimulation and transdermal delivery of pharmacologically active ligands
WO1988003821A1 (en) * 1986-11-21 1988-06-02 Boston University Electrode assembly for transdermal drug delivery
US4767401A (en) * 1975-04-22 1988-08-30 Maurice Seiderman Iontophoretic administration of ionizable or polar medicaments to a mammalian body
US4786277A (en) * 1986-11-21 1988-11-22 Trustees Of Boston University Electrodes, electrode assemblies, methods, and systems for tissue stimulation
US5115533A (en) * 1989-09-12 1992-05-26 Hiroshi Hukuba Toothbrush with voltage tester
US5372501A (en) * 1989-02-20 1994-12-13 Solar Wide Industrial Ltd. Dental aid
US5921251A (en) * 1997-08-07 1999-07-13 Ceramatec, Inc. Brush that delivers beneficial agents
USRE37796E1 (en) 1997-12-16 2002-07-23 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Methods for iontophoretic delivery of antiviral agents
US20020142340A1 (en) * 1986-04-18 2002-10-03 Carnegie Mellon University Cyanine dyes as labeling reagents for detection of biological and other materials by luminescence methods
US20030054321A1 (en) * 2000-08-24 2003-03-20 Moran Francis Xavier Electrolytic method and device
US20030199808A1 (en) * 1999-03-12 2003-10-23 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc. Systems and methods for electrokinetic delivery of a substance
USRE38341E1 (en) * 1996-05-08 2003-12-09 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Method for electrokinetic delivery of medicaments
GB2390023A (en) * 2002-06-27 2003-12-31 Kieron Loy Iontophoretic hairbrush with handle return electrode
US20040039328A1 (en) * 1998-09-15 2004-02-26 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Iontophoretic drug delivery electrodes and method
US6735470B2 (en) 2000-05-31 2004-05-11 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Electrokinetic delivery of medicaments
US20040091834A1 (en) * 1997-06-20 2004-05-13 Rizoiu Ioana M. Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
US20040111051A1 (en) * 2000-03-10 2004-06-10 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc. Electrokinetic delivery system for self-administration of medicaments and methods therefor
US20060070195A1 (en) * 2004-10-05 2006-04-06 Lion Corporation Oral cavity cleaning tool
US20060281042A1 (en) * 2005-05-18 2006-12-14 Biolase Technology, Inc. Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
US20070009856A1 (en) * 2005-05-25 2007-01-11 Biolase Technology, Inc. Device having activated textured surfaces for treating oral tissue
US20070212665A1 (en) * 2005-10-14 2007-09-13 Jimenez Eduardo J Generating a chemical agent in situ
US20090087813A1 (en) * 2007-10-02 2009-04-02 Colgate-Palmolive Company Bio-activated oral care instrument
DE102008026067A1 (en) * 2008-05-30 2010-01-14 Schaffrath, Paul, Dr. Device for improving oral hygiene
US20100167228A1 (en) * 1997-06-20 2010-07-01 Rizoiu Ioana M Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
WO2013043769A1 (en) * 2011-09-20 2013-03-28 The Gillette Company Oral care devices having automatic mode selection
US9597496B1 (en) 2015-10-16 2017-03-21 Colgate-Palmolive Company Oral care implement with conductive protrusions
US9636195B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2017-05-02 Stephen H. Wolpo Hands free oral hygiene system
US9907633B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2018-03-06 Stephen H. Wolpo Oral care system with mouthpiece

Families Citing this family (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH01178256A (en) * 1988-01-05 1989-07-14 Hideo Suyama Electronic toothbrush
KR100666458B1 (en) * 2005-03-11 2007-01-09 권성욱 Toothbrush with pressure relief device and manufacturing method thereof
CA2619665A1 (en) 2005-09-15 2007-03-22 Tti Ellebeau, Inc. Rod type iontophoresis device
US20070232983A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-10-04 Smith Gregory A Handheld apparatus to deliver active agents to biological interfaces
GB0807224D0 (en) * 2008-04-21 2008-05-28 Univ Dundee Remineralisation of calcified tissue
US8261399B2 (en) * 2008-06-25 2012-09-11 Colgate-Palmolive Company Oral care implement with mechanical energy harvesting

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US415274A (en) * 1889-11-19 Electro therapeutic
US2834344A (en) * 1954-07-22 1958-05-13 Lion Brush K K Device for penetrating teeth with fluoride
US3412731A (en) * 1965-03-29 1968-11-26 Luther W. Reynolds Electrophoretic toothbrush

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US415274A (en) * 1889-11-19 Electro therapeutic
US2834344A (en) * 1954-07-22 1958-05-13 Lion Brush K K Device for penetrating teeth with fluoride
US3412731A (en) * 1965-03-29 1968-11-26 Luther W. Reynolds Electrophoretic toothbrush

Cited By (64)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4767401A (en) * 1975-04-22 1988-08-30 Maurice Seiderman Iontophoretic administration of ionizable or polar medicaments to a mammalian body
US4526570A (en) * 1982-10-25 1985-07-02 Shiken, Ltd. Dental hygienic device
US4502497A (en) * 1983-01-28 1985-03-05 Joseph Siahou Toothbrush for polarizing the active ingredients of toothpaste
US4632135A (en) * 1984-01-17 1986-12-30 U.S. Philips Corporation Hair-grooming means
US4702732A (en) * 1984-12-24 1987-10-27 Trustees Of Boston University Electrodes, electrode assemblies, methods, and systems for tissue stimulation and transdermal delivery of pharmacologically active ligands
US4691718A (en) * 1985-06-29 1987-09-08 Kabushiki Kaisha Sangi Toothbrush
US6989275B2 (en) 1986-04-18 2006-01-24 Carnegie Mellon University Cyanine dyes as labeling reagents for detection of biological and other materials by luminescence methods
US20020142340A1 (en) * 1986-04-18 2002-10-03 Carnegie Mellon University Cyanine dyes as labeling reagents for detection of biological and other materials by luminescence methods
US7008798B2 (en) 1986-04-18 2006-03-07 Carnegie Mellon University Cyanine dyes as labeling reagents for detection of biological and other materials by luminescence methods
GB2204497B (en) * 1986-11-21 1991-02-27 Univ Boston Electrode assembly for transdermal drug delivery
US4786277A (en) * 1986-11-21 1988-11-22 Trustees Of Boston University Electrodes, electrode assemblies, methods, and systems for tissue stimulation
WO1988003821A1 (en) * 1986-11-21 1988-06-02 Boston University Electrode assembly for transdermal drug delivery
GB2204497A (en) * 1986-11-21 1988-11-16 Univ Boston Electrode assembly for transdermal drug delivery
US5372501A (en) * 1989-02-20 1994-12-13 Solar Wide Industrial Ltd. Dental aid
US5115533A (en) * 1989-09-12 1992-05-26 Hiroshi Hukuba Toothbrush with voltage tester
USRE38341E1 (en) * 1996-05-08 2003-12-09 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Method for electrokinetic delivery of medicaments
US20100167228A1 (en) * 1997-06-20 2010-07-01 Rizoiu Ioana M Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
US7261558B2 (en) 1997-06-20 2007-08-28 Biolase Technology, Inc. Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
US20040091834A1 (en) * 1997-06-20 2004-05-13 Rizoiu Ioana M. Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
US20070298369A1 (en) * 1997-06-20 2007-12-27 Biolase Technology, Inc. Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
US5921251A (en) * 1997-08-07 1999-07-13 Ceramatec, Inc. Brush that delivers beneficial agents
US6135126A (en) * 1997-08-07 2000-10-24 Microlin, L.C. Brush that delivers beneficial agents
USRE37796E1 (en) 1997-12-16 2002-07-23 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Methods for iontophoretic delivery of antiviral agents
US20040039328A1 (en) * 1998-09-15 2004-02-26 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Iontophoretic drug delivery electrodes and method
US6895271B2 (en) 1998-09-15 2005-05-17 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Iontophoretic drug delivery electrodes and method
US7127285B2 (en) 1999-03-12 2006-10-24 Transport Pharmaceuticals Inc. Systems and methods for electrokinetic delivery of a substance
US8328788B2 (en) 1999-03-12 2012-12-11 Nitric Biotherapeutics, Inc. Methods and systems for electrokinetic delivery of a substance
US20030199808A1 (en) * 1999-03-12 2003-10-23 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc. Systems and methods for electrokinetic delivery of a substance
US8352024B2 (en) 2000-03-10 2013-01-08 Nitric Biotherapeutics, Inc. Electrokinetic delivery system for self-administration of medicaments and methods therefor
US6792306B2 (en) 2000-03-10 2004-09-14 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Finger-mounted electrokinetic delivery system for self-administration of medicaments and methods therefor
US7016724B2 (en) 2000-03-10 2006-03-21 Transport Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Electrokinetic delivery system for self-administration of medicaments and methods therefor
US20040111051A1 (en) * 2000-03-10 2004-06-10 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc. Electrokinetic delivery system for self-administration of medicaments and methods therefor
US20040176737A1 (en) * 2000-05-31 2004-09-09 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Electrokinetic delivery of medicaments
US6735470B2 (en) 2000-05-31 2004-05-11 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Electrokinetic delivery of medicaments
US20050182351A1 (en) * 2000-05-31 2005-08-18 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems Llc Electrokinetic delivery of medicaments
US7069073B2 (en) 2000-05-31 2006-06-27 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Electrokinetic delivery of medicaments
US20030054321A1 (en) * 2000-08-24 2003-03-20 Moran Francis Xavier Electrolytic method and device
US20100151407A1 (en) * 2000-11-15 2010-06-17 Rizoiu Ioana M Device having activated textured surfaces for treating oral tissue
GB2390023A (en) * 2002-06-27 2003-12-31 Kieron Loy Iontophoretic hairbrush with handle return electrode
US20060070195A1 (en) * 2004-10-05 2006-04-06 Lion Corporation Oral cavity cleaning tool
US7886398B2 (en) * 2004-10-05 2011-02-15 Lion Corporation Oral cavity cleaning tool
US20110200959A1 (en) * 2005-05-18 2011-08-18 Biolase Technology, Inc. Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
US20090056044A1 (en) * 2005-05-18 2009-03-05 Rizoiu Ioana M Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
US20060281042A1 (en) * 2005-05-18 2006-12-14 Biolase Technology, Inc. Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
US7467946B2 (en) 2005-05-18 2008-12-23 Biolase Technology, Inc. Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
US7942667B2 (en) 2005-05-18 2011-05-17 Biolase Technology, Inc. Electromagnetic radiation emitting toothbrush and dentifrice system
US8241035B2 (en) 2005-05-25 2012-08-14 Biolase, Inc. Device having activated textured surfaces for treating oral tissue
US20070009856A1 (en) * 2005-05-25 2007-01-11 Biolase Technology, Inc. Device having activated textured surfaces for treating oral tissue
US8156602B2 (en) 2005-10-14 2012-04-17 Colgate-Palmolive Company Generating a chemical agent in situ
US20070212665A1 (en) * 2005-10-14 2007-09-13 Jimenez Eduardo J Generating a chemical agent in situ
US9445878B2 (en) 2005-10-14 2016-09-20 Colgate-Palmolive Company Generating a chemical agent in situ
US8708700B2 (en) 2005-10-14 2014-04-29 Colgate-Palmolive Company Generating a chemical agent in situ
US7975341B2 (en) 2007-10-02 2011-07-12 Colgate-Palmolive Company Bio-activated oral care instrument
US20090087813A1 (en) * 2007-10-02 2009-04-02 Colgate-Palmolive Company Bio-activated oral care instrument
US8413282B2 (en) 2007-10-02 2013-04-09 Colgate-Palmolive Company Bio-activated oral care instrument
DE102008026067A1 (en) * 2008-05-30 2010-01-14 Schaffrath, Paul, Dr. Device for improving oral hygiene
CN103796712A (en) * 2011-09-20 2014-05-14 吉列公司 Oral care devices having automatic mode selection
US9009901B2 (en) 2011-09-20 2015-04-21 Braun Gmbh Oral care devices having automatic mode selection
US9192762B2 (en) 2011-09-20 2015-11-24 Braun Gmbh Therapeutic micro-current delivery devices and methods thereof
CN103796712B (en) * 2011-09-20 2016-02-17 博朗有限公司 Oral care device having an automatic mode selection
WO2013043769A1 (en) * 2011-09-20 2013-03-28 The Gillette Company Oral care devices having automatic mode selection
US9636195B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2017-05-02 Stephen H. Wolpo Hands free oral hygiene system
US9907633B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2018-03-06 Stephen H. Wolpo Oral care system with mouthpiece
US9597496B1 (en) 2015-10-16 2017-03-21 Colgate-Palmolive Company Oral care implement with conductive protrusions

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CH499286A (en) 1970-11-30
GB1219632A (en) 1971-01-20
FR1583683A (en) 1969-11-28
BE710152A (en) 1968-05-30
NL6800928A (en) 1968-08-01
DE1639155A1 (en) 1970-06-25
AT299439B (en) 1972-06-26
ES350272A1 (en) 1969-04-16

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3234942A (en) Tray arrangement for topical application of medication to the teeth
US3231925A (en) Disposable toothbrush
EP1448263B1 (en) Device for controlled delivery of active substance into the skin
US4472853A (en) Toothbrush
US7643874B2 (en) Dermal patch
US4576190A (en) Toothsticks "Toostix"
ES2198590T3 (en) Orbitally vibrating apparatus for removal of interproximal dental plaque.
US6895271B2 (en) Iontophoretic drug delivery electrodes and method
US3742549A (en) Contoured toothbrush
CA1331787C (en) Low-frequency electrotherapeutic device
US5443441A (en) Apparatus and method for transdermal delivery of cosmetic compositions
US9272141B2 (en) Handheld facial massage and microcurrent therapy device
US4776054A (en) Toothbrush
CA1164612A (en) Silver-plated tooth brush
US5070862A (en) Glove for electro-massage therapy
AU648834B2 (en) Iontophoretic treatment system
CN102711905B (en) Galvanic skin treatment device
US6238381B1 (en) Iontophoretic treatment system
US4502497A (en) Toothbrush for polarizing the active ingredients of toothpaste
US2476201A (en) Sponge rubber insert for toothbrush heads
US4610045A (en) Toothbrush
ES2372050T3 (en) Procedure to treat acne and acne rosacea with electrochemically generated zinc ions.
US5354321A (en) Patch arrangement for galvanic treatment
RU2441643C2 (en) Method and device for electrochemical teeth whitening
US6425891B1 (en) Hair removal system