US3462897A - Building construction and residential building and method of fabricating thereof on construction site - Google Patents

Building construction and residential building and method of fabricating thereof on construction site Download PDF

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US3462897A
US3462897A US3462897DA US3462897A US 3462897 A US3462897 A US 3462897A US 3462897D A US3462897D A US 3462897DA US 3462897 A US3462897 A US 3462897A
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panels
building
core
panel
members
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George H Weinrott
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Urethane Structures Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/10Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of wood, fibres, chips, vegetable stems, or the like; of plastics; of foamed products
    • E04C2/24Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of wood, fibres, chips, vegetable stems, or the like; of plastics; of foamed products laminated and composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/12, E04C2/16, E04C2/20
    • E04C2/243Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of wood, fibres, chips, vegetable stems, or the like; of plastics; of foamed products laminated and composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/12, E04C2/16, E04C2/20 one at least of the material being insulating
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/10Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of wood
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/14Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements being composed of two or more materials

Description

Aug. 26, 1969 s. H. WEINROTT 3,462,897

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL BUILDING AND METHOD OI" FABRICATINU THEREOF ON CONSTRUCTION SITE Filed Feb. 7, 1966 s Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG.

FIG?

G. HLWEINROTT Aug. 26, I969 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL BUILDING AND METHOD OF FABRICATING THEREOF 0N Filed Feb. 7. 1966 CONSTRUCTION SITE 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Aug. 26. 969 G. H. WEINROTT' 3,462,897

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL BUILDING AND METHOD OF FABRICATING THEREOF 0N CONSTRUCTION SITE Filed Feb. 7. 1966 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Aug. 26, 1969 s. H. WEINROTT BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL BUILDING AND METHOD OF FABRICA'IING THEREOF ON CONSTRUCTION SITE Filed Feb. 7, 1966 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 FIG. /6

(7; FIG. /9

FIG. /8

6, 1969 G. H. WEINROTT 1 3,462,897

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL BUILDING AND METHOD OF FABHICATING THEREOF 0N CONSTRUCTION SITE Filed Feb. 7, 1966 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 United States Patent BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 436,210, Mar. 1, 1965. This application Feb. 7, 1966, Ser. No. 542,438

Int. Cl. E04b 1/62, 2/04; E04e 2/36 U.S. Cl. 52-169 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A structural sandwich panel and building constructed therefrom. Each panel is a one-piece, structural sandwich panel comprising outer skin members disposed spaced laterally from each other. An insulating core, made of rigid urethane core having opposite faces self-bonded directly to respective inner faces of the outer skin members in cooperation with internal framing members, acts as an internal continuous bridging between the outer skin members. The skin members comprise sheets of material that are joined at contiguous marginal edges in such a manner that the individual panels are of stressed-skin construction. The core is formed in situ by being foamed in place in cavities heated by air and defined by the framing members and outer skins to which the urethane is selfbonded, The panels are made on the construction site on which the buildings constructed therefrom are built. The panels are used in making all the walls, both exterior and interior, floors, roof and basement of a building. Each wall panel is of full-wall-length and the floor and roof panels are likewise constructed as full-floor-length or full-rooflength one-piece panels. The internal bridging core, which is self-bonded likewise to the framing means, joins directly substantially every point of the outer skins to corresponding points on each other and respective ones of the framing means so that the panels can withstand greater load in use than heretofore possible in construction panels when in use vertically as walls, horizontally as a floor or inclined as a roof. The buildings constructed by use of the panels need no studding or framing means since the panels provide internal framing means for the cavities in which the core is foamed in place and provision is made in the framing means so that the panels can be joined thereby at the desired angles to form the walls and the like.

This is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 436,210, filed Mar. 1, 1965 now abandoned.

This invention relates generally to building construction and more particularly to a prefabricated residential buildmg.

The post war demand for houses on a large scale gave impetus to building construction in which mass production techniques were employed or prefabricated houses were designed in which the components thereof were massproduced in a factory and then assembled on site. The need on a world-wide basis for adequate housing has continued. However, the lack of materials and lack of even semiskilled labor in many parts of the world has restricted building of the necessary homes for an ever increasing population.

It is a principal object of the present invention to provide a building construction in which fabricated panels or modules can be easily both mass-produced and assembled on the construction site.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a building construction in which fabricated panels are assembled into a building without need of framing.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide a building construction in which the basement or cellar thereof is constructed of fabricated sandwich panels similar to the rest of the building and protected against the environment and surrounding earth.

A feature of the building construction according to the invention is the provision of a fabricated one-piece struc tural sandwich panel made and assembled on the construction site for construction of the floor, interior and exterior walls, ceiling, and roof of the building and the basement thereof. The fabricated sandwich panel comprises rigid outer skin members disposed laterally spaced from each other. An insulating rigid core is provided in the panel and self-bonded to respective inner faces of the outer skin members. The individual panels are of stressed skin construction material, for example plywood sheets comprise the outer skin members. The marginal portions of contiguous or next adjacent sheets of the material forming the outer skin members are scarfed and bonded or otherwise secured together. A rigid back divider may be used at each of the scarfed joints of the sheet material thereby dividing the panel into a plurality of cavities which are foam-filled and constitute a rigid urethane core.

Another feature of the invention is the provision of the fabricated panels with built-in framing. This framing constitutes framing members, for example, wooden rails, extending around at least two sides of the core and jointly with the outer skin members provide the means for assemblying the structure for securing the panels in joint assembly into a building. The rails are disposed at core depth and define jointly with the other skin member channels in which sole plates or locking members may be employed for new and improved joints between the various panels and the securing means.

The panels according to the invention provide new joints and structures and are preferably constructed with utilities and service lines built therein.

Other features and advantages of the building construction in accordance with the present invention will be better understood as described in the following specification and appended claims, in conjunction with the following drawings which:

FIG. 1 is a front-elevation view of a building constructed in accordance with the invention;

FIG. 2 is a side elevation view of the building in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view of the building illustrated in FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view on an enlarged scale of a detail in FIG. 3 and illustrates a joint between floor and wall sandwich panels and the mounting of these panels;

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view on an enlarged scale of a detail of the building in FIG. 3 and illustrates the details of a joint between the rfloor and an outside or exterior wall;

FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view on an enlarged scale of a detail in FIG. 3;

FIG. 7 is a fragmentary, exploded, sectional view on an enlarged scale of a roof ridge of FIG. 3;

FIG. 8 is a fragmentary view on an enlarged scale illustrating the details of a joint between the ceiling and interior walls of a building according to the invention;

FIG. 9 is a fragmentary sectional view on an enlarged scale of a detail of a joint between the roof and outer exterior walls as illustrated in FIG. 3;

FIG. 10 is an elevation view of the interior of a wall section and illustrates a panel or wall section provided with built-in services;

FIG. 11 is a plan view of the top of the wall section or panel in FIG. 10 on a larger scale;

FIG. 12 is an end view on an enlarged scale of the wall section in FIG.

FIG. 13 is a sectional view taken along section 13-13 of FIG. 10;

FIG. 14 is a fragmentary view of two exterior walls and illustrates a corner joint between the exterior walls;

FIG. 15 is a fragmentary sectional view of the construction of a basement for a building according to the invention;

FIG. 16 is a plan view of a floor section or panel for use in a building according to the invention;

FIG. 17 is an end view on an enlarged scale of the floor section of FIG. 16;

FIG. 18 is a plan view of a ceiling panel according to the invention;

FIG. 19 is an end view on an enlarged scale of the ceiling panel in FIG. 18;

FIG. 20 is a plan view of a roofing panel for use in a building as in FIG. 1;

FIG. 21 is a plan view on an enlarged scale of an end along the length of the roof panel in FIG. 20; and

FIG. 22 is a section view taken along section line 22-22 of FIGS. 16, 18 and 20.

Referring to the drawing, in which similar or alike elements have the same reference numeral, a residential building 10 is illustrated constructed according to the invention as hereinafter described. The building 10 is a prefabricated building made of new and novel fabricated structural panels, described in detail below, assembled in fixed relationship by framing built into the individual panels thereby eliminating the need for studs, floor and ceiling joints, rafters, end posts and the like. The structural panels or sections have skins, (plywood, asbestos, etc.) on two sides and a rigid urethane core of not less than 2.0 lb. per cu. ft. density foamed in place after framing lumber and skins are assembled. The various sections end in a stressed skin parcel with a urethane core. Windows 11, 12 and 13, and doors 16, 17, with hardware and trim may be installed on site. All roof, wall and floor covering materials are conventional and applied in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. Methods of termite and moisture protection are conventional. Foundations are of conventional material and are installed in accordance with applicable minimum requirements or local codes. Siding is conventional and is applied in known manner.

The floor in the building 10 is made from two units, 19, 20 12 x 40', for example. It will be understood the size is governed by the size of the building. The overall thickness is 5". The thickness can vary according to the length of the span. The two units 19, 20 form a joint over a center foundation wall 23 and under an interior bearing wall 24. The framing consists of 1%" wide core depth wood rails 27 on all four sides, and core depth dividers 29 running parallel to the shortest span and spaced to back up the scarfed joints, later described, between plywood sheets 30, 31. The floor deck or skin 30 consists of /2" thick AC plywood. The lower skin 31 consists of A" thick AC plywood. All joints in the skins are scarfed, glued and nailed as shown in FIG. 22. Both skins, 30, 31 are glued and nailed to the framing and are bonded to a rigid core 33 made of foamed in place urethane in each of a plurality of cavities formed between skin, the core dividers 29 and the framing rails 27. The floor assembly has drilled holes 35 for anchor bolts 36, 37 and plumbing and wiring clearances as necessary.

The exterior walls, for example walls 40, 41 are fabricated, one-piece units or panels of story height and full length as required. The over-all thickness is 3", for example, plus conventional aluminum siding 43 applied horizontal or vertically as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. The framing consists of 1%" Wide core depth wood rails 45 located horizontally at the top, bottom and approximate midheight of the wall, and vertically at each end of the individual wall. The outside and inside skins 46, 47 of each exterior wall are Mt" thick, 4' x 8' sheets of AC plywood .4. applied with the 8' length vertically. All vertical joints formed, FIG. 22, between contiguous marginal portions of the plywood sheets are scarfed, glued and nailed. Both skins are glued and nailed to the rails 45, and are bonded to a rigid core 48 comprising foamed in place urethane. The electric wiring, for example 47, for each wall is installed in the core space as the wall is framed. At the bottom, at anchored sole plate 50, both plywood skins form a channel to receive the sole plate and lap the sole plate, which is a part of the floor system, so that both skins will bear on the fioor deck 30. At each end of the front and rear walls the exterior skin laps the full thickness of each end wall as can be seen from FIG. 14. Framing for Window and door openings consists of 1%" wide core depth wood 52, 53 glued and nailed to the perimeter of the opening.

All of the service lines or utilities are provided for by having openings 55 for connection to heaters or water lines and the like, not shown, disposed in the cavities formed by the dividers before the urethane core is foamed in place. The invention makes use of known piping of plastic which may be embedded and held in position by the core and provided with connections, not shown, extending outwardly of the outer skins of the wall panels where necessary.

Interior bearing partitions are fabricated bearing walls, for example the wall 24, and are 3" thick overall. These walls have A" thick AC plywood outer skins 60, 61. The framing consists of 1%" wide core depth horizontal wood rails 63 at the top, center and bottom, and vertical rails at the ends. The rails are held back at the bottom so that both skins can lap a 1 /8" sole plate 65 which is anchored and is part of the floor system. Both skins are held back at the ends so that both skins may lap a spline if the bearing wall abuts another wall. If the bearing wall does not abut another wall, the vertical rail is replaced by a wood T section, not shown, giving a finished appearance to the wall. Other details of construction are identical to that described with respect to the exterior walls.

Non-bearing partitions, for example, wall 67 are fabricated as heretofore described as to the other walls and are one piece units 3" thick over-all with height and length as required. Frame type internal construction exterior type plywood. The framing consists of /3" core depth wood rails 69 and horizontal runners 16" on center. Both skins comprise A" exterior type plywood, with deadening felt between skins. The rails are held back from the edges of the skins where the wall abutts the ceiling and other walls so may lap a 1%" floor plate in the manner of the bearing walls. The plywood is applied with the long dimension vertical. The vertical joints between sheets are scarfed, glued and nailed as shown in FIG. 22. Openings in partitions are framed as in external walls. Electric wiring for each wall is installed in the core space as the wall is framed as before described.

In the building illustrated in the drawing the ceiling is composed of two 75, 76 units or panels 12' x 40'. The size of the panels is governed by the size of the building. The overall thickness of each panel is 3". The two units or panels fit together to form a joint over the center bearing wall 24. The framing consists of 1 /8" wide core depth wood rails 79 on four sides and wide core depths dividers 80 running parallel to the shortest span and spaced to back up the scarfed joints between plywood sheets in the manner of the panels heretofore described. Both skins 83, 84 comprise A" AC plywood. The upper skin 83 projects out 3" on three sides of each unit to lap the top of the exterior walls. Both skins are glued and nailed to the framing and are bonded to the rigid core by the foamed in place urethane.

The buildings gable walls, for example, wall 87, are fabricated one piece units sized as required and have 3" over-all thickness plus aluminum horizontal or vertical siding 43. The interior framing consists of 1%" x 2 /2" rails around the perimeter and 1% x 2 /2 internal studs 16'' DC. The rails are held back all around the perimeter so that both plywood skins are covered with /4 thick exterior type plywood. The joints between plywood sheets run vertically and are scarfed, glued and nailed as before described. Both skins are glued and nailed to the framing. Louvered windows 88, 89 are framed in thesame manner as windows in the exterior walls.

A ridge beam 90 or open truss is fabricated as a one piece unit. The over-all length is equal to the ridge length of the roof, and the height is determined by the pitch of the roof. It consists of a box beam 91 at the top, which is designed to form a joint with the roof sections, later described, and the box beam is mounted on top of eleven 1 /8" x 2 /2 wooden supports set vertically at approximately 4 ft. spacing. The eleven wooden supports are mounted on a 4 x 2 /2" horizontal plate 98 which rests on a sole plate 94 of the ceiling system. thick plywood 96, 99 on both sides extends downwardly to lap the plate.

The roof of the building 10 is fabricated in four units or panels 100 for ease of handling. The over-all thickness of each panel is 3" plus conventional covering such as asbestos or shingles 101 or the like. The skins 105, 106, are /8" thick AC plywood. The framing consists of 1 /8" wide core depth wood rails around the perimeter and dividers 111 back of each scarfed joint in plywood. The joints run parallel with the shortest span. A butt and batten type joint is formed in the plywood, for example, eight feet from the ridge where the top eight foot lengths of plywood meet. A /8" thick is 12" wide plywood strap 115 is centered at the joint underneath the top skin and similar straps 116, 117 are placed on each side of the lower skin. A 1 /8 wide Wood spacer 120 is located at the center of the joint. The top edge of the roof sections are designed so that the lower skin will rest on a ledger 122 of the ridge beam and the top skin extends to lap one half of the ridge beam. All contact surfaces between frame and skins are glued and nailed. A rigid urethane core 125 adheres to the skins 105, 106 in the cavities formed in the panels. 1%" x 3 /2" cleat 127 glued and nailed to the underneath side of the roof is located to rest against a roof support plate 128 on the ceiling sidewall system above the front and rear walls. A 1%" x 2 /2 wood spline 130 glued and nailed to the underneath side of the roof panels is located to drop into the channel at the top of the gable wall ends before described.

The building is erected on the construction site to provide for field installation foundation beams 23, 130, 131 are precast reinforced concrete, and field installed in accordance with applicable minimum standards. The floor panels, above described, rest directly on the foundation beams with termine shields, not shown. The floor sections are held by anchor bolts 36, 37 which pass through the floor panel and through the sole plates. The sole plates are attached to the floor with adhesive and mechanical fasteners. Both skins of all walls lap the sole plates and rest directly on the floor surface. All exterior walls are attached to the sole plates by adhesive and by nails driven through the interior skin. Load bearing partition walls are attached to the sole plate by adhesive and nails driven through both skins. Non-load bearing partition walls are attached to the sole plates by nails driven through both skins. At the four corners the exterior skin of the front and rear walls is secured to the end walls with nails. Also, a 1 /8" core depth short drop-in or tie plate 135 is installed at the top of each corner so that it will lap the core of the end wall and is secured with adhesive and nails. All partition walls have both skins extended to lap a /8" core depth spline where they abutt a continuous Wall. Exterior walls are attached to interior partitions by fasteners such as lag screws and flat washer from the outside. The lag screw head and washers are covered by the siding or a cap type slug '141.

The ceiling rests directly on the bearing wall 23 and drops inside the exterior walls with the upper skin of the ceiling lapping the top of the exterior walls. The ceiling panels are secured to the bearing walls by adhesive and mechanical fasteners. The upper skin 83 is secured to the top of the exterior walls by adhesive and nails. Perimeter and center plates for example plate 94, are attached to the top side of the ceiling skin by adhesive and nails. These plates are the roof support plates, above the front and rear walls, the gable and sole plates and ridge beam sole plate. The roof support plates 128 are secured to the ceiling top skin by adhesive and nails. The nails penetrate the top rail of the exterior front and rear walls. The gable and sole plates are secured to the ceiling top skin by adhesive and nails 12" O.C.

The ridge beam plate 65 is secured to the ceiling top skin by adhesive and nails lag screws with washers. The gable ends have both skins extended to lap the plate and rest on the ceiling upper skin. The gable ends are secured to the plate by adhesive and nails horizontally through the interior skin. The ridge beam 97 extends through a clearance opening in the opposite gable ends as shown in FIG. 2. It rests on a plate on the ceiling panel directly above the middle bearing wall as described. A thick skin 96, 97 on each side of the ridge beam laps the sole plate but does not bear on the ceiling. The ridge beam is secured to the plate 98 by adhesive and by nails on both sides. The ridge beam is secured to the gable ends by adhesive and nails through the end stud thereof, not shown.

The roof sections are accurately located by the cleats 127 on the underneath side which bear against the roof support plates 128 at the top of the front and rear walls, by the splines 130 that drop into the channels at the top of the gable ends and by the joint between roof section and ridge beam. The roof panels are secured to the front and rear exterior walls by lag screws with washers. The lag screws penetrate the roof through the roof support plate, ceiling top skin and double top rail of the exterior wall. The roof panels are also secured to the gable and walls by lag screws with washers. The lag screws penetrate the roof, the spline and the top rail of the gable end. Thus, a very firm assembly is possible.

The building illustrated in FIG. 1 is constructed without a basement or cellar. However, the invention makes provision for constructing a cellar in a building constructed similarily to the above-described building. A basement according to the invention makes use of structural panels constructed with a urethane core which forms an insulator internally of the core. The structural panels employed in the basement are constructed similarily to those heretofore described. It being understood, that in each instance the panels in the floor, all of the walls, the ceiling and the roof are constructed using the principles above described and each panel has an insulating core made of urethane and bonded to the inner faces of the outer skins of the panels and to the dividers and rails therein.

A basement construction according to the invention is illustrated in FIG. 15 in which a building first floor rests on a basement wall panel 162 seated on a foot or foundation 165. The foundation 165 is considerably below a grade elevation illustrated at 166. A basement floor made of panels of thinner thickness than the wall panels of the basement rests on the ground below grade level. The two panels 162, 170 and all of their wall panels in the basement and floor panels are constructed as before described with cores and have suitable dimensions depending on the size of the basement.

The wall panel 162 rests on a plate 173 which is anchored to the foundation 175 and secured thereto. In order to protect the panels used in the basment from the weather, moisture and the ground, the outside face of the outer skin is coated with urethane sealer and polyester resin. This coating is applied on the floor panels on the exterior thereof and on the wall panels to a height substantially the height of the first floor. It being understood,

that the coating on the basement walls exposed to the weather and not protected by siding in the manner of the building in FIG. 1 is coated with the coating above grade level.

The building construction described provides panels and framing therein making it quite easy to assemble a building without the use of skilled help and in minimum time. The outer skins, although described as being made of plywood, can be made of asbestos or other local sheet material. The cores in the individual panels are made by application foamed urethane under pressure and heat and distributed in the panel cavities that have been treated with warm air. The foam is injected into the cavities under pressure so that upon setting the core adhers to all of the surfaces in contact therewith and the resultant panel structure is a stressed skin structure.

Those skilled in the art will recognize that the protective and decorative outer siding can be aluminum as before described which can be placed horizontally or vertically as illustrated and made of different colors. Other siding material can be used and applied in known manner for finishing the exterior of the outside walls. Moreover, the lower skin of the floor panels are protected with aluminum sheets or a protective coating, not shown.

The invention provides for substantially prefabricating the various panels in a finished condition. For example, the interior skin or surfaces of the walls and the ceiling and the like can be finished before assembly. The asbestos or plywood skins of the Wall panels may be covered, for example, for interior finishing by sheet material such as a PVC film so that upon assembly the building is substantially in readiness for occupancy. The floor panels can have tile applied thereto and the shingles can be applied to the roof panels before assembly. Moreover, the piping can be made of plastic and embedded in the core While the electrical wire can be plastic coated and placed in the wall before the core is frosted therein. Thus, the panels can include all of the utilities and the piping and wire bonded to the core increases the rigidity of the panels and the securing of the piping and electrical wires.

As mentioned heretofore, the invention provides for manufacturing or fabricating the individual panels on the site where the buildings are built. Thus, the invention provides a method for manufacturing of the building components on site and for assembly of components on site to provide a finished building.

According to the method of the invention, the sheet material for the outer skin members is first provided. The sheet material defining a first one of the skins is disposed with the sheets in fixed relative positions on a flat surface, for example, a press platen. The framing members consisting of at least the perimeter framing members or rails are disposed fixed on the first outer skin member. The bays, cavities or compartments formed by the rails are filled with the urethane that forms the insulating and rigid core heretofore described. The opposite or second outer skin, made of sheets of material in fixed relative positions, can then be disposed over and in registry with the first-mentioned outer skin, rails and urethane core and the second outer skin is then pressed, for example, in a press.

Each structural sandwich panel fabricated is cured while the foam core is set and bonds itself to the inner surfaces of the outer skin members and the rails forming the cavity or cavities within the sandwich panel. The individual panels are preferably held in a condition in which pressure is applied to the second outer skin during the setting of the urethane core.

The curing portion of the production cycle of the method of the invention can be provided for by holding the assembled individual panels in a compressed condition during the curing of the foam separately from the initial assembly press so that the individual panels are dimenstoned to the desired thickness and peripheral dimensions.

The individual windows are constructed on the building construction site and are fitted into the finished panels. In fabricating the individual panels, according to the method of the invention, the panels having windows may have a removable insert inserted into the space in which the window is to be disposed in the finished building so that during the filling or introduction of the foam into the cavity the opening in the panel for the window is maintained free and open. The insert provided in the panel may be provided with a release agent or if framing within the panel is inserted around the window opening, the above-mentioned insert need not be used.

Those skilled in the art will understand that the foundation members may be cast on site. Moreover, the sheets forming the panels may be assembled in abutting relationship without scarfing. That is to say, adjoining edgeto-edge assembly of the sheets may be used in assembling the outer skins. Thus, all of the component parts of the building are constructed on site. The different size panels may be constructed in individual respective production lines or run sequentially in a single production line assuming that the above-mentioned press can handle the largest dimensioned panel.

The skin of the panels forming the inner walls is finished by application of a finish material. For example, the inner skin of individual panels has a PVC finish film applied thereon and adhered to the inner skin. The film may be textured or smooth and have suitable colors and patterns. The finish film may be applied, for example, automatically, from a web of film from which delivery is made on to the surface to be covered. The film may be applied by rollers on to the panels and is severed to a length corresponding to the length of the individual panels used in forming room walls as heretofore described.

While preferred embodiments of the invention will be shown and described, it will be understood that many modifications and changes may be made within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

What I claim is:

1. A fabricated, one-piece structural sandwich panel comprising, outer skin members disposed spaced laterally from each other, means in each panel providing a substantially continuous bridging between said outer skin members maintaining said skin members in initial spaced positions of assembly thereof and in use when a load is applied to said panel, said bridging comprising an insulating, rigid urethane core of the same material throughout having opposite faces self-bonded directly to respective inner faces of said outer skin members, and framing means disposed between said outer skin members peripherally of said core for securing in a structure said panel in fixed position in assembly with other similarly constructed panels and at angles less than relative thereto, said framing means comprising spaced, rigid members extending the full length of at least one dimension of said panel and disposed extending from the inner faces of one skin member to the inner face of the other skin member, said rigid members having edge faces abutting respective ones of the inner faces of said skin members, said rigid members being disposed and dimensioned to define within the core next adjacent regions spaced from each other only by the dimensions of said rigid members, each region having a dimension in at least one direction greater than two feet in which said region is free of said rigid members and in which the core assumes a large portion of the load when a load is applied to said panel in use and said core functions as a principal loadbearing structural member said rigid members being dimensioned in thickness. only sufiiciently for substantially avoiding creep and cold flow of said urethane within each region and allowing a substantial major portion of loads applied to said panel in use to be assumed by said core and said skin members, said core being self-bonded directly to inner surfaces of said rigid members, said outer skin members comprising sections of sheet material having contiguous marginal portions joined, and means joining said marginal portions thereby defining a stressed skin panel.

2. A fabricated, one-piece, structural sandwich panel according to claim 1, in which said core comprises a plastic having a density of at least about 2.0 lb. per cubic foot.

3. A fabricated, one-piece, structural sandwich panel according to claim 1, in which said outer skin members comprise sheets of plywood having contiguous marginal portions joined'and thereby defining said stressed skin panel.

4. A building construction comprising, exterior walls, a ceiling, a roof, and a floor, said exterior comprising a plurality of structural, sandwich panels, each exterior wall comprising a' fabricated, one-piece, full-wall-length structural sandwich panel having outer skin members disposed spaced laterally from each other, means in each panel providing a substantially continuous bridging between said outer skin members maintaining said skin members in initial spaced positions of assembly thereof and in use when a load is applied to said panel, said bridging comprising an insulating rigid urethane core having faces self-bonded to respective inner faces of said outer skin members, framing means for securing said panels relative to each other and in fixed positions in assembly at an angle relative to each other defining said exterior walls, said framing means comprising spaced, rigid members extending the full length of at least one dimension of said panel and disposed extending from the inner face of one skin member to the inner face of the other skin member, said rigid members having edge faces abutting respective ones of the inner faces of said skin members, said rigid members being disposed and dimensioned to define within the core next adjacent regions spaced from each other only by the dimensions of said rigid members, each region having a dimension in at least one direction greater than two feet in which said region is free of said rigid members and in which the core assumes a large portion of the load when a load is applied to said panel in use and said core functions as a principal loadbearing structural member, said rigid members being dimensioned in thickness only sufficiently for substantially avoiding creep and cold flow of said urethane of said core within each region and allowing a substantial major portion of loads applied to said panel in use to be assumed by said core and said skin members, said framing means comprising rails in each structure panel disposed between said outer skin members bounding at least part of said core, the outer skin members of each of said panels comprising sheet material, one of the outer skin members of said panels having a marginal overhang to cause the corners of adjoining exterior wall structural panels to have abutting outer skin members, and which said rails are disposed at the top and bottom of said panels, the rails of adjoining exterior walls defining a corner comprising a drop-in tie plate comprising a portion of one of the top rails, said drop-in tie plate being disposed transversely of a next adjacent wall panel top rail, and one of the outer skin members of said exterior wall panels disposed defining a corner having a corner notch for allowing said drop-in tie plate to extend transversely of said next adjacent top rail.

5. A basement below grade level comprising, a plurality of structural sandwich panels defining walls and a floor, each of said wall panels having a one-piece, full-walllength construction comprising outer skin members disposed spaced laterally from each other, means in each panel providing a substantially continuous bridging between said outer skin members maintaining said skin members in initial spaced positions of assembly thereof and in use when a load is applied to said panel, said bridging comprising an insulating core between said outer skin members having faces self-bonded directly to respective inner faces of said outer skin members.

6. A building construction comprising, exterior walls, each of said walls comprising a fabricated, one-piece, full wall-length structural sandwich panel, each structural panel comprising, outer skin members disposed spaced laterally from each other, means in each panel providing a substantially continuous bridging between said outer skin members maintaining said skin members in initial spaced positions of assembly thereof and in use when a load is applied to said panel, said bridging comprising an insulating, rigid urethane core of the same material throughout having opposite faces self-bonded directly to respective inner faces of said outer skin members, and framing means disposed between said outer skin members peripherally of said core for securing in a structure said panel in fixed position in assembly with other similarly constructed panels and at angles less than relative thereto, said framing means comprising spaced, rigid members extending the full length of at least one dimension of said panel and disposed extending from the inner faces of one skin member to the inner face of the other skin member, said rigid members having edge faces abutting respective ones of the inner faces of said skin members, said rigid members being disposed and dimensioned to define within the core next adjacent regions spaced from each other only by the dimensions of said rigid members each region having a dimension in at least one direction greater than two feet in which said region is free of said rigid members and in which the core assumes a large portion of the load when a load is applied to said panel in use and said core functions as a principal load-bearing structural member, said rigid members being dimensioned in thickness only sufliciently for substantially avoiding creep and cold flow of said urethane within each region and allowing a substantial major portion of loads applied to said panel in use to be assumed by said core and said skin members, said core being self-bonded directly to inner surfaces of said rigid members, said outer skin members comprising sections of sheet material having contiguous marginal portions joined, and means joining said marginal portions thereby defining a stressed skin panel.

7. A building according to claim 6, including other fabricated, one-piece, structural sandwich panels similar to the first-mentioned structural, sandwiched panel defining a basement below grade elevation, and a protective coating on the outside of said other panels to protect said other panels from moisture, the ground and weather.

8. A building comprising a plurality of fabricated onepiece, structural sandwich panels in assembled relationship defining exterior walls, floors, ceilings and a roof on said building, each fabricated sandwich panel comprising, outer skin members disposed spaced laterally from each other, means in each panel providing a substantially continuous bridging between said outer skin members maintaining said skin members in initial spaced positions of assembly thereof and in use when a load is applied to said panel, said bridging comprising an insulating, rigid urethane core of the same material throughout having opposite faces self-bonded directly to respective inner faces of said outer skin members, and framing means disposed between said outer skin members peripherally of said core for securing in a structure said panel in fixed position in assembly with other similarly constructed panels and at angles less than 180 relative thereto, said framing means comprising spaced, rigid members extending the full length of at least one dimension of said panel and disposed extending from the inner faces of one skin member to the inner face of the other skin member, said rigid members having edge faces abutting respective ones of the inner faces of said skin members, said rigid members being disposed and dimensioned to define within the core next adjacent regions spaced from each other only by the dimensions of said rigid members, each region having a dimension in at least one direction greater than two feet in which said region is free of said rigid members and in which the core assumes a large portion of the load when a load is applied to said panel in use and said core functions as a principal load-bearing structural member, said rigid members being dimensioned in thickness only sufiiciently for substantially avoiding creep and cold flow of said urethane within each region and allowing a substantial major portion of loads applied to said panel in use to be assumed by said core and said skin members, said core being self-bonded directly to inner surfaces of said rigid members, said outer skin members comprising sections of sheet material having, contiguous marginal portions joined, and means joining said marginal portions thereby defining a stressed skin panel.

9. A building according to claim 8, including other fabricated, one-piece, structural sandwich panels similar to the first-mentioned plurality of structural panels defining a basement below grade elevation, and a protective coating on the outside of said other panels to protect said other panels from moisture, the ground and weather.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,189,398 7/1916 Simpson 52-28 X 304,531 9/1884 Lee 52-92 2,129,441 9/1938 Otto 52-90 2,453,326 11/1948 Lambert 52-615 X 2,585,051 2/1952 Simon 52-90 2,858,580 11/1958 Thompson 52-309 X 2,980,972 5/1961 Kloote 52-309 X 3,113,401 12/1963 Rose 52-615 X 3,236,014 2/1966 Edgar 52-92 3,239,982 3/1966 Nicosia 52-615 3,282,003 11/1966 Swift 52-220 2,344,722 3/ 1944 Pasquier.

3,246,435 5/1966 Russell 52-584 2,376,653 5/1945 Boyer 161-161 3,258,889 7/1966 Butcher 52-629 X 3,363,378 1/1968 Palfey 52-615 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,100,070 1955 France.

OTHER REFERENCES American Builder, August 1936, page 52.

House & Home, New Experimental, vol. XVII, No. 1, January 1960, page 156.

DFPA, Plywood Family Fallout Shelters, 7 pages, received Mar. 22, 1963.

JOHN E. MURTAGH, Primary Examiner U.S.Cl.X.R.

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