US3452677A - Cartridge having a composite,spinning projectile - Google Patents

Cartridge having a composite,spinning projectile Download PDF

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US3452677A
US3452677A US3452677DA US3452677A US 3452677 A US3452677 A US 3452677A US 3452677D A US3452677D A US 3452677DA US 3452677 A US3452677 A US 3452677A
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projectile
body portion
nose portion
portion
end
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Michael F Abela
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Michael F Abela
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B10/00Means for influencing, e.g. improving, the aerodynamic properties of projectiles or missiles; Arrangements on projectiles or missiles for stabilising, steering, range-reducing, range-increasing or fall-retarding
    • F42B10/02Stabilising arrangements
    • F42B10/26Stabilising arrangements using spin
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B7/00Shotgun ammunition
    • F42B7/02Cartridges, i.e. cases with propellant charge and missile
    • F42B7/10Ball or slug shotgun cartridges

Description

y 1, 1969 M. F. ABELA 3,452,677

CARTRIDGE HAVING A COMPOSITE, SPINNING PROJECTILE Filed March 14, 1967 /5 M B [4 27 2a 5a 12 INVENTOR. MICHAEL F. ABEL/a BWU/ 4% K 14 TT'ORNE Y5.

United States Patent 3,452,677 CARTRIDGE HAVING A COMPOSITE, SPINNING PROJECTILE Michael F. Abela, 12987 Pleasant Valley Road, Parma, Ohio 44130 Filed Mar. 14, 1967, Ser. No. 623,041 Int. Cl. F42b 7/08 US. Cl. 10238 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A shotgun shell and projectile therefor wherein the wad confining the propellant charge forms part of the projectile, wherein the projectile comprises a hollow body portion of synthetic resin with a leading end that projects into a recess in a metal nose portion, and wherein the nose portion is provided with a confining band for controlling breakdown of the nose portion on impact.

Background, related applications, patents, etc.

The invention to which the present application is directed constitutes an improvement on that of copending application Ser. No. 579,359, filed Sept. 14, 1966, for Spinning Projectile (United States Patent 3,398,682). Such prior application is directed to an improvement on the invention disclosed and claimed in United States Patent 3,247,795 to Michael F. Abela. The latter lists and identifies representative patents from the prior art. In general, the major object of the present invention is to provide a shotgun shell and projectile characterized, among other things, by an especially high degree of ballistic accuracy.

Drawings In the accompanying drawings, which show the invention in two different embodiments,

FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal section through the chambered portion of a shotgun barrel showing a shell and included projectile, the shell being illustrated in section and the projectile in elevation;

FIGURE 2 is a longitudinal central section with parts in elevation showing the projectile on a somewhat larger scale as it appears immediately after leaving the chambered portion of the shotgun barrel;

FIGURE 3 is an end elevation of the projectile seen as if from line 33 of FIGURE 2;

FIGURE 4 is a similar end elevation with the nose portion removed to reveal the hexagonal leading end of the body portion of the projectile;

FIGURE 5 is an elevation of the opposite end of the body portion of the projectile;

FIGURES 6 and 7 are respectively a radial section and a rear elevation of the wad as it appears before it is introduced into the body portion of the projectile;

FIGURES 8 and 9 are respectively sectional and end views of the nose portion of the projectile of FIGURE 2; and

FIGURES 10 and 11 are similar views of a modified form of nose portion.

Preferred embodiments of the invention Referring first to FIGURES 1 and 2, shotgun barrel 1 includes the usual chambered portion 2, chamber 3, and forwardly extending portion 4. In FIGURE 1 shell 5 is shown as it appears when in place in chamber 3. In FIGURE 2 the projectile forming part of the shell is shown as it appears in flight. Among other things, shell 5 includes a conventional cylindrical sleeve 6, normally of paper, of which the forward end is turned back on itself as shown in FIGURE 1. At the rear of shell 5' are a metal cap 7, a central primer 8, a filler 9, and propellant charge 10.

Forward of the propellant charge is projectile 11, which is comprised of a soft metal nose portion 12, usually of lead or a lead alloy, and a molded body portion 13 of a relatively hard synthetic resin such as compressed polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon or the like. Preferably, the resin of which body portion 13 is formed is one that is intrinsically light in color; if so, it may, if desired, incorporate a fluorescent colorant of a kind making it easy to follow the projectile in flight. If not incorporated in the resin, the colorant may be applied to the surface of body portion 13. Suitable colorants are readily available on the commercial market at the present time.

Between its two ends, front and rear, body portion 13 is characterized by a plurality of ridges 14 which serve to prevent blow-by of gaseous products of combustion when the shell is fired. The diameter of ridges 14 (likewise the diameter of cylindrical rear end 15) closely approximates the inner diameter of reduced portion 4 of barrel 1. In cylindrical rear end 15 is a shallow recess 16 for the reception of a synthetic resin wad 17 appearing in FIGURES 2, 6 and 7. As appears from FIGURES 6 and 7, wad 17 is generally annular in shape, chamfered at 18 to facilitate its entry into recess 16, and characterized by a blind opening 19 at the base of which is a frangible transverse web 20.

Wad 17 may be of polyethylene or any other synthetic resin that is compatible with the synthetic resin used in body portion 13. Normally it is suflicient if the fit between wad 17 and recess 16 is close enough to that wad 17 will remain in place as the result of frictional engagement with the side walls of the recess; however, there is no reason why a cement may not be used, if desired, to hold wad 17 in place. Fusion of the synthetic resin of the wad with that of body portion 13, if it occurs, is not objectionable; indeed, fusion tends to develop when the shell of which the projectile forms part is fired. On the other hand, there is something of an advantage in making use of a frictional fit to hold the wad in place in the trailing part of the body portion, from which it can be removed without undue difficulty if need be, as in the event the wad is ruptured during assembly of the projectile.

Web 20 is deliberately weakened by scoring it along three equally spaced diagonals 21: see FIGURE 7. When shell 5 is fired, web 20 ruptures along diagonals 21 giving rise to the pyramidally disposed leaves 22 seen in FIGURE 2. Once rupture has taken place, gases produced by the combustion of propellant charge 10 are free to move into body portion 13-. Gases so released travel lengthwise of body portion 13 through central longitudinal opening 23, into three ports 24 at its forward end, through a like number of equidistantly spaced tangential bores 23, and out of body portion 13 by way of corresponding orifices 26 in cylindrical front end 27.

In the meanwhile, urged forward by the pressure of the gaseous products of combustion, projectile 11 moves endwise until it frees itself of the reversely turned end of sleeve 6. As it leaves sleeve 6, projectile 11 begins to spin, turning about its axis in consequence of the jet-like discharge of gases through orifices 26. As the projectile moves through the forward portion 4 of the shotgun barrel, circular ridges 14 and cylindrical rear end 15 of body portion 13 act to center and to steady the projectile.

The annular front face 28 on the cylindrical front end 27 of body portion 13 is planar and normal to the longitudinal axis of the projectile. From it projects the reduced leading end 29 of body portion 13. The latter is of unitary construction, hexagonal in cross section, and characterized by superimposed; i.e., successively arranged serrations of like shape and size. Each is so designed that,

at its corners, it will engage and bite into the side Wall of a suitably shaped recess in nose portion 12.

There are five such serrations in all, each of which flares from front to rear as in prior application Ser. No. 579,359. Innermost serration 30 is integral with cylindrical front end 27. Outermost serration 31 is characterized by a flat front face 32. The latter parallels annular face 28; i.e., it is normal to the longitudinal axis of the projectile as a whole.

Referring now to FIGURES 2, 3, 8 and 9, nose portion 12 has a massive leading end 33, depicted in the drawings as frusto-conical. Behind it is a rearwardly directed cylindrical skirt 34, likewise of massive proportions. Within skirt 34 is a cylindrical opening 35. The base 36 is planar, normal to the longitudinal axis of the projectile as a whole, and adapted to make surface contact with flat face 32 on serration 31. The diameter of opening 35 is slightly under size; i.e., no greater than the minimum diameter required to permit it to receive the serrations 30, 31, etc., with a tight fit, taking into account the fact that at the outset serrations 30, 31, etc., tend to yield slightly at their corners as indicated in FIGURE 2.

This combination of features provides a particularly tenacious type of adherence between nose portion 12 and body portion 13. If desired, an adhesive may be used to bond the nose portion to the body portion. However, it is entirely feasible to rely on the tenacity deriving from the biting action of serrations 30, 31, etc., especially at their corners. In either case, nose portion 12 and body portion 13 remain together and, because of their great combined weight, produce a correspondingly great impact. This is without sacrifice of accuracy, which is not only maintained but bettered; for example, the accuracy of the improved projectile of the present invention is often as good at distances of 100 yards as the accuracy of conventional slugs at 50 yards, all other factors being equal.

Slugs of the types heretofore used in shotgun shells tend to disintegrate even on impact with the muscles and other soft tissues of a game animal. When they do, they often produce large flesh Wounds that leave the animal crippled, suffering, and doomed to a lingering death. In the case of the shell and projectile of the present invention, if the projectile does not encounter skeletal structure, it tends to pass through soft tissues, leaving a relatively small exit wound. In such cases, the animal, although injured, is likely to survive.

This result is more likely to come about if nose portion 12 incorporates a confining ring of a metal harder than that of nose portion itself; e.g., a suitably hard alloy such as brass or steel. See FIGURES 1, 2, 8 and 9, which show a confining ring 38 embedded in the soft metal of which nose portion 12 is formed. A variant is illustrated in FIGURES and 11, wherein ring 39 has an inwardly directed flange 40 at the base of a tapering skirt 41 forming part of the nose portion.

Such rings control the expansion and disintegration of the soft metal nose piece occurring on impact. Ring 39, seen in FIGURE 10, not only minimize fragmentation of the nose portion of the projectile, but on impact with skeletal structure tends to some extent to be underridden by (i.e., to override) body portion 13. Where rings, such as 38 and 39 are employed, the adherence between nose portion 12 and body portion 13 is enhanced; additionally, nose portion 12 can expand only forwardly of the ring, thus producing a mushroom effect on impact with skeletal structure. In such circumstances, the more extensive internal injury and hemorrhaging that result produce a quicker and more humane kill.

Modifications may be readily made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. Thus the shape of the nose portion of the projectile need not necessarily be as shown; i.e., blunt at its leading end, for it may if desired be pointed after the fashion of a rifle bullet. The nose portion, however shaped, need not be of lead or of a lead alloy but may be of a harder metal, such as brass. It is not necessary that the body portion of the projectile be of any particular synthetic resin: it may be of any suitable resin, preferably, however, one light enough in color so that a fluorescent colorant may be used as hereinabove explained.

I claim:

1. A shotgun shell comprising a sleeve having end portions; a primer assembly at one end of said sleeve; a propellant within said sleeve; and a projectile at the other end of said sleeve made up of a metal nose portion with a substantially cylindrical recess in its trailing end and an associated synthetic resin body portion with a polygonal leading end, said polygonal leading end being received and held Within such cylindrical recess.

2. A shotgun shell according to claim 1 wherein a fluorescent colorant is incorporated in the body portion of the projectile.

3. A shotgun shell according to claim 1 wherein the polygonal leading end is serrated.

4. A shotgun shell according to claim 1 wherein a hard metal confining ring is embedded in the nose portion of the projectile outwardly of the recess.

5. A shotgun shell according to claim 4 wherein the confining ring has an inwardly directed flange extending across the trailing end of the nose portion.

6. A projectile including a soft metal nose portion having leading and trailing ends, a hollow body portion of synthetic resin having leading and trailing ends, said nose and body portions being coupled together where the leading end of the body portion adjoins the trailing end of the nose portion, a peripherally disposed confining ring of metal embedded in the nose portion circumferentially at its trailing end, and a wad at the trailing end of the body portion taking the form of an annulus with a destructible web spanning the space within the annulus.

7. A projectile according to claim 6 wherein a fluorescent colorant is incorporated in the synthetic resin body portion.

8. A projectile according to claim 6 wherein the confining ring has an inwardly directed flange extending transversely of the projectile at the rear face of the metal nose portion.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 53,582 4/1866 De Coursey 2443.l 192,829 7/1877 Hotchkiss 10292.2 2,920,563 1/ 1960 De Caro 102-95 X 3,065,696 11/1962 Kleinguenther. 3,247,795 4/1966 Abela 102-93 X 3,348,486 10/1967 Rapp 102-923 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,255,993 2/ 1961 France.

SAMUEL FEINBERG, Primary Examiner.

STEPHEN C. BENTLEY, Assistant Examiner.

US. Cl. X.R. 102-92.4, 93

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3601061A (en) * 1967-08-31 1971-08-24 Trw Inc Ammunition for high firing rate, light gas hypervelocity gun
US3786760A (en) * 1972-06-01 1974-01-22 Pacific Technica Corp Rotating band for projectile
US4301733A (en) * 1978-04-22 1981-11-24 Moises Arciniega Blanco Bullet for smooth bore shotguns
US4384528A (en) * 1980-04-07 1983-05-24 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Duplex round
US4506605A (en) * 1980-04-15 1985-03-26 Nagatoshi Maki Shotgun cartridge and wad thereof
US4587905A (en) * 1980-07-18 1986-05-13 Nagatoshi Maki Wad and slug for a shotgun cartridge
US4669385A (en) * 1983-09-28 1987-06-02 Nagatoshi Maki Wad for shotgun shotshell
US4911079A (en) * 1986-06-05 1990-03-27 Sauvestre Jean Claude Hunting ammunition with increased combustion volume
US20100269725A1 (en) * 2001-09-27 2010-10-28 Hall Daniel W Gas check with system for improved loading and retention in bore of muzzleloading firearms
US20110048272A1 (en) * 2001-09-27 2011-03-03 Hall Daniel W Gas check with system for improved loading and retention in bore of muzzleloading firearms
JP2013210182A (en) * 2013-05-20 2013-10-10 Nippon Sodan Kk Slug bullet holding member

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US53582A (en) * 1866-04-03 Improvement in bullets for small-arms
US192829A (en) * 1877-07-10 Improvement in rifle-bullets
US2920563A (en) * 1953-02-09 1960-01-12 Olin Mathieson Explosively actuated driving
US3065696A (en) * 1959-11-23 1962-11-27 Robert A Kleinguenther Projectile for firearms
US3247795A (en) * 1964-04-01 1966-04-26 Abela Michael Frank Spinning projectile for smooth bore guns
US3348486A (en) * 1964-12-12 1967-10-24 Dynamit Nobel Ag Plastic-lead mushrooming bullet

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US53582A (en) * 1866-04-03 Improvement in bullets for small-arms
US192829A (en) * 1877-07-10 Improvement in rifle-bullets
US2920563A (en) * 1953-02-09 1960-01-12 Olin Mathieson Explosively actuated driving
US3065696A (en) * 1959-11-23 1962-11-27 Robert A Kleinguenther Projectile for firearms
US3247795A (en) * 1964-04-01 1966-04-26 Abela Michael Frank Spinning projectile for smooth bore guns
US3348486A (en) * 1964-12-12 1967-10-24 Dynamit Nobel Ag Plastic-lead mushrooming bullet

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3601061A (en) * 1967-08-31 1971-08-24 Trw Inc Ammunition for high firing rate, light gas hypervelocity gun
US3786760A (en) * 1972-06-01 1974-01-22 Pacific Technica Corp Rotating band for projectile
US4301733A (en) * 1978-04-22 1981-11-24 Moises Arciniega Blanco Bullet for smooth bore shotguns
US4384528A (en) * 1980-04-07 1983-05-24 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Duplex round
US4506605A (en) * 1980-04-15 1985-03-26 Nagatoshi Maki Shotgun cartridge and wad thereof
US4587905A (en) * 1980-07-18 1986-05-13 Nagatoshi Maki Wad and slug for a shotgun cartridge
US4669385A (en) * 1983-09-28 1987-06-02 Nagatoshi Maki Wad for shotgun shotshell
US4911079A (en) * 1986-06-05 1990-03-27 Sauvestre Jean Claude Hunting ammunition with increased combustion volume
US20100269725A1 (en) * 2001-09-27 2010-10-28 Hall Daniel W Gas check with system for improved loading and retention in bore of muzzleloading firearms
US7827915B1 (en) * 2001-09-27 2010-11-09 Accura Bullets Gas check with system for improved loading and retention in bore of muzzleloading firearms
US20110048272A1 (en) * 2001-09-27 2011-03-03 Hall Daniel W Gas check with system for improved loading and retention in bore of muzzleloading firearms
JP2013210182A (en) * 2013-05-20 2013-10-10 Nippon Sodan Kk Slug bullet holding member

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