US3428441A - Article coated with a composite particulate,microporous chromium coating and method of producing said article - Google Patents

Article coated with a composite particulate,microporous chromium coating and method of producing said article Download PDF

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US3428441A
US3428441A US475556A US3428441DA US3428441A US 3428441 A US3428441 A US 3428441A US 475556 A US475556 A US 475556A US 3428441D A US3428441D A US 3428441DA US 3428441 A US3428441 A US 3428441A
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substrate
coating
article
chromium
nickel
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US475556A
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Arthur H Du Rose
Karl S Willson
Gustavo C Tejada
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HARSHAW/FILTROL PARTNERSHIP A PARTNERSHIP OF
Kewanee Oil Co
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Kewanee Oil Co
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Assigned to HARSHAW/FILTROL PARTNERSHIP, A PARTNERSHIP OF DE reassignment HARSHAW/FILTROL PARTNERSHIP, A PARTNERSHIP OF DE ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY, THE
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D15/00Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatings containing embedded materials, e.g. particles, whiskers, wires
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10S428/922Static electricity metal bleed-off metallic stock
    • Y10S428/923Physical dimension
    • Y10S428/924Composite
    • Y10S428/926Thickness of individual layer specified
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10S428/922Static electricity metal bleed-off metallic stock
    • Y10S428/9335Product by special process
    • Y10S428/934Electrical process
    • Y10S428/935Electroplating
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12014All metal or with adjacent metals having metal particles
    • Y10T428/12021All metal or with adjacent metals having metal particles having composition or density gradient or differential porosity
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12014All metal or with adjacent metals having metal particles
    • Y10T428/12028Composite; i.e., plural, adjacent, spatially distinct metal components [e.g., layers, etc.]
    • Y10T428/12063Nonparticulate metal component
    • Y10T428/12069Plural nonparticulate metal components
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12014All metal or with adjacent metals having metal particles
    • Y10T428/12028Composite; i.e., plural, adjacent, spatially distinct metal components [e.g., layers, etc.]
    • Y10T428/12063Nonparticulate metal component
    • Y10T428/12104Particles discontinuous
    • Y10T428/12111Separated by nonmetal matrix or binder [e.g., welding electrode, etc.]
    • Y10T428/12118Nonparticulate component has Ni-, Cu-, or Zn-base
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12479Porous [e.g., foamed, spongy, cracked, etc.]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12493Composite; i.e., plural, adjacent, spatially distinct metal components [e.g., layers, joint, etc.]
    • Y10T428/12771Transition metal-base component
    • Y10T428/12806Refractory [Group IVB, VB, or VIB] metal-base component
    • Y10T428/12826Group VIB metal-base component
    • Y10T428/12847Cr-base component

Description

United States Patent 3,428,441 ARTICLE COATED WITH A COMPOSITE PARTICU- LATE, MICROPOROUS CHROMIUM COATING AND METHOD OF PRODUCING SAID ARTICLE Arthur H. Du Rose, Richmond Heights, Karl S. Willson,
Cleveland, and Gustavo C. Tejada, Euclid, Ohio, assignors, by mesne assignments, to Kewanee Oil Company, Bryn Mawr, Pa., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Filed July 28, 1965, Ser. No. 475,556 US. Cl. 29-1835 Claims Int. Cl. C23b 5/06; B32b 3/10, /16
ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This invention comprises a composite metal coating, and a method for preparation thereof, comprising a metal substrate having thereon a discontinuous particulate electrodeposited coating partially covering the substrate, the particles of this coating being discrete and having an average particle thickness of 0.003-005 mil and containing LOGO-1,000,000 particles per square inch, and a microporous chromium layer overlaying and adherent to the discontinuous layer and the exposed substrate, the chromium layer having LOGO-1,000,000 micropores per square inch and a thickness of 0.0030.05 mil. The method of preparing the composite coating comprises the steps of electrodepositing on the metal substrate a coating of particles until the number and size gives the desired discontinuous layer, then discontinuing this electrodeposition, and subsequently electrodepositing thereon a chromium layer to the desired dimension.
This invention relates to corrosion-resistant coatings and more especially to composite coatings made up of a substrate to be protected, a discontinuous coating made up of discrete particles, and a microporous layer of chromium overlaying and adherent to said discontinuous coating-substrate composite.
Such coatings may be produced by a series of steps, suitably first electrodepositing a discontinuous coating of discrete particles, and second, plating a layer of chromium onto the substrate through said discontinuous coating.
The substrate may be a metal, preferably bright nickel, or semibright nickel, or bright over semibright nickel. Suitably also we may use as substrate cobalt, bronze, copper, or silver. Yet other metals may be used.
The discontinuous layer-forming solution is electrolyzed and the result partially coats the substrate selected with a discontinuous coating of discrete particles, there being from about a thousand to about a million particles per square inch. The resulting article is then plated in a chormium solution, the chromium plating between the particles of the discontinuous layer a microporous coating of chromium with good resistance to corrosion of the composite.
The prior art contains a series of patents based upon sedimentation and embedding within a metallic matrix of finely divided, insoluble materials. Examples are: US. 3,152,971; 3,152,972; 3,152,973. In some instances, these are said to give a good satin finish; while fully bright deposits are secured in some instances by modifications of these techniques, as for example, as seen in Belgian Patent No. 616,567.
In the prior art there are two layers deposited over the substrate with the final (top) layer being discontinuous due to insoluble particles embedded in the metal. The insoluble particles may be suspended in the bath from which the first layer is to be deposited, or in the bath 3,428,441 Patented Feb. 18, 1969 used for depositing the top layer. Commercial practice to date makes use of the insoluble particles deposited in a thin layer of nickel over which chromium is plated.
At the points where the embedded insoluble, nonmetallic particles protrude above the nickel matrix, the chromium does not electrodeposit with the result that there are discontinuities in the chromium deposit.
In our approach to the formation of the micropores in the chromium, we avoid the problems of keeping insoluble particles suspended in the plating bath. We also avoid the problem of having the particles settle in large numbers on a horizontol portion and sparsely on a vertical surface.
We use a bath containing no insoluble particles (except for trivial amounts of contaminants.) From this solution, we deposit on the substrate by electrochemical means, insoluble materials only, which are not embedded in a metal matrix as is the case according to the prior art. Rather, the electrochemically formed insoluble particles are formed at the surface of the substrate and remain attached thereto by chemical forces. These chemical forces causing adherence to the surface need be strong enough only to hold the insoluble material to the surface during normal handling and rinsing operations.
In metal plating operations, the first atoms of metal generally deposit not to provide a continuous sheet of metal but rather at isolated nuclei. From these nuclei, the metal grain or crystal grows both horizontally and vertically. The horizontal growth (i.e. growth parallel to the substrate) from many nuclei continues until a continuous covering of the substrate results.
Since we desire only to form the insoluble particles at the substrate surface father than to embed them in a supporting metal matrix, the time required for our operation is usually a matter of seconds compared to several minutes for the embedding process.
In most instances, formation of the insoluble material is secured by making the substrate cathodic in the bath. In some instances, the substrate is made anodic, or a sequential combination of both polarities is used to advantage.
After the formation of the insoluble particles on the substrate, the article is rinsed and is then plated with chromium from any typical chromium plating bath, with a chromium deposit of the order of .003 to 0.05, and preferably from 0.01 to 0.03 mil in thickness. With increasing thickness of the chromium, the chromium tends to bridge over the insoluble particles with a decrease in porosity. We prefer a deposit of the order of 0.01 mil thickness, such thickness being customary commercially for deposits in which the substrate does not have the insoluble particles.
For evaluating porosity, the well known Dubpernell test is used, in which the article serves as cathode in an acid copper sulfate bath with a low current density. The chromium is believed to be covered by an oxide film onto which the copper does not deposit except at breaks in the chromium oxide where the underlaying substrate nickel is exposed.
Tests have indicated that when a large number of pores in the chromium deposit are secured as evidenced by a Dubpernell test, articles exhibit improved resistance to atmospheric or accelerated corrosion testing.
The insoluble materials can be electrochemically deposited from solutions containing any one of a variety of chemical compounds or mixtures of compounds, and the operating condition may vary considerably.
The following Table I contains a number of solutions which may be used for the production of the discontinuous coating of particles on the substrate.
3 TABLE I Example Bath Composition and Operating Characteristics 1 50 g./l. sodium chloride (NaCl).
140 F., pH 6.5, 10 sec. cathodic at a.s.f.
50 g./l. barium chloride (BaCI -SH O).
140 F., pH 5.5, sec. cathodic at 10 a.s.f.
200 g./l. sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
185 F., 10 sec. cathodic at 5 a.s.f.
4 0.1 g./l. lead acetate (Pb[O C H -3H O).
5 g./l. sodium acetate (NaO C H 140 F., pH 7.2, 10 sec. cathodic at 5 a.s.f.
5 g./l. bismuth nitrate (Bi[NO -5H O).
140 F., 10 sec. cathodic at 5 a.s.f.
50 g./l. magnesium chloride (MgCl 140 F., 40 a.s.f., 10-60 sec. cathodically then 10 sec. anodically.
5'0 g./l. magnesium chloride (MgCl 1 g./l. lead acetate 140 F., 10-60 sec. cathodic at 40 a.s.f.
Same as 7 but 1=0-60 sec. cathodic, then 10 sec.
anodic at 40 a.s.f.
5O g./l. molybdic acid (H MoO 140 F., 10 sec. cathodic at a.s.f.
Same as 9 except 10 sec. cathodic, then 5 sec.
anodic at 20 a.s.f
50 g./l. antimony trichloride (SbCl 140 F., 10-30 sec. cathodic at 20 a.s.f.
3 g./l. aluminum chloride (AlCl 140 F., pH 4.3, 10 sec. cathodic, then 10 sec.
anodic at 10 a.s.f.
3 g./l. aluminum chloride (AlCl NaOH to 140 F., 10 sec. cathodic, then 10 sec. anodic at 20 a.s.f.
3 g./l. aluminum chloride (AlCl 140 F., pH 4, 10 sec. anodic then 10 sec. ca-
thodic at 20 a.s.f.
Same as 14 except sec. anodic then 30 sec.
cathodic.
100 g./l. lead fluoborate (P b[BF 80 F., 5 sec. cathodic at 5 a.s.f.
17 Same as 16 except 10 sec. cathodic at 5 a.s.f.
While, as indicated above, numerous substrate metals in the metallic state can be used, nickel is preferred, The nickel may be of a semibright or bright character. Where bright coatings are desirable the substrate should be bright. Since the particle forming solution yields a very thin discontinuous coating with adhering particles of average thickness, from about 0.003 to 0.05 mil; and since the chromium coating is very thin, preferable 0.01 to 0.03 mil, the brightness tends to follow the brightness of the substrate.
The substrate A preferred substrate is bright nickel which may vary considerably in thickness. An ordinary coating such as is in commercial use may be of a thickness of about one mil. This substrate may be made in the manner of any one of a number of so-ealled bright plates. A solution suitable, by way of example, for this substrate may be as follows:
Grams NiSO -6H O 250 NiCl 6H O 50 Boric acid 50 (C H SO NHSO C H C HQ 2 Triaminotriphenyl methane 00.0001
Water to make one liter.
The following patents contain other examples of brighteners and sulfo-oxygen carriers, U.S. Patents, 2,994,648; 3,000,799; 3,152,975.
Another preferred substrate, which when used in conjunction with the discontinous layer-microporous chromium composite of this invention, comprises a deposit on steel of semibright layer of nickel followed by a layer of bright nickel. The semibright nickel layer may be deposited from a bath such as described in US. Patent 2,683,115. This semibright deposit of nickel may vary in thickness but preferably is of the order of 0.5 to 1.0 mil. The subsequent bright nickel, deposited from a suitable bath has discussed above, is preferably of the order of 0.3 to 0.5 mil or even more in thickness.
Use of this substrate in conjunction with the microporous composite of this invention enhances the resistance to corrosion over that of the substrate using the same total thickness of bright nickel only.
In Table I we have indicated the times of electrolysis of the various solutions. These are not necessarily the optimum measure of electrolytic treatment. The number and major dimension of the particles are together the best measure.
Chromium plating Chromium plating is accomplished by any usual commercial chromium plating solution. For example, we may use a chromium plating bath containing Grams Chromic acid 250 Sulfate ion 2.5
Water to make one liter.
We plate chromium through the discontinuities between the deposited particles of the discontinuous coating and thereby produce a microporous chromium coating. The resulting article of manufacture has the property of high resistance to corrosion. This is especially valuable when the substrate is nickel over steel. It may be valuable also when the substrate is cobalt over steel or a mixture of nickel and cobalt over steel. Cobalt is equivalent to nickel and wherever nickel is mentioned herein it is understood to include cobalt or mixtures of nickel and cobalt.
Other chromium plating baths may be used wherein, for example, some or all of the sulfuric acid may be replaced by fluosilicate or other suitable catalyst ions. The sulfuric acid referred to is present in commercial chromium plating solutions as a source of sulfate ion.
Solutions for making discontinuous deposits In Table I above we have shown a number of solutions for making discontinuous deposits on the metal substrates. We show there the conditions under which the discontinuous coatings preferably are produced on the substrate. We prefer to utilize, in the production of the substrate coated with a discontinuous coating, a compound of the class consisting of: Bismuth nitrate, magnesium chloride, molybdic acid, antimony trichloride, aluminum trichloride, lead acetate, and lead fiuoborate.
We prefer to make a composite coating by the following process: Electrodepositing on a metal, preferably bright nickel, a discontinuous coating comprising particles of a thickness from 0.003 to 0.05 mil. We prefer a thickness of particle from 0.01 to 0.03 mil. The average thickness of the discontinuous coating particles serves to establish the degree of essential function in terms of average thickness ranges of the particles.
For deposition of the particles as a discontinuous, particulate layer on the substrate, we use a bath containing bath-soluble compounds of one or more metallic elements. We believe the electrodeposited particles to consist of insoluble oxides, hydroxides, and basic salts. In the case of deposits from the lead and antimony solutions, we believe that metallic lead or antimony may be depositedduring the plating operation but that, on subsequent rinsing, a superficial layer of oxide, hydroxide, or basic salt is formed.
The invention claimed is:
1. As an article of manufacture, a metal substrate; a discontinuous, particulate electroplated coating being discrete and having an average particle thickness from about 0.003 to about 0.05 mil and said coating containing from a thousand to a million particles per square inch upon said substrate; and a microporous chromium layer overlaying and adherent to the discontinuous layer and exposed substrate; said chromium layer having from a thousand to a million micropores per square inch and a thickness from about 0.003 to about 0.05 mil.
2. The article as defined in claim 1 wherein the substrate is nickel.
3. The article of manufacture as defined in claim 1 further characterized in that the substrate consists of a semibright layer of nickel followed by a bright layer of nickel.
4. The article of manufacture as defined in claim 1 further characterized in that the substrate consists of a semibright layer of nickel followed by a bright layer of nickel, the semibright nickel layer having a thickness from 0.5 to 1.0 mil and the bright nickel layer being of a thickness from 0.3 to 0.5 mil.
5. A method of making a composite coating comprising the steps of electroplating on a metal substrate a discontinuous, particulate coating; said coating partially covering said substrate and being in contact therewith; continuing the electrodeposition to yield a coating having an average particle thickness from 0.003 to 0.05 mil, and said coating having from a thousand to a million particles per square inch; and electrodepositing a chromium coating over said coating and over the substrate portion to the extent that it is exposed through the discontinuities of the first-mentioned coating, said chromium coating being of a thickness from 0.005 to 0.05 mil and having from a thousand to a million pores per square inch.
6. The method according to claim 5 wherein the discontinuous, particulate coating is electroplated from a bath containing a lead compound.
7. The method according to claim 6 wherein the bath contains lead acetate.
8. The method of claim 5 wherein the substrate is nickel.
9. The method according to claim 5 wherein the discontinuous, particulate coating is electroplated from a bath containing a compound of the class consisting of bismuth nitrate, magnesium chloride, molybdic acid, antimony trichloride, aluminum trichloride, lead fluoborate, and mixtures of a plurality thereof.
10. The method according to claim 5 wherein said discontinuous, particulate coating is electroplated from a bath containing an electrolyte of the class consisting of molybdic acid, lead fluoborate, bismuth nitrate, magnesium chloride, antimony trichloride, and aluminum tri- JOHN H. MACK, Primary Examiner.
G. L. KAPLAN, Assistant Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R.
US475556A 1965-07-28 1965-07-28 Article coated with a composite particulate,microporous chromium coating and method of producing said article Expired - Lifetime US3428441A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3847760A (en) * 1971-06-08 1974-11-12 Kewanee Oil Co Method of improving the corrosion protection of decorative chrome plated articles
US3866289A (en) * 1969-10-06 1975-02-18 Oxy Metal Finishing Corp Micro-porous chromium on nickel-cobalt duplex composite plates
US4511633A (en) * 1983-03-21 1985-04-16 Zincroksid S.P.A. Galvanized steel sheet protected by chromium and chromium oxide layers

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE458632C (en) * 1924-08-09 1928-04-16 Elektro Chrom Ges M B H Process for the production of protective coatings from chrome
US2858256A (en) * 1953-10-26 1958-10-28 Vitro Corp Of America Electrophoretic method of making an abrasive article and article made thereby
US3061525A (en) * 1959-06-22 1962-10-30 Platecraft Of America Inc Method for electroforming and coating
US3268308A (en) * 1963-03-01 1966-08-23 Udylite Corp Electrodeposition of a corrosion resistant decorative nickel-chromium coating and products thereof
US3298802A (en) * 1962-02-23 1967-01-17 Res Holland S Hertogenbosch Nv Method for covering objects with a decorative bright-nickel/chromium coating, as well as objects covered by applying this method

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE458632C (en) * 1924-08-09 1928-04-16 Elektro Chrom Ges M B H Process for the production of protective coatings from chrome
US2858256A (en) * 1953-10-26 1958-10-28 Vitro Corp Of America Electrophoretic method of making an abrasive article and article made thereby
US3061525A (en) * 1959-06-22 1962-10-30 Platecraft Of America Inc Method for electroforming and coating
US3298802A (en) * 1962-02-23 1967-01-17 Res Holland S Hertogenbosch Nv Method for covering objects with a decorative bright-nickel/chromium coating, as well as objects covered by applying this method
US3268308A (en) * 1963-03-01 1966-08-23 Udylite Corp Electrodeposition of a corrosion resistant decorative nickel-chromium coating and products thereof
US3268423A (en) * 1963-03-01 1966-08-23 Udylite Corp Process of electrodepositing a corrosion resistant nickel-chromium coating
US3268307A (en) * 1963-03-01 1966-08-23 Udylite Corp Process of electrodepositing a corrosion resistant nickel-chromium coating and products thereof
US3268424A (en) * 1963-03-01 1966-08-23 Udylite Corp Method of depositing a corrosion resistant composite nickel electroplate

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3866289A (en) * 1969-10-06 1975-02-18 Oxy Metal Finishing Corp Micro-porous chromium on nickel-cobalt duplex composite plates
US3847760A (en) * 1971-06-08 1974-11-12 Kewanee Oil Co Method of improving the corrosion protection of decorative chrome plated articles
US4511633A (en) * 1983-03-21 1985-04-16 Zincroksid S.P.A. Galvanized steel sheet protected by chromium and chromium oxide layers

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Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY, THE;REEL/FRAME:004190/0754

Effective date: 19831021