US1792082A - Metallic coating and process of producing the same - Google Patents

Metallic coating and process of producing the same Download PDF

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Publication number
US1792082A
US1792082A US81099A US8109926A US1792082A US 1792082 A US1792082 A US 1792082A US 81099 A US81099 A US 81099A US 8109926 A US8109926 A US 8109926A US 1792082 A US1792082 A US 1792082A
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United States
Prior art keywords
nickel
plate
chromium
producing
same
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Expired - Lifetime
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US81099A
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Colin G Fink
Pan Li Chi
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CHEMICAL TREAT Co Inc
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CHEMICAL TREAT Co Inc
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Priority to US81099A priority Critical patent/US1792082A/en
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Publication of US1792082A publication Critical patent/US1792082A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D5/00Electroplating characterised by the process; Pretreatment or after-treatment of workpieces
    • C25D5/10Electroplating with more than one layer of the same or of different metals
    • C25D5/12Electroplating with more than one layer of the same or of different metals at least one layer being of nickel or chromium
    • C25D5/14Electroplating with more than one layer of the same or of different metals at least one layer being of nickel or chromium two or more layers being of nickel or chromium, e.g. duplex or triplex layers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S205/00Electrolysis: processes, compositions used therein, and methods of preparing the compositions
    • Y10S205/917Treatment of workpiece between coating steps
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10S428/922Static electricity metal bleed-off metallic stock
    • Y10S428/9265Special properties
    • Y10S428/927Decorative informative
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10S428/922Static electricity metal bleed-off metallic stock
    • Y10S428/9335Product by special process
    • Y10S428/934Electrical process
    • Y10S428/935Electroplating
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S76/00Metal tools and implements, making
    • Y10S76/04Chromium
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12493Composite; i.e., plural, adjacent, spatially distinct metal components [e.g., layers, joint, etc.]
    • Y10T428/12771Transition metal-base component
    • Y10T428/12806Refractory [Group IVB, VB, or VIB] metal-base component
    • Y10T428/12826Group VIB metal-base component
    • Y10T428/12847Cr-base component
    • Y10T428/12854Next to Co-, Fe-, or Ni-base component
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12493Composite; i.e., plural, adjacent, spatially distinct metal components [e.g., layers, joint, etc.]
    • Y10T428/12771Transition metal-base component
    • Y10T428/12861Group VIII or IB metal-base component
    • Y10T428/12944Ni-base component
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12993Surface feature [e.g., rough, mirror]

Description

Feb. 10, 1931. c. G. FINK ET AL 1,792,082

METALLIC COATING AND PROCESS OF PRODUCING THE SAME Filed Jan. 13, 1926 NicKel T-o undaiwbn me kol 071 7'0 mium (Jo-w?! 1%.... ww

Patented Feb. 10, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE COLIN G. FINK AND LI CHI PAN, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., ASSIGNORS TO CHEMICAL TREATMENT COMPANY, INC., OF NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION OF NEW YORK METALLIC COATING AND PROCESS OF PRODUCING THE SAME Application filed January 13, 1926. Serial No. 81,099.

This invention relates to metallic coatings which are protective, resistant, decorative, refleeting, and to processes of producing the same, and aims to provide improvements therein. M

Fink (one of the present applicants) and associates, have heretofore produced resistant and protective coatings composed in whole or in part of chromium, and have devised several kinds of such coatings and several processes of producing the same. Decorative (including reflecting) coatings and processes of producing the same have also been devised. The present invention is the result of the continuation of their investigations in this direction, having for object to obtain a protective and resistant coating, a decorative coating, and a decorative and protective coating combining excellent qualities with an economical and readily performed procedure for obtaining such coatings. The present invention accordingly provides a coating having excellent protective and resistant properties (that is, resistance to corrosion, acids, wear), and/or excellent decorative and reflecting properties, and improved processes of producing such coatings carried out in readily performed operations and resulting in an economical production of such coatings.

The annexed drawing shows a form of embodiment of an article (sheet of metal) having thereon the decorative, protective and resistant coating, the drawing being explanatory and the thickness of the plates being exaggerated.

Accordin to the present invention, a foundation meta as for example iron, steel, etc, designated by the letter F on the accompanying drawing, is coated with nickel in any suitable manner, preferably by electrode osition, and if, as is usually the case, the nic el plate is brittle and not firmly adherent, the coating or plate is treated in suitable manner, as by heating, to make the nickel ductile and adherent.

The heating of the nickel-plated article is referably carried out in a neutral or reducmg atmosphere, so as to minimize the oxidation, and the heating is preferably carried to a red heat, in order to bring about an adhesion or alloying between the nickel plate and the foundation metal, and also to produce a healing of defects (usually designated pin holes) in the said plate.

The nickel plate N may be made of any desired thickness, but a thickness of about mill (.0005 inch) is ordinarily used.

If the nickel plate is of the quality which is adherent and without defects, heating might be omitted, but it is generally advisable to heat treat the nickel plate, as indicated above.

After the foundation metal F has been provided with the ductile and adherent coat or plate N of nickel, a plate C of chromium is plated on the nickel. Ordinarily, the chromium plate is .0003 to .0005 inch thick.

Oxidation of the nickel surface, which may be produced by heating or otherwise, is re moved prior to the deposit of the chromium. This de-oxidation is conveniently carried out in the chromium electroplating bath itself. Release or evolution of hydrogen is arranged to take place at thecathode, and when using chromic acid solutions such an evolution of hydrogen is made to take place therein. This evolution of hydrogen in electrolyzing with the chromic acid solutions is found to satisfactorily de-oxidize the nickel surface, and to result in the deposit of an adherent coat of chromium on the nickel, the quality of which chromium plate may be determined by the conditions of the plating. A brlght or lustrous chromium plate may be producedby following the process set forth in the Flnk application filed September 19, 1925, Serial No. 57,290.

By depositing such a brlght chromium plate, bright metal surfaces which are protected from and resistant to var ous COIIOSlVG conditions and agents, and acids, and very resistant to wear, are obtained Without unusual manufacturing expedients, such as grinding, polishing, etc. There 1s no necessar preparation of the article between the nic el plating bath, and the chromlum plating bath, except the usual and readily performed operation of heat treatment.

It has been found. that these reslstant coats of nickel and chromium give very nearly the same resistance to corrosive agents, acids, etc. as chromium coats from which the pinhole defects have been eliminated.

The invention has the advantage that the nickel adheres more readily to and alloys more readily with ferro metals than chr0- mium, that is, when the nickel has been produced or treated in a manner to eliminate the brittleness of ordinary electrodeposits of nickel plate. It has the further advantage that nickel oxidizes less extensively and readily at higher temperatures than chromium, and the further advantage that the oxide of nickel may be removed by hydrogen in electrolytic baths, whereas chromium oxide is not so affected.

Cobalt may be substituted for nickel and is included in the scope of the claims as the equivalent of nickel. I

By preparing the nickel plate, as by polishing, before depositing the chromium and by electrodepositing the chromium according to conditions of current density, temperature, etc., set forth in the application of Colin G. Fink, Serial No. 57,290, filed September 19th, 1925, a mirror-like, image reflecting surface may be obtained. By heat-treating the nickel plate, polishing and depositing thereon a chromium plate of the quality which is image-reflecting when deposited on a polished surface, mirrors and reflectors having a high reflecting value and especially suitable for outdoor use, are obtained. As a decorative surface, the resemblance of the present coatings is close to silver.

The process may be carried out by other modes of procedure than that herein specifically described, and the coatings may have other forms of embodiments than that specifically illustrated and described.

What is claimed is:

1. An article having a protective and resistant coating thereon, said coating comprising a heat-treated plate of nickel on the foundation metal of the article, and a plate of chromium on said plate of nickel.

2. An article having a. protective and resistant coating thereon, said. coating being bright, comprising a heat-treated plate of nickel on the foundation-metal of the article, and a plate of chromium on said plate of nickel.

3. A method of producing protective and resistant coatings on metal articles, comprising electrodepositing nickel on said article, heat-treating said nickel coat, removing oxidation of said nickel which may have resulted from heat treatment, and electrodepositing a plate of chromium on said nickel plate.

4. A method of producing protective and resistant coatings on metal articles, comprising electrodepositing nickel on said articles. heat-treating said nickel coat, and electrodepositing chromium on said nickel plate with signed our names.

COLIN G. FINK. LI CHI PAN.

US81099A 1926-01-13 1926-01-13 Metallic coating and process of producing the same Expired - Lifetime US1792082A (en)

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Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2461935A (en) * 1943-08-14 1949-02-15 Int Nickel Co Insulated electrical resistances
US2534911A (en) * 1948-04-03 1950-12-19 Houdaille Hershey Corp Process of removing hydrogen embrittlement of bright nickel electrodeposits
US2658266A (en) * 1952-08-07 1953-11-10 Harshaw Chem Corp Laminated coating
US2687565A (en) * 1951-02-21 1954-08-31 Clevite Corp Method of bonding aluminum to steel
US2688405A (en) * 1948-08-09 1954-09-07 Sharples Corp Centrifuge construction for separating solids from liquids
US2714088A (en) * 1952-01-08 1955-07-26 Harshaw Chem Corp Electrodeposited coatings
US2752667A (en) * 1947-08-20 1956-07-03 Clevite Corp Bearings
US2759250A (en) * 1951-02-21 1956-08-21 Clevite Corp Method of bonding aluminum to steel and article produced thereby
US2763919A (en) * 1950-07-28 1956-09-25 Thompson Prod Inc Coated refractory body
US2859158A (en) * 1957-01-31 1958-11-04 Glenn R Schaer Method of making a nickel-chromium diffusion alloy
US2975513A (en) * 1956-11-05 1961-03-21 Smith Corp A O Method of lining
US3064337A (en) * 1958-05-19 1962-11-20 Rockwell Standard Co Composite metal article
US3368949A (en) * 1963-06-10 1968-02-13 Bendix Corp Process for electroforming inlaid circuits
US3420755A (en) * 1963-01-14 1969-01-07 Forges De La Loire Cie Des Ate Surface treating process for metal parts
US3493476A (en) * 1965-11-01 1970-02-03 Avco Corp Sulfidation and oxidation resistant coating
US4409881A (en) * 1979-09-26 1983-10-18 Fabrique Nationale Herstal Composite barrel and process for the manufacture thereof
US5607779A (en) * 1992-12-22 1997-03-04 Citizen Watch Co., Ltd. Hard carbon coating-clad base material
US6477759B2 (en) 1999-11-15 2002-11-12 Bobby Hu Method for processing a hand tool

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2461935A (en) * 1943-08-14 1949-02-15 Int Nickel Co Insulated electrical resistances
US2752667A (en) * 1947-08-20 1956-07-03 Clevite Corp Bearings
US2534911A (en) * 1948-04-03 1950-12-19 Houdaille Hershey Corp Process of removing hydrogen embrittlement of bright nickel electrodeposits
US2688405A (en) * 1948-08-09 1954-09-07 Sharples Corp Centrifuge construction for separating solids from liquids
US2763919A (en) * 1950-07-28 1956-09-25 Thompson Prod Inc Coated refractory body
US2687565A (en) * 1951-02-21 1954-08-31 Clevite Corp Method of bonding aluminum to steel
US2759250A (en) * 1951-02-21 1956-08-21 Clevite Corp Method of bonding aluminum to steel and article produced thereby
US2714088A (en) * 1952-01-08 1955-07-26 Harshaw Chem Corp Electrodeposited coatings
US2658266A (en) * 1952-08-07 1953-11-10 Harshaw Chem Corp Laminated coating
US2975513A (en) * 1956-11-05 1961-03-21 Smith Corp A O Method of lining
US2859158A (en) * 1957-01-31 1958-11-04 Glenn R Schaer Method of making a nickel-chromium diffusion alloy
US3064337A (en) * 1958-05-19 1962-11-20 Rockwell Standard Co Composite metal article
US3420755A (en) * 1963-01-14 1969-01-07 Forges De La Loire Cie Des Ate Surface treating process for metal parts
US3368949A (en) * 1963-06-10 1968-02-13 Bendix Corp Process for electroforming inlaid circuits
US3493476A (en) * 1965-11-01 1970-02-03 Avco Corp Sulfidation and oxidation resistant coating
US4409881A (en) * 1979-09-26 1983-10-18 Fabrique Nationale Herstal Composite barrel and process for the manufacture thereof
US5607779A (en) * 1992-12-22 1997-03-04 Citizen Watch Co., Ltd. Hard carbon coating-clad base material
US6074766A (en) * 1992-12-22 2000-06-13 Citizen Watch Co., Ltd. Hard carbon coating-clad base material
US6180263B1 (en) 1992-12-22 2001-01-30 Citizen Watch Co., Ltd. Hard carbon coating-clad base material
US6477759B2 (en) 1999-11-15 2002-11-12 Bobby Hu Method for processing a hand tool
US6647834B2 (en) * 1999-11-15 2003-11-18 Bobby Hu Method for processing a hand tool

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