US3333315A - Method of forming a nonwoven web product - Google Patents

Method of forming a nonwoven web product Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3333315A
US3333315A US53651966A US3333315A US 3333315 A US3333315 A US 3333315A US 53651966 A US53651966 A US 53651966A US 3333315 A US3333315 A US 3333315A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
tow
filaments
jet
product
filament
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Richard F Dyer
Gallagher Paul
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Eastman Kodak Co
Original Assignee
Eastman Kodak Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H3/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length
    • D04H3/08Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length characterised by the method of strengthening or consolidating
    • D04H3/10Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length characterised by the method of strengthening or consolidating with bonds between yarns or filaments made mechanically
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/23907Pile or nap type surface or component
    • Y10T428/23986With coating, impregnation, or bond
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24058Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.] including grain, strips, or filamentary elements in respective layers or components in angular relation
    • Y10T428/24074Strand or strand-portions
    • Y10T428/24083Nonlinear strands or strand-portions
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24355Continuous and nonuniform or irregular surface on layer or component [e.g., roofing, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24446Wrinkled, creased, crinkled or creped
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T442/00Fabric [woven, knitted, or nonwoven textile or cloth, etc.]
    • Y10T442/60Nonwoven fabric [i.e., nonwoven strand or fiber material]
    • Y10T442/608Including strand or fiber material which is of specific structural definition
    • Y10T442/627Strand or fiber material is specified as non-linear [e.g., crimped, coiled, etc.]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T442/00Fabric [woven, knitted, or nonwoven textile or cloth, etc.]
    • Y10T442/60Nonwoven fabric [i.e., nonwoven strand or fiber material]
    • Y10T442/643Including parallel strand or fiber material within the nonwoven fabric

Description

Aug. 1, 1967 R, DYER ET AL 3,333,315

METHOD OF FORMING A NONWOVEN WEB PRODUCT Original Filed Sept. 12, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet l Fig.2

Richard F. Dyer Paul Gallagher INVENTORS BY MM MM M 68mm .AFUTORNEYS Aug. 1, 1967 R DYER ETAL 3,333,315

METHOD OF FORMING A NONWOVEN WEB PRODUCT Original Filed Sept. 12 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Richard E Dyer Paul Gallagher INVENTORS BY EMM W NGQWM.

United States Patent 3,333,315 METHOD OF FORMING A NONWOVEN WEB PRODUCT Richard F. Dyer and Paul Gallagher, Kingsport, Tenn., assignors to Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey Continuation of application Ser. No. 223,587, Sept. 12, 1962. This application Feb. 23, 1966, Ser. No. 536,519 8 Claims. (Cl. 2872.2)

This application is a continuation of Ser. No. 223,587, filed Sept. 12, 1962 now abandoned. This invention relates to the production of continuous filament type nonwoven fabrics. More particularly, it concerns the preparation of a new kind of nonwovens by a novel jet treatment of continuous filament tow of polymeric composition.

A compact intermediate yarn product characterized by a high degree of coherence and intermingling of continuous synthetic filaments is described along with apparatus and a method for the production thereof. Such a yarn product is formed by passing tow, preferably banded, through a slot-type jet of special construction as detailed in U.S. Patents Nos. 3,079,663 and 3,081,951. Although such process is highly elficient in the production of an intermingled filament intermediate tow product especially useful in making tobacco smoke filters, there has still been some room for variations as to coherence of the product, for example, for finding a way to produce a product which would be usable per se as a non-woven useful, for example, as bat-tings and webs, without further special treatment. It has, therefore, been desired to alter the preparation such that a non-woven product usable as such without further processing may be formed.

Various means have previously been used to form a wide sheet or batt-like body of desirable bulk, strength, resistance to deformation and fiber shifting from compact crimped tow but thus far without success except by lengthy processing steps and the use of staple fibers. In the production of nonwoven textile webs and battings, it has been known to utilize staple fibers varying in length from /2" to 6". To produce such battings, particularly in the case of man-made fibers, it has been necessary to go through the operations of crimping and cutting the continuous extruded fiber into short lengths, packing these short lengths in bales, and subsequently carrying out the steps of fiber opening and web formation on carding, garnetting, or the like equipment. The processing of staple fiber into a batting has been relatively expensive due tothe low production rates of the textile web-forming equipment. Successful processing of man-made fibers on a carding machine, for example, often requires the use of special yarn lubricants and severely restricts the usable range of fiber crimp in order to avoid difiiculties with static electricity, card loading, and weak webs. Thus, it is not always possible to produce as good quality nonwoven material as desirable. For instance, the process of U8. Patent 2,055,411 could not be used to produce battings from man-made fibers lubricated solely with white mineral oil since the static charges generated on the fiber would make processing difficult. Likewise, such a process could not be used to produce a batting which required a high degree of crimp, for example, in the order of 15 c.p.i., since such a highly crimped fiber would load the card. Similar difiiculties exist when a garnett machine is used to form a web and when a laying technique such as that of US. Patent 2,676,363 is employed. Therefore conversion of a continuous filament material directly into a batting without the necessity of the foregoing rather complex and costly staple fiber processing steps represents a highly desirable result.

The present invention provides a process and apparatus for converting densely packaged compact, continuousfilament crimped tow into bulky, wide batting characterized by a highly randomized filament arrangement, which filaments retain a high degree of crimp and are distributed in a substantially uniform manner throughout the batting without the generally longitudinal alignment of the filaments being impaired by the process. It also provides a fiuify, voluminous nonwoven product suitable for use as garment insulating material, furniture cushion mat, sleeping bags and comforter filling mats and air filter material. Furthermore, it provides a spread-out, fluify, voluminous nonwoven material having a high degree of uniformity in the random distribution of the crimped filaments therein, which material may be readily impregnated or surface treated with chemical binders or compacted by a mechanical manipulation such as needle punching and compressed and cured into a resilient material suitable for use in such applications as garment interfacing. Further, it provides a simple, effective apparatus combination for converting a dense, highly crimped tow into a wide web or batting comprising uniformly distributed intermingled continuous filamentary material.

Moreover, the present invention provides a method whereby fibers having a higher crimp than those which can ordinarily be processed on cards, garnetts, and the air laying web formers may be converted into nonwovens. Also, it provides a method of producing nonwoven materials utilizing continuous textile filaments which have been treated with fiber finishes of high electric resistivity or with potentially adhesive materials which would ordinarily preclude the processing into webs of such fibers in staple form.

In its broadest aspects our invention involves impinging needle-like streams of a high-velocity gaseous medium such as air, from above and below on a plurality of strands of continuous-filament tow, each strand or end of which may contain 10,000 filaments or more, to produce a nonwoven web product the filaments of which are randomly distributed in a highly coherent form, being interlaced and in a substantially uniform distribution. The tow used may be from one or more synthetic organic fiber-forming materials, for example, cellulose acetate, cellulose triacetate, regenerated cellulose, polyamides, copolyamides, polyesters, copolyesters, acrylics, modacrylics, polycarbonates, polyurethanes, polyethylenes, polypropylenes and the like. The tow is preferably subjected to a certain amount of filament separation by banding or opening out prior to subjection to the impinging streams of gas. Banding promotes uniformity of distribution and exposure. One way in which this may be accomplished is by the process described in U.S. Patent 2,737,688. A series of curved guide bars may be used to further spread the tow prior to our mul-ti-jet treatment. Either crimped or uncrimped tow may be used. Crimped tow is used when batting for such end uses as comforters, insulated underwear, garment interliners, and the like is contemplated. Uncrimped tow may be used when it is planned to produce, for example, mens tie interliners, shirt and suit lapel interliners, drapery liners, drapery fabrics, and the like. The density of the nonwoven product may be varied from 0.002 oz./ cu. in. to 0.06 oz./cu. in. Higher densities may be obtained by heat treatment, calendering and the like.

According to our invention the streams of gas used in treating the tow are provided by an impingement or needling jet in which are used one or more substantially straight rows of orifices in opposing or mating body members arranged substantially perpendicular to the direction of movement of a plurality of yarn ends or strands. These orifices or holes may be directly opposite each other or cut out of alignment. The angle of the hole axes may be perpendicular to the moving tow or at an angle of less than 90.

For a more complete understanding of our invention reference will be made to the attached drawings forming a part of the present application.

In the drawing FIG. 1 is a top plan view of the im pingement jet of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a transverse cross-section of the impingement jet of the present invention.

FIG. 3 is a schematic representation showing the treatment of a plurality of strands of crimped tow taken from bales or boxes to produce a nonwoven product in accordance with our invention.

FIG. 4 is a schematic drawing showing the production of a nonwoven product according to our invention by impingement jet treatment of a plurality of yarns from separate beams brought together as a single warp sheet of uncrimped tow.

Referring now to FIGS. 1 and 2, our impingement jet consists of two mating body members and 12. Body member 12 is adapted to be fastened to a support member 14 as by bolt 16. Each body member is provided with one or more gaseous supply inlets 18 and 20. Each body member is hollowed out at 22 and 24 to provide a large gas chamber or plenum adjacent the inlets 18 and 20, respectively. These gas chambers are open on the abutting surfaces 26 and 28 of the body members 10 and 12. These openings are covered by flat thin plates 30 and 32 held in place by flat head screws 34 and 36, respectively. Each of the plates 30 and 32 has a plurality of tiny holes ,closely spaced in a staggered relationship as shown at 38 in FIG. 1. The hole arrangement in plates 30 and 32 may be such that the holes are directly opposite as indicated by the hole axis lines 40 or they may be displaced so that the axis of any given hole in plate 32 is centered between the axis of the two approximately opposed equivalent holes in any given row of holes in plate 30. The particular hole pattern which gives optimum results for a given treating process may vary. In some cases three closely adjacent rows 'of holes may be best, as shown in FIG. 1. In other cases two closely spaced rows of holes may be used with a third row displaced say /z from the first two rows. The frequency of the holes may be varied according to the type material being used and the end product desired. Closely spaced holes may be required for tows in which the filaments are more highly resistant to separation or where a heavy inter-filament reaction or movement is desired. Fewer holes may sometimes be used for easy-to-separate filaments or where the degree of interfilament movement desired is small. One spacing found to give good results is where the holes are of .011" diameter and spaced .094 apart in each row and the rows are spaced .062" apart.

To provide clearance for the tow to pass between the plates 30 and 32, highly compressible gasket strips 42 and 44 are placed parallel to the direction of tow movement at either side of the jet assembly. These gaskets serve also to guide and maintain the tow band in the active area of the jet and prevent treatment gas or tow filaments from escaping from the sides of the jet.

The two body members are fastened together by means of screws 46. The spacing of the two body members may be varied by set screws 48, 50, 52 and 54. Thus, the jet opening may be narrow on the upstream side, i.e., at the tow entrance, and caused to diverge on the downstream side by extending set screws 48 and 50 and retracting set screws 52 and 54. Also by extending set screws 48 and 52 and retracting set screws 50 and 54 the jet tow opening can be made wider on one side of the tow than on the other. Thus the angles formed by the planes in the surfaces of plates 30 and 32 may be varied as desired and due to the flexible gaskets 42 and 44 the sides of the jet remain sealed. Other types of adjusting means may be used. For example, the jet may be hinged at one end to facilitate threading the tow through the jet.

The impingement jet just described has a wide range of utility in the treatment of tow or warp sheets. In processing tow for use in cigarette filters, for example, it has been found to produce an unusually high degree of filament separation, blooming and deorientation of the crimps in the individual filaments.

If an aerosol of tow treating liquid is injected into the air lines 18 and 20, it has been found that an unusually high degree of uniformity of liquid application to a tow may be obtained. The aerosol is readily conveyed by the slow velocity air stream in pipes 18 and 20 and accelerated and impinged with violence onto the filaments of the tow due to the high velocity of the air stream and the inertia of the aerosol droplets emerging from the tiny holes 38. This effect may be achieved by maintaining the area of the inlet pipe 18 at a value of at least 10 times the total area of the holes 38 in the plate 30.

Another advantage is that by using somewhat higher air pressure the jet has been found to be particularly effective in stripping water or other liquids from a wet tow so that the amount of surface moisture is reduced to a level of only a few percent even though the tow enters the jet with fifty to several hundred percent moisture content on the surface of the fibers. The foregoing, however, serves mainly to illustrate the wide utility of the jet.

When the jet of FIGS. 1 and 2 is used to treat a highly crimped tow, it has been found that a high degree of filament separation or debundlization can be obtained while at the same time retaining or achieving a moderate to high degree of interfilament migration so that a batting may be formed which has good uniformity and as much, generally even greater, resistance to transverse forces than a card or Garnett web and in many instances more coherence. In addition, such a batt has a much higher degree of crimp retained in the filaments than is possible with carded fibers since the mere act of carding a fiber strains the fibers and tends to remove the crimp. Moreover, the generally longitudinal alignment of the filaments from which the tow or web is formed is not impaired. In addition, two or more parallel-fed tow bands can be readily interlocked at their edges to form a uniform wide web without thin or heavy joints where the tows are joined together.

Referring next to FIG. 3, crimped continuous filament tow from 10,000 to 200,000 total denier is supplied in bales or boxes 56, 58, 60 and 62 or in the form of ball warps if desired. The tow may be comprised of filaments of from 1 D/F to 50 D/F in size. The filaments may be of round, Y, C, X or other like cross-sections. Tows 64 and 66 are withdrawn from the bales 56 and 58 by rolls 68 and 70 and pulled over the curved tow spreading bars 72 and 74, respectively. If desired, banding or tow spreading jets such as those of US. Patent 2,737,688 may be used also. This spreads the tow, removes any false twist in the tow and places the tows under a moderate tension to even out any irregularities or distortions of the tow bands. These tow bands then pass between the nip of withdrawal rolls 68 and 70 to the impingement jet 76. The impingement jet is supplied with a gaseous fluid such as air or steam by fluid conduits 78 and 80. While not shown it will be understood that the flow of gas may be controlled by suitable valves or pressure regulators and may be pretreated to heat the gas, dry it or inject an aerosol of liquid particles into it if desired. The tows 64 and 66, after treatment and combining into a wide web by the jet 76, then pass through the nip of the output rolls 82 and 84. These rolls may be driven slightly faster, say up to percent, or up to 100 percent slower than the rolls 68 and 70 so that the tow may be slightly stressed to straighten out the crimp or conversely allowed to relax so that all the filaments migrate in the tow to a high degree and the tow is increased in thickness. Following the rolls 82 and 84 the bloomed and entangled tow product may be wound up on roll 86.

In some cases it may be desirable to apply a chemical binder to the tow. This may be done with a roll applicator shown at 88, before the jet 76 treatment. As previously noted, the binder treatment in some cases may be advantageously applied by means of an aerosol in the jet air. In some other cases it may be desired to immerse the bloomed tow produce emerging from rolls 82 and 84 in a latex emulsion. Alternatively, a powdered binder such as phenolic resin may be dusted on the tow batt before 90 or after 92 passage through the rolls 82 and 84. In any case the binder is cured by heating or other activating means such as the infrared heater shown schematically at 94. In other cases hot calender rolls may be used if a compacted sheet-like product is desired. For example, if a plasticizer for a cellulose acetate tow is applied at 88 then rolls 82 and 84 may be heated to hot calender and cure the tow band into a sheet-like product.

If desired, the tow banded batt product emerging from the rolls 82 and 84 may be needle punched to increase the coherence thereof. Further methods of treating the tow product as known to those skilled in the art may be used. It is also possible by using our impingement jet to laminate a second or even third or more tow banded batt product to form almost any desired thickness. For example, in FIG. 3 tows 64 and 66 may be laid side by side and tows 96 and 98 superimposed thereupon to make a thicker product. Between bales 56 and 58 and rolls 68 and 70, tows 64 and 66 pass over guides 72 and 74, and between bales 60 and62 and rolls 68 and 70, tows 96 and 98 pass over guides 104, 106, and 108. The surprising degree of intermingling of the superimposed webs prevents delamination such as often encountered in prior art laminates. It is likewise possible to make only 'a single narrow width ribbon-like product such as a felt-like strip from a single tow supply.

The foregoing discussions have related only to crimped filaments. Our impingement jet has also been found to be useful for converting a parallel laid warp sheet of continuous filament yarns having notransverse strength or coherence into sheet, fabric or batting-like products having a remarkable degree of transverse strength. For example, it has been found possible to convert a warp sheet of a plurality of uncrimped, multifilament, zero or low twist yarns directly into a fabric without the need to go through the expensive operations of weaving or knitting the yarn ends on conventional looms or knitters. The product produced by the entanglement jet from a warp sheet has in itself sufficient transverse strength to be adequate for many end uses now requiring a woven fabric. Typical of these are mens tie interliners, shirt and sult lapel interliners, and possibly drapery liners and even drapery fabrics. If higher transverse strengths are required, cross-laid fabric sheets or chemical binders may be used.

To produce these products an apparatus setup such as shown in FIG. 4 is used. One or more warp beams, 110 and 112, wound with a plurality of ends 114 and 116 of continuous multi-filament, are provided. The width of the beams depends on the number of ends, which may vary from 5 ends per beam to 10,000 or more, and the width of the end product desired. The number and size of the rnulti-filament yarns may be varied over a wide range. For example, they may be composed of 55 to 5,000 total yarn denier with filament counts dependent on the filament size, which may be varied from about 1 D/F to about 50 D/F. The warp sheets composed of 5 to 10,000 or more yarns from each beam, in the case of a plural supply of beams, are combined into a single warp sheet 118. The ends are threaded through a suitable comb or reed 120 to maintain and control a uniform density of ends or yarn strands per inch of width. The warp sheet is then passed between the bite of a pair of feed rolls 122 then be passed directly into the impingement jet 126 or may be passed through a second comb or reed 128. This may be desirable when very good control over the spacing of the yarns is required or when they are excessively disarranged by passage through the feed rolls 122 and 124. In passage through the impingement jet 126 each yarn is broken down into its individual filaments. That is, the individual filaments of the yarns are separated from each other. They are then whipped about and intermingled, interwoven or interlaced by the eddy current actions of the plurality of gas jet streams issuing from the holes of the jet 126. Air or other suitable fluid either hot or cold is fed to the jet by pipes 128 and 130 under the desired pressure and temperature conditions. In some cases differentially shrinking filaments that tend to curl and crimp when exposed to heat may be used as the yarn supply. In this case, in addition to the tangling and interweaving of the filaments, a crimp is developed in the fibers when they are exposed to hot air or steam. In some cases this effect is enhanced by supplying the heated gas to only one side of the jet through pipe 128. The bottom plate of the jet in this case is not drilled with the holes and acts as an impingement baffle or obstruction against which the hot gas and heated filaments impinge. The surface of this plate may be flat or tilted at a suitable angle to the yarn and gas. streams. This has been found in some cases to increase and enhance the crimp and interfilament entanglement induced in the filaments. The plate may be heated or chilled to further enhance the crimp effect obtained in the filaments. In

F its passage through the jet, the warp sheet of individual yarn ends is converted into a coherent fabric or sheet-like material. Removal of this sheet 132 from the jet 126 is accomplished by rolls 134 and 136. This pair of rolls is driven at a constant speed ratio relative to rolls 122 and 124. Usually the feed-in rolls are driven faster than the takeup rolls 143 and 136. This overfeed may, however, be varied from substantially zero to 100 percent or even more, say 1000 percent, depending on the end product desired, the degree of crimp developed in the filaments of hot gas is used, and the degree of filament take-up or shortening in product length due to the interweaving action of the individual filaments. The end product is then wound up on a takeup spool or roll 138. In some cases rolls 143 and 136 may be omitted and in this case the windup roll 138 acts as the means of withdrawing the product from the jet. The product wound up on roll 138 may then be treated in any manner common in the finishing of woven or knitted fabrics. It may be treated with a binder to improve its transverse strength. It may be dyed, printed, calendered, napped, embossed, laminated with other layers of a similar product or with plastic or conventional woven fabrics. Several obvious advantages are inherent in producing a fabric in the foregoing manner. Many fibers that are difficult to weave or knit into fabrics due to the various limitations of twist, filament size, shape, pilling, electrostatic and frictional properties may now be made into fabric.

The product may be compact or bulky as desired. The fabric produced in general has the surface characteristics of fabrics woven or knit from staple fiber yarns without and 124. The warp sheet of ends may the need of the costly cutting, crimping, and the cotton, worsted or woolen system yarn spinning processes and weaving or knitting required to produce this type fabric from man-made fibers. It opens up a wide range of possiround yarn of 1000 denier or more depending on the degree of bulk or overfeed imparted by the jet treatment. This yarn has a remark-ably improved internal entanglement or loopiness and as a result is characterized by a much higher bulkiness than the prior art heavy denier bilities which will be recognized by those skilled in the textile arts. For example, a latex or other suitable 'binder bulked or entangled yarns. may be applied to one side of the produce and the A further understandmg of our invention may be had other side napped and sheared to produce furlike fabrics 'by reference to the following examples which are inor carpet fabrics. The sheet-like product may, if desired, tended to be illustrative only. be rolled transversely on itself to produce yarns, ropes, E l l V cords, cable, stufiers and wicks. It may also, if desired, xamp es be rolled on itself to produce tobacco smoke filters or A 15,800 denier tow was passed through an impingeliquid and gas filters. ment jet such as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. in a manner Prior to the present invention difiiculty has sometimes similar to that depicted in FIG. 3. The properties of the been experienced in air treating a yarn of large denier tow, the feed and take-up speeds, the jet width and jet filaments. For instance, a 1,000-denier yarn composed air pressure, product appearance, and the like of 5 of 1,000 filaments of 1 D/F at times does not respond individual samples are given in the Table 1, which folsatisfactorily when treated with lofting jets known to the lows.

TABLE I Sample No.

Tow Denier- 15,800 15,800 15, 800 15, 800 15, 300 D/F 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 Crimps per inch. 10 16 16 16 16 Jet Width (in.) 1 1 1 1 Jet Air (p.s.i.g.) 50 50 30 Feed (IL/min. 10 10 10 10 Take-up (ft./rnin.) 10 10 10 10 Product Control Excellent Good Excellent Fair Appearance. Intermingled Intermingled Binder None None None None None 1 Control (110 jet). 2 Unmingled strands.

3 Few clusters of unopened fiber. 4 Some clusters of unopened fiber.

Examples VI-XVIII Filament yarn warp samples were converted by passage through an impingement jet such as that depicted in FIGS. 1 and 2 according to the procedure of FIG. 4 into a sheet-like narrow ribbon nonwoven textile product under the conditions illustrated in Table II, which follows. The appearance and filament entanglement of the impingement jet-treated product is indicated. The yarn used in these samples was cellulose acetate yarn.

TABLE II D/ Ends/inch-" Amt. Width Hole Size (in diam Rows Hole Space (in.) ROW Spare Plate Space at- Entrance (in) Exit (in.)

Air Pressure (p.

Feed Speed (yd/min.) Over Feed Entanglement" V. good Appearance. do Do. Un formity... Poorsheet Fai1-sl1ect Good sheet- V. good sheet. Th1ckness(in.) A2 fiz 9&2 $6 56:.

Denier D F Hole Space (in. How Space Plate Space at- TABLE IICntinued Sample No.

Entrance (in.) Exit (in.) Air Pressure (p.s.i.g.). Feed Speed (yd./rnin.) Over Feed Appearanee. Uniformity Thickness (in.) 964 Bulky.

Good batting. 140.

V.g B V. good batting. Me ls rality of high-velocity fluid streams is arranged in substantially parallel rows substantially at right angles to the direction of movement of several tows, said streams being directed substantially vertically against the moving tows.

It will be apparent from the foregoing description that we have provided a continuous-filament nonwoven product which has a particularly high degree of association and intermingling of filaments between the edges of the plurality of multi-filament strands or ends which are joined together cohesively to make up said product. We have provided for the first time, by the use of our novel impingement jet process, a highly uniform batting of multistrand entangled-filament structure adapted for ready use in comforters, insulated underwear, garment innerliners and the like. Use of the unbonded continuous filament tow batt product of our invention containing a plurality of united yarn ends substantially eliminates leakage of fibers such as that encountered with staple batts and the like, thus reducing any degrading of the garments which might result from such leakage and preventing any disagreeability to the wearer which might result from protruding fibers, for example, itching and irritation of the skin. In addition, the tow product of this invention may be further treated by bonding or otherwise to produce fiber tapes, felts, paper-like sheets, tobacco smoke filters and the like. Our novel nonwoven product has both increased longitudinal and transverse strength caused by the interweaving and intermingling of the continuous filaments between the several strands thereof. Two or more layers of our fiber web product may be cross laminated with their axis at an angle of up to 90. filaments between the plurality of web product permits an even greater transverse strength than that of bonded staple batts, the strength of which is dependent on the necessarily weakened short-fiber properties.

The intermingling of ends of tow of the Although the invention has been described in considerable detail with particular reference to certain preferred embodiments thereof, variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention as described herein, and as defined in the appended claims.

We claim: 1. A process for production of a nonwoven web 2. The process according to claim 1 wherein the plu- 3. A process for the production of a nonwoven web within each of said combined sheets and between the adjoining edges of each of said plurality of warp sheets.

4. In a process for forming an entangled-filament yarn product by jet treatment of continuous substantially longitudinally aligned multifilament crimped tow, the improvement which comprises in a single zone directing rows of needle-like streams of a high-velocity gaseous medium from above and below against a plurality of strands of continuous multifilament tow each tow of which contains several thousand filaments, thereby commingling said strands as a cohesive web of intermingled filaments randomly distributed and interlaced at the adjoining edges of said strands without impairing the substantially longitudinal alignment of said filaments.

5. A process for production of a nonwoven web product of filaments which comprises impinging a plurality of high-velocity fluid streams upon at least one moving tow made up of substantially longitudinally aligned filaments, said streams being directed toward said tow in a confined zone, said fluid streams intermingling the filaments sufficiently to form a self-coherent web having a high degree of interfilament entanglement without impairing the substantially longitudinal alignment of said filaments.

6. The process according to claim 5' wherein the plurality of fluid streams are substantially parallel rows and are arranged to impinge substantially perpendicular to a surface of said tow.

7. The process according to claim 6 wherein the plurality of fluid streams are directed toward said tow in substantially equal numbers against both surfaces of said tow.

8. The process according to claim 5 wherein said tow is moved relative to any supporting surface through said confined zone.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,981,999 5/1961 Russell 28--72.2 X

3,040,412 6/1962 Russell 2872.2 Y

FOREIGN PATENTS 1,339,421 4/1963 France.

MERVIN STEIN, Primary Examiner. L. K. RIMRODT, Assistant Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF A NONWOVEN WEB PRODUCT OF ORGANIC FILAMENTS WHICH COMPRISES IMPINGING UPON AT LEAST ONE MOVING TOW MADE UP OF SUBSTANTIALLY LONGITUDINALLY ALIGNED FILAMENTS A PLURALITY OF HIGH-VELOCITY FLUID STREAMS, A SUBSTANTIALLY EQUAL NUMBER OF SAID STREAMS BEING DIRECTED IN A SINGLE CONFINED ZONE FROM ABOVE AND BELOW SAID TOW, AND SAID FLUID STREAMS INTERMINGLING THE FILAMENTS SUFFICIENTLY TO FORM A SELF-COHERENT BATT HAVING A HIGH DEGREE OF INTERFILAMENT ENTANGLEMENT WITHOUT IMPAIRING THE GENERALLY LONGITUDINAL ALIGNMENT OF SAID FILAMENTS.
US3333315A 1964-01-10 1966-02-23 Method of forming a nonwoven web product Expired - Lifetime US3333315A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3391048A US3391048A (en) 1964-01-10 1964-01-10 Entangled nonwoven web product from parallel laid filamentary tows
US3333315A US3333315A (en) 1964-01-10 1966-02-23 Method of forming a nonwoven web product

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3391048A US3391048A (en) 1964-01-10 1964-01-10 Entangled nonwoven web product from parallel laid filamentary tows
US3333315A US3333315A (en) 1964-01-10 1966-02-23 Method of forming a nonwoven web product

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3333315A true US3333315A (en) 1967-08-01

Family

ID=26990477

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3391048A Expired - Lifetime US3391048A (en) 1964-01-10 1964-01-10 Entangled nonwoven web product from parallel laid filamentary tows
US3333315A Expired - Lifetime US3333315A (en) 1964-01-10 1966-02-23 Method of forming a nonwoven web product

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3391048A Expired - Lifetime US3391048A (en) 1964-01-10 1964-01-10 Entangled nonwoven web product from parallel laid filamentary tows

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US3391048A (en)

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3434188A (en) * 1967-01-06 1969-03-25 Du Pont Process for producing nonwoven fabrics
US3449809A (en) * 1966-08-29 1969-06-17 Du Pont Production of nonwoven fabrics with jet stream of polymer solutions
US3490103A (en) * 1963-02-23 1970-01-20 Anne Co Ltd The Apparatus for forming absorbent material
US3535745A (en) * 1967-09-18 1970-10-27 Eastman Kodak Co Method and apparatus for opening multifilament tows
FR2042591A1 (en) * 1969-05-13 1971-02-12 Kurashiki Rayon Co
US4069563A (en) * 1976-04-02 1978-01-24 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Process for making nonwoven fabric
US5066535A (en) * 1987-05-01 1991-11-19 Milliken Research Corporation Fabric patterning process and product
US5080952A (en) * 1984-09-28 1992-01-14 Milliken Research Corporation Hydraulic napping process and product
US5235733A (en) * 1984-09-28 1993-08-17 Milliken Research Corporation Method and apparatus for patterning fabrics and products
US5542703A (en) * 1994-06-15 1996-08-06 Jps Automotive Products Corporation Air bag having panels with different permeabilities
US5632072A (en) * 1988-04-14 1997-05-27 International Paper Company Method for hydropatterning napped fabric
US5737813A (en) * 1988-04-14 1998-04-14 International Paper Company Method and apparatus for striped patterning of dyed fabric by hydrojet treatment
US5778501A (en) * 1997-05-29 1998-07-14 Yu-Hau Machinery Co., Ltd. Water-jet machine for maufacturing non-woven fabric
US20070017076A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-01-25 Hien Nguyen Low-density, non-woven structures and methods of making the same
US20070017075A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-01-25 Hien Nguyen Low-density, non-woven structures and methods of making the same
US20070123131A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-05-31 Hien Nguyen Low-density, non-woven structures and methods of making the same
US20080003909A1 (en) * 2006-06-29 2008-01-03 Hien Nguyen Non-woven structures and methods of making the same
US20080003908A1 (en) * 2006-06-29 2008-01-03 Hien Nguyen Non-woven structures and methods of making the same
USRE40362E1 (en) 1987-04-23 2008-06-10 Polymer Group, Inc. Apparatus and method for hydroenhancing fabric
US7395588B2 (en) * 2002-10-08 2008-07-08 Mitsubishi Rayon Engineering Co., Ltd. Pressurized steam-jetting nozzle, and method and apparatus for producing nonwoven fabric using the nozzle
US20140039434A1 (en) * 2012-08-01 2014-02-06 The Procter & Gamble Company Diaper Structure With Enhanced Tactile Softness Attributes
EP2780498A4 (en) * 2011-11-16 2015-07-22 Celanese Acetate Llc Nonwoven materials from continuous tow bands and apparatuses and methods thereof
US20150354110A1 (en) * 2014-06-09 2015-12-10 Goodrich Corporation System and method for air entanglement
US20180057979A1 (en) * 2016-08-23 2018-03-01 Goodrich Corporation Systems and methods for air entanglement
US10064767B2 (en) 2012-08-01 2018-09-04 The Procter & Gamble Company Diaper structure with enhanced tactile softness attributes and providing relatively low humidity

Families Citing this family (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3357074A (en) * 1965-12-28 1967-12-12 Celanese Corp Apparatus for the production of fluid entangled non-woven fabrics
US3537945A (en) * 1967-01-06 1970-11-03 Du Pont Nonwovens from bulk-yarn warps
US3499810A (en) * 1967-05-31 1970-03-10 Du Pont Method of making a bonded nonwoven web of staple-length filaments
US4198735A (en) * 1978-03-29 1980-04-22 Wwg Industries Inc. Method for forming temporary fabrics
US4532169A (en) * 1981-10-05 1985-07-30 Ppg Industries, Inc. High performance fiber ribbon product, high strength hybrid composites and methods of producing and using same
US6547915B2 (en) 1999-04-15 2003-04-15 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Creep resistant composite elastic material with improved aesthetics, dimensional stability and inherent latency and method of producing same
US6387471B1 (en) 1999-03-31 2002-05-14 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Creep resistant composite elastic material with improved aesthetics, dimensional stability and inherent latency and method of producing same
US8182457B2 (en) 2000-05-15 2012-05-22 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Garment having an apparent elastic band
US6969441B2 (en) 2000-05-15 2005-11-29 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Method and apparatus for producing laminated articles
US6833179B2 (en) 2000-05-15 2004-12-21 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Targeted elastic laminate having zones of different basis weights
US20030109842A1 (en) * 2001-12-12 2003-06-12 Louis Raymond Gerard St. Separated targeted elastic zone for improved process and product function
US6939334B2 (en) * 2001-12-19 2005-09-06 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Three dimensional profiling of an elastic hot melt pressure sensitive adhesive to provide areas of differential tension
US6902796B2 (en) * 2001-12-28 2005-06-07 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Elastic strand bonded laminate
US7015155B2 (en) * 2002-07-02 2006-03-21 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Elastomeric adhesive
US6978486B2 (en) * 2002-07-02 2005-12-27 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Garment including an elastomeric composite laminate
US7316840B2 (en) 2002-07-02 2008-01-08 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Strand-reinforced composite material
US7316842B2 (en) 2002-07-02 2008-01-08 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. High-viscosity elastomeric adhesive composition
US7601657B2 (en) 2003-12-31 2009-10-13 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Single sided stretch bonded laminates, and methods of making same
US20080113574A1 (en) * 2006-11-14 2008-05-15 Neron Rene B Wound care product made from bulked filament tow
US8461066B2 (en) * 2007-08-02 2013-06-11 Celanese Acetate Llc Nonwoven from bulked filament tow
US20130144238A1 (en) * 2011-11-16 2013-06-06 Sanjay Wahal Acquisition distribution layers produced from continuous tow bands and systems and methods relating thereto

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2981999A (en) * 1956-07-09 1961-05-02 Apparatus and method for forming porous
US3040412A (en) * 1955-12-27 1962-06-26 Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp Method of making porous fibrous sheet material
FR1339421A (en) * 1961-11-23 1963-10-04 British Nylon Spinners Ltd Method and apparatus for the son of joining multi-filament

Family Cites Families (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3126095A (en) * 1964-03-24 Debundlized tow
US1565267A (en) * 1924-05-12 1925-12-15 Del Roy F Fowler Upholstery pad
US2919217A (en) * 1953-07-28 1959-12-29 Bobkowicz Emilian Textile webs
NL198064A (en) * 1954-06-16
US2815558A (en) * 1954-10-21 1957-12-10 Borg George W Corp Pile fabrics and method of pile fabric treatment
US2958113A (en) * 1955-02-21 1960-11-01 Du Pont Needled batt
US2871652A (en) * 1956-03-26 1959-02-03 Patchogue Plymouth Corp Twisted paper yarn
US3085922A (en) * 1959-01-19 1963-04-16 Du Pont Porous flexible self-supporting sheet material and method of making same
US3214819A (en) * 1966-02-02 1965-11-02 Method of forming hydrauligally loomed fibrous material

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3040412A (en) * 1955-12-27 1962-06-26 Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp Method of making porous fibrous sheet material
US2981999A (en) * 1956-07-09 1961-05-02 Apparatus and method for forming porous
FR1339421A (en) * 1961-11-23 1963-10-04 British Nylon Spinners Ltd Method and apparatus for the son of joining multi-filament

Cited By (36)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3490103A (en) * 1963-02-23 1970-01-20 Anne Co Ltd The Apparatus for forming absorbent material
US3449809A (en) * 1966-08-29 1969-06-17 Du Pont Production of nonwoven fabrics with jet stream of polymer solutions
US3434188A (en) * 1967-01-06 1969-03-25 Du Pont Process for producing nonwoven fabrics
US3535745A (en) * 1967-09-18 1970-10-27 Eastman Kodak Co Method and apparatus for opening multifilament tows
FR2042591A1 (en) * 1969-05-13 1971-02-12 Kurashiki Rayon Co
US4069563A (en) * 1976-04-02 1978-01-24 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Process for making nonwoven fabric
US5080952A (en) * 1984-09-28 1992-01-14 Milliken Research Corporation Hydraulic napping process and product
US5235733A (en) * 1984-09-28 1993-08-17 Milliken Research Corporation Method and apparatus for patterning fabrics and products
USRE40362E1 (en) 1987-04-23 2008-06-10 Polymer Group, Inc. Apparatus and method for hydroenhancing fabric
US5066535A (en) * 1987-05-01 1991-11-19 Milliken Research Corporation Fabric patterning process and product
US5632072A (en) * 1988-04-14 1997-05-27 International Paper Company Method for hydropatterning napped fabric
US5737813A (en) * 1988-04-14 1998-04-14 International Paper Company Method and apparatus for striped patterning of dyed fabric by hydrojet treatment
US5542703A (en) * 1994-06-15 1996-08-06 Jps Automotive Products Corporation Air bag having panels with different permeabilities
US5630261A (en) * 1994-06-15 1997-05-20 Jps Automotive Products Corporation Air bag for use in a motor vehicle and method of producing same
US5566434A (en) * 1994-06-15 1996-10-22 Jps Automotive Products Corporation Air bag for use in a motor vehicle and method of producing same
US5778501A (en) * 1997-05-29 1998-07-14 Yu-Hau Machinery Co., Ltd. Water-jet machine for maufacturing non-woven fabric
US20080178442A1 (en) * 2002-10-08 2008-07-31 Mitsubishi Rayon Engineering Co., Ltd. Pressurized steam-jetting nozzle, and method and apparatus for producing nonwoven fabric using the nozzle
US7395588B2 (en) * 2002-10-08 2008-07-08 Mitsubishi Rayon Engineering Co., Ltd. Pressurized steam-jetting nozzle, and method and apparatus for producing nonwoven fabric using the nozzle
US7562425B2 (en) * 2002-10-08 2009-07-21 Mitsubishi Rayon Engineering Co., Ltd. Pressurized steam-jetting nozzle, and method and apparatus for producing nonwoven fabric using the nozzle
US7562424B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2009-07-21 Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc. Low-density, non-woven structures and methods of making the same
US20070123131A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-05-31 Hien Nguyen Low-density, non-woven structures and methods of making the same
US20070017075A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-01-25 Hien Nguyen Low-density, non-woven structures and methods of making the same
US20070017076A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-01-25 Hien Nguyen Low-density, non-woven structures and methods of making the same
US7562427B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2009-07-21 Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc. Low-density, non-woven structures and methods of making the same
US20080003908A1 (en) * 2006-06-29 2008-01-03 Hien Nguyen Non-woven structures and methods of making the same
US20080003909A1 (en) * 2006-06-29 2008-01-03 Hien Nguyen Non-woven structures and methods of making the same
EP2780498A4 (en) * 2011-11-16 2015-07-22 Celanese Acetate Llc Nonwoven materials from continuous tow bands and apparatuses and methods thereof
US20140039434A1 (en) * 2012-08-01 2014-02-06 The Procter & Gamble Company Diaper Structure With Enhanced Tactile Softness Attributes
CN104507436A (en) * 2012-08-01 2015-04-08 宝洁公司 Diaper structure with enhanced tactile softness attributes
US20150148763A1 (en) * 2012-08-01 2015-05-28 The Procter & Gamble Comapany Diaper Structure With Enhanced Tactile Softness Attributes
US9820895B2 (en) * 2012-08-01 2017-11-21 The Procter & Gamble Company Diaper structure with enhanced tactile softness attributes
US10064767B2 (en) 2012-08-01 2018-09-04 The Procter & Gamble Company Diaper structure with enhanced tactile softness attributes and providing relatively low humidity
US20150354110A1 (en) * 2014-06-09 2015-12-10 Goodrich Corporation System and method for air entanglement
US9783917B2 (en) * 2014-06-09 2017-10-10 Goodrich Corporation System and method for air entanglement
US20180057979A1 (en) * 2016-08-23 2018-03-01 Goodrich Corporation Systems and methods for air entanglement
US10081892B2 (en) * 2016-08-23 2018-09-25 Goodrich Corporation Systems and methods for air entanglement

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US3391048A (en) 1968-07-02 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3819465A (en) Non-woven textile products
US3639195A (en) Bonded fibrous materials and method for making them
US3441468A (en) Process for the production of non-woven webs
US3511747A (en) Bonded textile materials
US3468748A (en) Nonwoven fabric with machine direction elasticity
US3511740A (en) Tufted fabrics and methods of making them
US3469297A (en) Porous metal structure
US3485708A (en) Patterned nonwoven fabric of multifilament yarns and jet stream process for its production
US3505155A (en) Nonwoven continuous filament product and method of preparation
US3336174A (en) Method of making a fibrous filter product
US3392079A (en) Papermakers' felt
US3509009A (en) Non-woven fabric
US3501369A (en) Nonwoven fabric and method of making the same
US3298079A (en) Method for producing a novel crimped yarn and fabric
US3343240A (en) Method and apparatus for bulking synthetic fibers
US3705070A (en) Nonwoven fabric and process for preparing
US3922329A (en) Methods of making network structures
US3476636A (en) Needled nonwoven pile fabrics and method of making same
US4775579A (en) Hydroentangled elastic and nonelastic filaments
US3914365A (en) Methods of making network structures
US3506530A (en) Reversible non-woven needled fabrics and methods of making them
US3538564A (en) Method of making a nonwoven fabric
US3296785A (en) Production of interlaced plied yarn from slub yarn and carrier yarn by means of fluid jets
US4735849A (en) Non-woven fabric
US3081515A (en) Foraminous nonwoven fabric