US3294167A - Thermal oil recovery - Google Patents

Thermal oil recovery Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3294167A
US3294167A US359200A US35920064A US3294167A US 3294167 A US3294167 A US 3294167A US 359200 A US359200 A US 359200A US 35920064 A US35920064 A US 35920064A US 3294167 A US3294167 A US 3294167A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
formation
heat
well
fluid
hydrocarbons
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US359200A
Inventor
John V Vogel
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Shell Oil Co
Original Assignee
Shell Oil Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Shell Oil Co filed Critical Shell Oil Co
Priority to US359200A priority Critical patent/US3294167A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3294167A publication Critical patent/US3294167A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/24Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection

Description

Dec. 27, 1966 J. v. VOGEL 3,

THERMAL OIL RECOVERY Filed April 13, 1964 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 COLD HOT PRODUCED FLUID HYDROCARBON w 7 4 7 E s L Q f s s 3 l4 & II E UNDEPLETED A W H M .1 v FORMATION HOT DEPLETED FORMATION FIG. I

HEAT 1 PRODUCED I WATER STEAM EXCHANGER HYDROCARBON UNDEPLET FORMATiON FORMATION FIG. 2

HOT D PLETED |NVENTORI OHN V VOG EL HIS AGENT Dec. 27, 1966 J. v. VOGEL. 3,294,167

THERMAL OIL RECOVERY Filed April 13, 1964 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 3

INVENTORI JOHN v. VOGEL BY. d n Q HIS AGENT Dec. 27, 1966 J. v. VOGEL THERMAL OIL RECOVERY 5 Sheets-Shet 3 Filed April 13, 1964 FIG. 5

INVENTOR'.

JOHN V. VOGEL H HIS AGENT underground hydrocarbon-bearing formations.

United States Patent Ofifice Patented Dec. 27, 1966 3,294,167 THERMAL GIL RECOVERY John V. Vogel, Houston, Tex., assignor to Shell Oil Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware Filed Apr. 13, 1964, Ser. No. 359,200 7 Claims. (Cl. 16611) This invention relates to a method of recovering oil from underground formations and pertains more particularly to a method of driving oil from a first formation by thermal means, said first formation being positioned adjacent a second formation from which oil had been previously recovered by thermal means or methods.

It is well known that heat can be employed to recover hydrocarbons from underground formations through wells drilled in the underground petroleum deposits. Various methods have been developed over the years for the primary or secondary recovery of oil from underground formations by thermal means. The manner in which the hydrocarbons are recovered often depends upon the temperature to which they are heated and/or whether or not combustion takes place. Thus, hydrocarbons can be removed from an underground formation by heating the formation to a temperature sufiicient to reduce the viscosity of the hydrocarbon to a mobile condition whereby, upon reduction of pressure, the heated oil may flow back into the heat injection well, or alternatively may be driven to a second well, commonly known as a production well, by thermal drive means. At higher temperatures of heating, pyrolysis of the hydrocarbons may take place with the resulting products being driven through the formation and collected at the production well. Such action may take place during in situ combustion wherein the air and the fuel are injected in a formation and burned to heat the formation, or where merely air is injected into the formation at a temperature sufficient to promote underground combustion within the formation. Pyrolysis can also be caused to occur without in situ combustion by heating the underground formation with a hot heat-carrying medium such as steam, water, hydrocarbon liquids or vapors, and other liquids, gases or vapors.

In any of the well-known thermal production methods of underground formations, a substantial amount of heat is retained in the now depleted or substantially depleted In addition, those formations forming the cap and base rocks, that is, the formations above and below the former oil- 'bearing formation, absorb significant amounts of heat and stay hot for many months.

In some oil fields, especially those containing low grade and low viscosity oils which must be heated before it is possible to recover them from an underground formation, a primary consideration of the economic feasibility of recovering such an oil would be the cost of heating the oil-bearing formation.

It is therefore a primary object of the present invention to provide a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground formation by use of the thermal recovery method.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a method of recovering oil from an underground formation wherein a thermal recovery method is employed utilizing a hot fluid which has been heated by previously forcing it through a heat-bearing underground formation from which hydrocarbons, sulfur or other materials have previously been extracted.

Another object of the present invention is to produce two adjacent oil-bearing underground formations by thermal recovery means wherein first one formation is heated and the oil therein recovered therefrom and subsequently the second formation is heated by heat retained in the first formation so that the oil can subsequently be recovered from the second formation.

These and other objects of the invention will be understood from the following description taken with reference to the drawing, wherein FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic view showing two adjacent oil fields or oil-bearing formations taken in longitudinal section and provided with a pair of wells each for carrying out the method of the present invention; and

FIGURES 2, 3, 4 and 5 are diagrammatic views showing other arrangements of heating equipment for carrying out the method of the present invention in adjacent oil-bearing formations which are shown in longitudinal section.

In accordance with the method of the present invention, hydrocarbons may be recovered from a subsurface formation by providing communication through a Well between the surface of the earth and a first subsurface formation containing hydrocarbons, recovering hydrocarbons from said first subsurface formation by a thermal recovery method, completing the thermal recovery method in the first formation in a manner whereby a substantial amount of heat remains in the first formation, providing communication between the heated first subsurface formation and a second subsurface formation containing hydrocarbons, forcing fluid into and out of the heated first subsurface formation whereby the temperature of the fluid is increased, conveying the fluid from out of the heated first subsurface formation and into a second subsurface formation to heat the hydrocarbons therein, and producing the hydrocarbons from the second subsurface formation.

As shown in FIGURE 1, a first subsurface formation 11, originally containing hydrocarbons, is in communication with the surface 12 of the earth through a pair of wells 13 and 14 which are preferably lined by well casing closed at the top and open or perforated at the bottom whereby a fluid may be forced down well 13, through the formation 11 and up well 14.

In the vicinity of the first subsurface formation 11, a second subsurface formation 21 containing hydrocarbons exists. This second subsurface hydrocarbon-containing formation 21 is also in communication with the surface 0 fthe earth through one or more wells 22 and 23 which are open or perforated at the bottom so that fluid may enter the hydrocarbon formation 21. In FIGURE 1 the wells 13 and 22 may be considered input wells while the wells 14 and 23 may be considered output wells. The output well 14 of the first subsurface formation 11 is in fluid communication with the input well 22 of the second subsurface formation 21 which contains hydrocarbons. If the two subsurface formations are relatively close to each other, the output well 14 may be connected to the input well 22 by a pipeline 24 which may be provided, if desired, with pumps (not shown) in order to convey any fluid in the pipeline a considerable distance.

FIGURE 1 of the drawing illustrates the method of the present invention wherein hydrocarbons have been recovered to a substantial degree from the first subsurface formation 11 by any suitable thermal recovery method wherein a substantial amount of heat is left in the first formation 11. Thus, with the pipeline 24 not being connected to well 22, air or a combination of air and fuel may be injected down well 13 to carry out an in situ combustion within the formation 11 so as to drive the hydrocarbon products therein out of the formation through the output well 14. Instead of carrying out an underground combustion in the first formation 11, a thermal fluid drive may be carried out wherein steam or hot water or a combination of both, or any other heat-carrying fluid, is injected down well 13 to reduce the viscosity of the hydrocarbons in the formation 11 and/ or to pyrolyze them and cause them to be produced from output well 14.

After the thermal recovery method in the subsurface formation 11 has been completed, the output well 14 is connected by means of pipeline 24 or any other suitable means to the input well 22 in communication with the second subsurface hydrocarbon-bearing formation 21 which represents an oil field independent of formation 11 and located some distance therefrom in which thermal recovery of the hydrocarbons is to be carried out. In carrying out the method of the present invention, a cold heat-absorbing medium is pumped through pipe 15 and down injection well 13 into the hot depleted formation 11. The injected medium or fluid may flow either through naturally permeable rock or through artificially induced fractures in the formation 11. It is not necessary that the injected fluid or medium contact all portions of the hot rock of the formation in order to recover heat therefrom. Heat will flow by conduction from the hot rock to cooler portions of the formation in immediate contact with the heat-absorbing medium. After absorbing heat from the rock in the first formation 11, the hot medium is led back to the surface through output well 14 and then transported through pipe 24 to input well 22 of the undepleted hydrocarbon-bearing formation 21. In some oil fields the depleted hot first formation furnishes all the heat required to heat the fluid sufliciently to carry out the thermal recovery method of the second undepleted formation 21. If more heat is required within the second formation 21, additional heat may be supplied to the fluid in pipeline 24 by any suitable means, as by a heater 26 positioned in the line. Alternatively, heat may be supplied to the underground formation 21 as necessary from other suitable sources well known to the art. If desired, partial combustion of the material in the second subsurface formation 21 may be carried out.

It is not necessary that the depleted first underground formation 11 and the second undepleted underground formation 21 be in different fields, formations or strata, or that they be separated by faults or impermeable structures, such as a salt dome. The two fields or formations 11 and 21 may, in fact, simply be portions of one continuous large deposit.

Any of several fluids may be employed as the heatabsorbing medium for use in accordance with the present invention. Various media may include, but are not limited to liquids, gases, and vapors, such as water, steam,

hydrocarbon liquids, hydrocarbon gases or vapors, air,

nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other gases.

It is not essential to the basic invention that the same fluid or medium be injected into the hydrocarbon-bearing or undepleted formation as was used to absorb heat from the hot depleted formation. Thus, one fluid or medium could be used to absorb heat from the hot depleted formation and the heat picked up by the fluid could then be transferred by means of well-known heat-exchan-ged devices to another heat-carrying medium for injection into the undepleted or hydrocarbon-bearing formation. This modification of the method is illustrated in FIGURE 2 of the drawing showing a hot depleted formation 31 in the vicinity of a hydrocarbon-bearing undepleted formation 34. Input and output wells 32 and 33, respectively, are in communication between the earth surface and the hot depleted formation 31 while input and output wells 35 and 36, respectively, are in communication with the oil-bearing formation 34 to be depleted. The output well 33 of the first formation 31 is connected by pipeline 37 to a heat-exchange device 38 while a second fluid in the heat exchange device 38 is led therefrom through pipe 39 down the input well 35 into the second formation 34 to be subjected to thermal recovery methods for hydrocarbons. For example, water could be injected through input well 32 into the hot depleted deposit 31 where it absorbs heat and is vaporized to steam which is led to the surface through discharge well 33 and thence into the heat exchanger 38. In the heatexchanger 38, the steam gives up its heat to evaporate or heat a second fluid, for example a hydrocarbon liquid, which is then injected through pipeline 39 into the input well 35 and thence into the oil-bearing formation 34. The heated oil in the formation 34 is then driven out the discharge well 36.

The method of the present invention may be carried out in either a continuous or intermittent manner. In either case it is not essential to the process that two wells be used for conveying a fluid into and out of a hot depleted formation in order to absorb the heat therefrom.

FIGURE 5 illustrates an example where only one well is used in the hot depleted formation and another in the formation to be depleted. A cold heat-absorbing medium is pumped into well down through insulated pipe 86 past a packer 87 and into a hot depleted formation 88. The injected medium or fluid may flow either through naturally permeable rock or through artificially induced fractures up through formation 88 from which it absorbs heat. It is led back to the surface through annulus 89 and brought out outlet 90. The hot medium or fluid is then led or pumped through line 91 to well 92 in a second formation 95, which is to be depleted. The hot fluid is led down insulated pipe 93 past packer 94 and into formation from which it causes the thermal recovery of products which are carried up to the surface through annulus 96 and through outlet 97.

FIGURE 4 illustrates an intermittent operation in which a cold fluid could be injected down pipe 41 of well 42 past packers 43, 44 and 45 and into a hot depleted formation 46. During this period a valve 47 in a conduit 48, which is in communication between the lower hot depleted formation 46 and an upper oil-bearing undepleted formation 49, is closed. After the fluid injected into the hot formation 46 is at the desired pressure and temperature, valve 50 in line 41 would be closed and valve 47 in conduit 48 would be opened to allow the hot fluid from formation 46 to flow up conduit 48 into the oil-bearing formation 49 to be heated. At this time valves 51 and 52 at the wellhead would be closed. After the hydrocarbons in the upper formation 49 had been heated to a temperature suflicient to reduce their viscosity, they would flow into the well 42 above the packer 44 and be removed therefrom, as by a pump 53 of any type well known to the art. While the oil-bearing formation 49 is illustrated as being above the hot depleted formation 46 in FIGURE 4, it is readily apparent that it could just as well be below the hot depleted formation 46 and a suitable piping arrangement made to heat the oil-bearing formation.

The method of the present invention may be employed in various arrangements of wells which are in communication with one or more or the formations needed in carrying out the method of the present invention. In FIGURE 3 an oil-bearing undepleted formation is illustrated as being positioned above a hot depleted formation 62. One well 63 is in communication between the surface of the earth with both of the formations 61 and 62 whereby a cold fluid is injected through pipe 64 past a casing packer 65 and into the lower hot formation 62 while at the same time hot oil may be produced up the annulus 66 between the pipe 64 and the casing 63. A second well 67 passes through both formations 61 and 62 and is in communication with both so that hot fluid from the lower formation 62 may be led upwardly to the upper oil-bearing formation 61 to heat the formation and drive oil therefrom. The second well 67 is either closed at the top or is provided with a packer 68 just above the upper oil-bearing formation 61.

If desired, an intermediate well 69 may be provided in communication between the upper oil-bearing zone 61 and the earth surface. Thus, a cold fluid would be injected through pipe 64 down into the hot depleted formation 62 and thence along the formation to the output well 67 which would lead the heated fluid into the upper oil-bearing formation 61. The oil in the formation 61 would be driven therefrom through the intermediate production well 69, or would be driven into well 63 above the packer 65 and thence upwardly through the annulus 66 to be discharged through pipe 70 at the top of the well.

The method of the present invention of using the heat in a depleted formation may be used in any other method which requires the injection of a hot heat-carrying medium or fluid into a formation. These methods may be continuous or intermittent. They may be one well or multiwell methods and may include, but are not limited to, steam soak, steam drive, hot water flood, hot solvent drive, underground pyrolysis, etc. The method may also be used to pre-heat a formation before utilizing an in situ combustion recovery method.

By using the method of the present invention a high overall efficiency of heating formations and recovering hydrocarbons therefrom by thermal recovery method is achieved with savings of up to 60% in the cost of heating and depleting an oil-bearing reservoir. Where water is used as theheat absorbing medium, another advantage is enjoyed by eliminating any need for treating the water used in the drive or flood. Thus, impure water can be injected into a hot depleted formation where it is vaporized with the impurities carried by the water being left underground where they do not contaminate the oil-bearing formation to be treated.

I claim as my invention:

1. A method of recovering hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation which comprises the steps of providing communication through a well between the surface of the earth and a first subsurface formation containing hydrocarbons,

recovering hydrocarbons from said first subsurface formation by a thermal recovery method,

completing said thermal recovery method in said first formation in a manner whereby a substantial amount of heat remains in said first formation, providing communication between said heated first subsurface formation and a second subsurface formation containing hydrocarbons, at least a portion of said communication being provided through a well,

forcing fluid into and out of said heated first subsurface formation from which hydrocarbons have been recovered, said fluid having a temperature less than that of said heated formation at the time it is forced into said heated formation, conveying said fluid from out of said heated first subsurface formation and into said second subsurface formation to heat the hydrocarbons therein, and

producing said hydrocarbons from said second subsurface formation.

2. The method of claim 1 including the steps of adjusting the temperature of said fluid coming out of said heated first subsurface formation prior to conveying it to said second subsurface formation, and injecting it into said second subsurface formation to recover the hydrocarbons therefrom by thermal drive.

3. The method of claim 1 wherein the communication provided-between surface of the earth and the heated first subsurface formation and between said heated first subsurface formation and said second hydrocarbon-bearing formation is through a common well.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein said first and second subsurface formations are vertically displaced substantially one above the other.

5. The method of claim 1 wherein said first and second subsurface formations are laterally displaced one from the other and includes the step of conveying to the surface of the earth, said fluid coming out of said heated first subsurface formation is conveyed to the surface of the earth and thence laterally to a point above said second hydrocarbon-bearing formation and thence down to and into said second formation.

6. A method of recovering hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation which comprises the steps of providing communication through a well between the surface of the earth and a first subsurface formation containing hydrocarbons, recovering hydrocarbons from said first subsurface formation by a thermal recovery method, completing said thermal recovery method in said first formation in a manner whereby a substantial amount of heat remains in said first formation, providing communication between said heated first subsurface formation and a second subsurface formation containing hydrocarbons, at least a portion of said communication being provided through a well, forcing fluid into and out of said heated first subsurface formation from which hydrocarbons have been recovered, said fluid having a temperature less than that of said heated formation at the time it is forced into said heated formation,

conveying said fluid from out of said heated first subsurface formation and into heat-transfer communication with a second fluid to heat said second fluid,

injecting said second heated fluid into said second subsurface formation to heat the hydrocarbons therein and form a fluid drive to force said hydrocarbons from said second subsurface formation, and

producing said hydrocarbons from said second subsurface formation to said surface of the earth.

7. A method of recovering hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation which comprises the steps of providing communication through a well between the surface of the earth and a first subsurface formation from which hydrocarbons have been recently recovered by a completed thermal recovery method whereby said formation retains a substantial amount of heat,

providing communication between said heat-containing first subsurface formation and a second subsurface formation containing hydrocarbons at least a portion of said communication being provided through a well,

forcing fluid from the surface of the earth down to, into and out of said heat-containing first subsurface formation, said fluid having a temperature lessv than that of said heat-containing formation at the time it is forced thereinto,

conveying said fluid from out of said heat-containing formation and into said second subsurface formation to heat the hydrocarbons therein, and

producing said hydrocarbons from said second subsurface formation.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,584,605 2/1952 Merriam et a1 16611 3,163,215 12/1964 Stratton 166l1 X 3,167,120 1/1965 Pryor 16610 3,202,219 8/1965 Parker 16611 X CHARLES E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner.

JACOB L. NACKENOFF, Examiner.

S. J. NOVOSAD, Assistant Examiner.

Claims (1)

  1. 7. A METHOD OF RECOVERING HYDROCARBONS FROM A SUBSURFACE FORMATION WHICH COMPRISES THE STEPS OF PROVIDING COMMUNICATION THROUGH A WELL BETWEEN THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH AND A FIRST SUBSURFACE FORMATION FROM WHICH HYDROCARBONS HAVE BEEN RECENTLY RECOVERED BY A COMPLETED THERMAL RECOVERY METHOD WHEREBY SAID FORMATION RETAINS A SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF HEAT, PROVIDING COMMUNICATION BETWEEN SAID HEAT-CONTAINING FIRST SUBSURFACE FORMATION AND A SECOND SUBSURFACE FORMATION CONTAINING HYDROCARBONS AT LEAST A PORTION OF SAID COMMUNICATION BEING PROVIDED THROUGH A WELL, FORCING FLUID FROM THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH DOWN TO, INTO AND OUT OF SAID HEAT-CONTAINING FIRST SUBSURFACE FORMATION, SAID FLUID HAVING A TEMPERATURE LESS THAN THAT OF SAID HEAT-CONTAINING FORMATION AT THE TIME IT IS FORCED THEREINTO,
US359200A 1964-04-13 1964-04-13 Thermal oil recovery Expired - Lifetime US3294167A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US359200A US3294167A (en) 1964-04-13 1964-04-13 Thermal oil recovery

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US359200A US3294167A (en) 1964-04-13 1964-04-13 Thermal oil recovery

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3294167A true US3294167A (en) 1966-12-27

Family

ID=23412756

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US359200A Expired - Lifetime US3294167A (en) 1964-04-13 1964-04-13 Thermal oil recovery

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3294167A (en)

Cited By (89)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3361202A (en) * 1965-08-05 1968-01-02 Phillips Petroleum Co Process and apparatus for producing crude oil from separate strata
US3379248A (en) * 1965-12-10 1968-04-23 Mobil Oil Corp In situ combustion process utilizing waste heat
US3421583A (en) * 1967-08-30 1969-01-14 Mobil Oil Corp Recovering oil by cyclic steam injection combined with hot water drive
US3425492A (en) * 1966-01-10 1969-02-04 Phillips Petroleum Co Oil production by steam drive
US3430700A (en) * 1966-12-16 1969-03-04 Pan American Petroleum Corp Recovery of petroleum by thermal methods involving transfer of heat from one section of an oil-bearing formation to another
US3442333A (en) * 1967-10-11 1969-05-06 Phillips Petroleum Co Wellbore visbreaking of heavy crude oils
US3498381A (en) * 1968-07-25 1970-03-03 Marathon Oil Co Method for injection of hot fluids into an underground formation
US3512585A (en) * 1968-08-08 1970-05-19 Texaco Inc Method of recovering hydrocarbons by in situ vaporization of connate water
US3524504A (en) * 1968-08-08 1970-08-18 Texaco Inc Well stimulation with vaporization of formation water
US3679264A (en) * 1969-10-22 1972-07-25 Allen T Van Huisen Geothermal in situ mining and retorting system
US3765477A (en) * 1970-12-21 1973-10-16 Huisen A Van Geothermal-nuclear energy release and recovery system
US3805885A (en) * 1970-06-18 1974-04-23 Huisen A Van Earth heat energy displacement and recovery system
US3809159A (en) * 1972-10-02 1974-05-07 Continental Oil Co Process for simultaneously increasing recovery and upgrading oil in a reservoir
US3827243A (en) * 1972-09-01 1974-08-06 Texaco Development Corp Method for recovering geothermal energy
US3972372A (en) * 1975-03-10 1976-08-03 Fisher Sidney T Exraction of hydrocarbons in situ from underground hydrocarbon deposits
US4008762A (en) * 1976-02-26 1977-02-22 Fisher Sidney T Extraction of hydrocarbons in situ from underground hydrocarbon deposits
US4018280A (en) * 1975-12-10 1977-04-19 Mobil Oil Corporation Process for in situ retorting of oil shale
US4018279A (en) * 1975-11-12 1977-04-19 Reynolds Merrill J In situ coal combustion heat recovery method
US4078608A (en) * 1975-11-26 1978-03-14 Texaco Inc. Thermal oil recovery method
US4099566A (en) * 1974-06-26 1978-07-11 Texaco Exploration Canada Ltd. Vicous oil recovery method
US4148358A (en) * 1977-12-16 1979-04-10 Occidental Research Corporation Oxidizing hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide
US4161981A (en) * 1978-02-13 1979-07-24 Texaco Development Corporation Method for recovering hydrocarbons
US4174752A (en) * 1978-01-24 1979-11-20 Dale Fuqua Secondary recovery method and system for oil wells using solar energy
US4199028A (en) * 1978-11-22 1980-04-22 Conoco, Inc. Enhanced recovery with geopressured water resource
US4232902A (en) * 1979-02-09 1980-11-11 Ppg Industries, Inc. Solution mining water soluble salts at high temperatures
US4262745A (en) * 1979-12-14 1981-04-21 Exxon Production Research Company Steam stimulation process for recovering heavy oil
US4289204A (en) * 1979-05-03 1981-09-15 Sun Tech Energy Corporation Solar heat treating of well fluids
US4344483A (en) * 1981-09-08 1982-08-17 Fisher Charles B Multiple-site underground magnetic heating of hydrocarbons
US4401163A (en) * 1980-12-29 1983-08-30 The Standard Oil Company Modified in situ retorting of oil shale
US4552216A (en) * 1984-06-21 1985-11-12 Atlantic Richfield Company Method of producing a stratified viscous oil reservoir
US5860475A (en) * 1994-04-28 1999-01-19 Amoco Corporation Mixed well steam drive drainage process
WO2001081239A2 (en) * 2000-04-24 2001-11-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US7032660B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-04-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US20070137857A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-21 Vinegar Harold J Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US20080023197A1 (en) * 2006-07-25 2008-01-31 Shurtleff J K Apparatus, system, and method for in-situ extraction of hydrocarbons
US20080257552A1 (en) * 2007-04-17 2008-10-23 Shurtleff J Kevin Apparatus, system, and method for in-situ extraction of hydrocarbons
US20090260823A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Robert George Prince-Wright Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US7631691B2 (en) 2003-06-24 2009-12-15 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Methods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons
US20090321417A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-12-31 David Burns Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US7640987B2 (en) 2005-08-17 2010-01-05 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Communicating fluids with a heated-fluid generation system
US7644765B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-01-12 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US7669657B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2010-03-02 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Enhanced shale oil production by in situ heating using hydraulically fractured producing wells
US7673786B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Welding shield for coupling heaters
US7770643B2 (en) 2006-10-10 2010-08-10 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Hydrocarbon recovery using fluids
US7809538B2 (en) 2006-01-13 2010-10-05 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Real time monitoring and control of thermal recovery operations for heavy oil reservoirs
US7832482B2 (en) 2006-10-10 2010-11-16 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Producing resources using steam injection
US7866388B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US7942203B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US8082995B2 (en) 2007-12-10 2011-12-27 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Optimization of untreated oil shale geometry to control subsidence
US8087460B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2012-01-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Granular electrical connections for in situ formation heating
US8104537B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2012-01-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method of developing subsurface freeze zone
US8122955B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2012-02-28 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Downhole burners for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US8146664B2 (en) 2007-05-25 2012-04-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Utilization of low BTU gas generated during in situ heating of organic-rich rock
US8151880B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of making transportation fuel
US8151877B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2012-04-10 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Downhole burner wells for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US8151884B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2012-04-10 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Combined development of oil shale by in situ heating with a deeper hydrocarbon resource
US8220539B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US8224164B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US8230929B2 (en) 2008-05-23 2012-07-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Methods of producing hydrocarbons for substantially constant composition gas generation
US8327932B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US8355623B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US8540020B2 (en) 2009-05-05 2013-09-24 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Converting organic matter from a subterranean formation into producible hydrocarbons by controlling production operations based on availability of one or more production resources
US8596355B2 (en) 2003-06-24 2013-12-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Optimized well spacing for in situ shale oil development
US8616280B2 (en) 2010-08-30 2013-12-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Wellbore mechanical integrity for in situ pyrolysis
US8616279B2 (en) 2009-02-23 2013-12-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Water treatment following shale oil production by in situ heating
US8622127B2 (en) 2010-08-30 2014-01-07 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Olefin reduction for in situ pyrolysis oil generation
US8622133B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2014-01-07 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Resistive heater for in situ formation heating
US8627887B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2014-01-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8641150B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2014-02-04 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company In situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery
US8701768B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US8770284B2 (en) 2012-05-04 2014-07-08 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods of detecting an intersection between a wellbore and a subterranean structure that includes a marker material
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US8863839B2 (en) 2009-12-17 2014-10-21 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Enhanced convection for in situ pyrolysis of organic-rich rock formations
US8875789B2 (en) 2007-05-25 2014-11-04 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Process for producing hydrocarbon fluids combining in situ heating, a power plant and a gas plant
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US20150144345A1 (en) * 2013-11-22 2015-05-28 Cenovus Energy Inc. Waste heat recovery from depleted reservoir
US20150144337A1 (en) * 2013-11-22 2015-05-28 Cenovus Energy Inc. Waste heat recovery from depleted reservoir
US9080441B2 (en) 2011-11-04 2015-07-14 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Multiple electrical connections to optimize heating for in situ pyrolysis
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations
US9394772B2 (en) 2013-11-07 2016-07-19 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods for in situ resistive heating of organic matter in a subterranean formation
US9512699B2 (en) 2013-10-22 2016-12-06 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods for regulating an in situ pyrolysis process
US9644466B2 (en) 2014-11-21 2017-05-09 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method of recovering hydrocarbons within a subsurface formation using electric current
US10047594B2 (en) 2012-01-23 2018-08-14 Genie Ip B.V. Heater pattern for in situ thermal processing of a subsurface hydrocarbon containing formation

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2584605A (en) * 1948-04-14 1952-02-05 Edmund S Merriam Thermal drive method for recovery of oil
US3163215A (en) * 1961-12-04 1964-12-29 Phillips Petroleum Co Producing plural subterranean strata by in situ combustion and fluid drive
US3167120A (en) * 1961-06-15 1965-01-26 Phillips Petroleum Co Recovery of crude petroleum from plural strata by hot fluid drive
US3202219A (en) * 1962-02-09 1965-08-24 Phillips Petroleum Co Apparatus for protection of in situ combustion wells

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2584605A (en) * 1948-04-14 1952-02-05 Edmund S Merriam Thermal drive method for recovery of oil
US3167120A (en) * 1961-06-15 1965-01-26 Phillips Petroleum Co Recovery of crude petroleum from plural strata by hot fluid drive
US3163215A (en) * 1961-12-04 1964-12-29 Phillips Petroleum Co Producing plural subterranean strata by in situ combustion and fluid drive
US3202219A (en) * 1962-02-09 1965-08-24 Phillips Petroleum Co Apparatus for protection of in situ combustion wells

Cited By (241)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3361202A (en) * 1965-08-05 1968-01-02 Phillips Petroleum Co Process and apparatus for producing crude oil from separate strata
US3379248A (en) * 1965-12-10 1968-04-23 Mobil Oil Corp In situ combustion process utilizing waste heat
US3425492A (en) * 1966-01-10 1969-02-04 Phillips Petroleum Co Oil production by steam drive
US3430700A (en) * 1966-12-16 1969-03-04 Pan American Petroleum Corp Recovery of petroleum by thermal methods involving transfer of heat from one section of an oil-bearing formation to another
US3421583A (en) * 1967-08-30 1969-01-14 Mobil Oil Corp Recovering oil by cyclic steam injection combined with hot water drive
US3442333A (en) * 1967-10-11 1969-05-06 Phillips Petroleum Co Wellbore visbreaking of heavy crude oils
US3498381A (en) * 1968-07-25 1970-03-03 Marathon Oil Co Method for injection of hot fluids into an underground formation
US3512585A (en) * 1968-08-08 1970-05-19 Texaco Inc Method of recovering hydrocarbons by in situ vaporization of connate water
US3524504A (en) * 1968-08-08 1970-08-18 Texaco Inc Well stimulation with vaporization of formation water
US3679264A (en) * 1969-10-22 1972-07-25 Allen T Van Huisen Geothermal in situ mining and retorting system
US3805885A (en) * 1970-06-18 1974-04-23 Huisen A Van Earth heat energy displacement and recovery system
US3765477A (en) * 1970-12-21 1973-10-16 Huisen A Van Geothermal-nuclear energy release and recovery system
US3827243A (en) * 1972-09-01 1974-08-06 Texaco Development Corp Method for recovering geothermal energy
US3809159A (en) * 1972-10-02 1974-05-07 Continental Oil Co Process for simultaneously increasing recovery and upgrading oil in a reservoir
US4099566A (en) * 1974-06-26 1978-07-11 Texaco Exploration Canada Ltd. Vicous oil recovery method
US3972372A (en) * 1975-03-10 1976-08-03 Fisher Sidney T Exraction of hydrocarbons in situ from underground hydrocarbon deposits
US4018279A (en) * 1975-11-12 1977-04-19 Reynolds Merrill J In situ coal combustion heat recovery method
US4089373A (en) * 1975-11-12 1978-05-16 Reynolds Merrill J Situ coal combustion heat recovery method
US4078608A (en) * 1975-11-26 1978-03-14 Texaco Inc. Thermal oil recovery method
US4018280A (en) * 1975-12-10 1977-04-19 Mobil Oil Corporation Process for in situ retorting of oil shale
US4008762A (en) * 1976-02-26 1977-02-22 Fisher Sidney T Extraction of hydrocarbons in situ from underground hydrocarbon deposits
US4148358A (en) * 1977-12-16 1979-04-10 Occidental Research Corporation Oxidizing hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide
US4174752A (en) * 1978-01-24 1979-11-20 Dale Fuqua Secondary recovery method and system for oil wells using solar energy
US4161981A (en) * 1978-02-13 1979-07-24 Texaco Development Corporation Method for recovering hydrocarbons
US4199028A (en) * 1978-11-22 1980-04-22 Conoco, Inc. Enhanced recovery with geopressured water resource
US4232902A (en) * 1979-02-09 1980-11-11 Ppg Industries, Inc. Solution mining water soluble salts at high temperatures
US4289204A (en) * 1979-05-03 1981-09-15 Sun Tech Energy Corporation Solar heat treating of well fluids
US4262745A (en) * 1979-12-14 1981-04-21 Exxon Production Research Company Steam stimulation process for recovering heavy oil
US4401163A (en) * 1980-12-29 1983-08-30 The Standard Oil Company Modified in situ retorting of oil shale
US4344483A (en) * 1981-09-08 1982-08-17 Fisher Charles B Multiple-site underground magnetic heating of hydrocarbons
US4552216A (en) * 1984-06-21 1985-11-12 Atlantic Richfield Company Method of producing a stratified viscous oil reservoir
US5860475A (en) * 1994-04-28 1999-01-19 Amoco Corporation Mixed well steam drive drainage process
US6712135B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation in reducing environment
WO2001081239A3 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-05-23 Shell Oil Co In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
GB2379469A (en) * 2000-04-24 2003-03-12 Shell Int Research In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6581684B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-06-24 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US6588503B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to control product composition
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6591907B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6591906B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected oxygen content
US6607033B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-19 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a condensate
US6609570B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-26 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and ammonia production
US8225866B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2012-07-24 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6702016B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources located at an edge of a formation layer
US6708758B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
WO2001081239A2 (en) * 2000-04-24 2001-11-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6712137B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6712136B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a selected production well spacing
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715549B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected atomic oxygen to carbon ratio
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6715547B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to form a substantially uniform, high permeability formation
US6719047B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a hydrogen-rich environment
US6722431B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively permeable formation
US6722430B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected oxygen content and/or selected O/C ratio
US6722429B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6725928B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a distributed combustor
US6725921B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6725920B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to convert a selected amount of total organic carbon into hydrocarbon products
US6729401B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and ammonia production
US6729395B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6729397B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6729396B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6732796B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6732795B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6732794B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6736215B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration
US6739393B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and tuning production
US6739394B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6742588B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce formation fluids having a relatively low olefin content
US6742589B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6742587B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to form a substantially uniform, relatively high permeable formation
US6742593B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat transfer from a heat transfer fluid to heat the formation
US6745837B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a controlled heating rate
US6745832B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to control product composition
US6745831B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6749021B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a controlled heating rate
US6752210B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US6758268B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US7798221B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6763886B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6769485B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation through a heat source wellbore
US6769483B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor in conduit heat sources
US6789625B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-09-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using exposed metal heat sources
GB2379469B (en) * 2000-04-24 2004-09-29 Shell Int Research In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6805195B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-10-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6820688B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-11-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio
US6994168B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Scott Lee Wellington In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio
US8485252B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2013-07-16 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8789586B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6761216B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6688387B1 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-02-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a hydrocarbon condensate
US8608249B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2013-12-17 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7032660B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-04-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US7735935B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2010-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US8627887B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2014-01-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8238730B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-08-07 Shell Oil Company High voltage temperature limited heaters
US8224163B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US8224164B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US8579031B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2013-11-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7942203B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US8596355B2 (en) 2003-06-24 2013-12-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Optimized well spacing for in situ shale oil development
US7631691B2 (en) 2003-06-24 2009-12-15 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Methods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons
US20100078169A1 (en) * 2003-06-24 2010-04-01 Symington William A Methods of Treating Suberranean Formation To Convert Organic Matter Into Producible Hydrocarbons
US8355623B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US8027571B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US20070137857A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-21 Vinegar Harold J Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US8070840B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-12-06 Shell Oil Company Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US7860377B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-12-28 Shell Oil Company Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US8224165B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US8230927B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US7986869B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-07-26 Shell Oil Company Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US8233782B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US7942197B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US7831134B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US7640987B2 (en) 2005-08-17 2010-01-05 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Communicating fluids with a heated-fluid generation system
US8151880B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of making transportation fuel
US8606091B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2013-12-10 Shell Oil Company Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US7809538B2 (en) 2006-01-13 2010-10-05 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Real time monitoring and control of thermal recovery operations for heavy oil reservoirs
US7866385B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US8083813B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-12-27 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing transportation fuel
US8641150B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2014-02-04 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company In situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery
US7793722B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-09-14 Shell Oil Company Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US7785427B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-08-31 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US7912358B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-03-22 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US7683296B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US7673786B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Welding shield for coupling heaters
US8857506B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2014-10-14 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes
US8192682B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US8205674B2 (en) 2006-07-25 2012-06-26 Mountain West Energy Inc. Apparatus, system, and method for in-situ extraction of hydrocarbons
US20080023197A1 (en) * 2006-07-25 2008-01-31 Shurtleff J K Apparatus, system, and method for in-situ extraction of hydrocarbons
US7770643B2 (en) 2006-10-10 2010-08-10 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Hydrocarbon recovery using fluids
US7832482B2 (en) 2006-10-10 2010-11-16 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Producing resources using steam injection
US8151884B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2012-04-10 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Combined development of oil shale by in situ heating with a deeper hydrocarbon resource
US8104537B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2012-01-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method of developing subsurface freeze zone
US7669657B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2010-03-02 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Enhanced shale oil production by in situ heating using hydraulically fractured producing wells
US7717171B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-05-18 Shell Oil Company Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US7673681B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US7677310B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US7677314B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations
US8191630B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7681647B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US8555971B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2013-10-15 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7841401B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US7644765B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-01-12 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US7845411B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-12-07 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7703513B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-04-27 Shell Oil Company Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US7730946B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7730945B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US7730947B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US9347302B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2016-05-24 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Resistive heater for in situ formation heating
US8622133B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2014-01-07 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Resistive heater for in situ formation heating
US8087460B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2012-01-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Granular electrical connections for in situ formation heating
US20080257552A1 (en) * 2007-04-17 2008-10-23 Shurtleff J Kevin Apparatus, system, and method for in-situ extraction of hydrocarbons
US8042610B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-10-25 Shell Oil Company Parallel heater system for subsurface formations
US8459359B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-06-11 Shell Oil Company Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US8381815B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-02-26 Shell Oil Company Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US8662175B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-03-04 Shell Oil Company Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US7841425B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US7798220B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US8791396B2 (en) * 2007-04-20 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US8327681B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes
US7950453B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-05-31 Shell Oil Company Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US7841408B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US7931086B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-04-26 Shell Oil Company Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US20090321417A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-12-31 David Burns Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US9181780B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2015-11-10 Shell Oil Company Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations
US7849922B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-12-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7832484B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-16 Shell Oil Company Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US8151877B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2012-04-10 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Downhole burner wells for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US8122955B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2012-02-28 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Downhole burners for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US8875789B2 (en) 2007-05-25 2014-11-04 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Process for producing hydrocarbon fluids combining in situ heating, a power plant and a gas plant
US8146664B2 (en) 2007-05-25 2012-04-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Utilization of low BTU gas generated during in situ heating of organic-rich rock
US8276661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-10-02 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier
US8011451B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-09-06 Shell Oil Company Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8272455B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-09-25 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US7866386B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US8240774B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-08-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US8536497B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2013-09-17 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US7866388B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US8162059B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations
US8196658B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-06-12 Shell Oil Company Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8146669B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation
US8113272B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-02-14 Shell Oil Company Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US8146661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Cryogenic treatment of gas
US8082995B2 (en) 2007-12-10 2011-12-27 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Optimization of untreated oil shale geometry to control subsidence
US8562078B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2013-10-22 Shell Oil Company Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8752904B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-06-17 Shell Oil Company Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090260823A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Robert George Prince-Wright Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8162405B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090260824A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 David Booth Burns Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8172335B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-08 Shell Oil Company Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8151907B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US9528322B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2016-12-27 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8177305B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-15 Shell Oil Company Heater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8636323B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-01-28 Shell Oil Company Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8230929B2 (en) 2008-05-23 2012-07-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Methods of producing hydrocarbons for substantially constant composition gas generation
US8267185B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US8281861B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-10-09 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8256512B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-04 Shell Oil Company Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US9051829B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-06-09 Shell Oil Company Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US8881806B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2014-11-11 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US8261832B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-11 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations with fluids
US8353347B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US9129728B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US9022118B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US8267170B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US8220539B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US8616279B2 (en) 2009-02-23 2013-12-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Water treatment following shale oil production by in situ heating
US8851170B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2014-10-07 Shell Oil Company Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US8434555B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-07 Shell Oil Company Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US8448707B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-28 Shell Oil Company Non-conducting heater casings
US8327932B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US8540020B2 (en) 2009-05-05 2013-09-24 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Converting organic matter from a subterranean formation into producible hydrocarbons by controlling production operations based on availability of one or more production resources
US8863839B2 (en) 2009-12-17 2014-10-21 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Enhanced convection for in situ pyrolysis of organic-rich rock formations
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9399905B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2016-07-26 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8739874B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-06-03 Shell Oil Company Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US9022109B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US9127538B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methodologies for treatment of hydrocarbon formations using staged pyrolyzation
US9127523B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Barrier methods for use in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8833453B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-16 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness
US8701768B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US8622127B2 (en) 2010-08-30 2014-01-07 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Olefin reduction for in situ pyrolysis oil generation
US8616280B2 (en) 2010-08-30 2013-12-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Wellbore mechanical integrity for in situ pyrolysis
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations
US9080441B2 (en) 2011-11-04 2015-07-14 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Multiple electrical connections to optimize heating for in situ pyrolysis
US10047594B2 (en) 2012-01-23 2018-08-14 Genie Ip B.V. Heater pattern for in situ thermal processing of a subsurface hydrocarbon containing formation
US8770284B2 (en) 2012-05-04 2014-07-08 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods of detecting an intersection between a wellbore and a subterranean structure that includes a marker material
US9512699B2 (en) 2013-10-22 2016-12-06 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods for regulating an in situ pyrolysis process
US9394772B2 (en) 2013-11-07 2016-07-19 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods for in situ resistive heating of organic matter in a subterranean formation
US20150144345A1 (en) * 2013-11-22 2015-05-28 Cenovus Energy Inc. Waste heat recovery from depleted reservoir
US20150144337A1 (en) * 2013-11-22 2015-05-28 Cenovus Energy Inc. Waste heat recovery from depleted reservoir
US9562424B2 (en) * 2013-11-22 2017-02-07 Cenovus Energy Inc. Waste heat recovery from depleted reservoir
US9644466B2 (en) 2014-11-21 2017-05-09 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method of recovering hydrocarbons within a subsurface formation using electric current
US9739122B2 (en) 2014-11-21 2017-08-22 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Mitigating the effects of subsurface shunts during bulk heating of a subsurface formation

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3559737A (en) Underground fluid storage in permeable formations
US3528501A (en) Recovery of oil from oil shale
US3400762A (en) In situ thermal recovery of oil from an oil shale
US3285335A (en) In situ pyrolysis of oil shale formations
US3382922A (en) Production of oil shale by in situ pyrolysis
US3346044A (en) Method and structure for retorting oil shale in situ by cycling fluid flows
US3386508A (en) Process and system for the recovery of viscous oil
US3362751A (en) Method and system for recovering shale oil and gas
US3516495A (en) Recovery of shale oil
US3542131A (en) Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale
US3500913A (en) Method of recovering liquefiable components from a subterranean earth formation
US3241611A (en) Recovery of petroleum products from oil shale
US3679264A (en) Geothermal in situ mining and retorting system
US3515213A (en) Shale oil recovery process using heated oil-miscible fluids
US3379248A (en) In situ combustion process utilizing waste heat
US3554285A (en) Production and upgrading of heavy viscous oils
US3342258A (en) Underground oil recovery from solid oil-bearing deposits
US3848671A (en) Method of producing bitumen from a subterranean tar sand formation
US3223158A (en) In situ retorting of oil shale
US4037658A (en) Method of recovering viscous petroleum from an underground formation
US3994341A (en) Recovering viscous petroleum from thick tar sand
US4597441A (en) Recovery of oil by in situ hydrogenation
US3105545A (en) Method of heating underground formations
US4718485A (en) Patterns having horizontal and vertical wells
CA1060341A (en) System for recovering viscous petroleum from thick tar sand