US3225780A - Pressure recovery from bistable element - Google Patents

Pressure recovery from bistable element Download PDF

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US3225780A
US3225780A US281847A US28184763A US3225780A US 3225780 A US3225780 A US 3225780A US 281847 A US281847 A US 281847A US 28184763 A US28184763 A US 28184763A US 3225780 A US3225780 A US 3225780A
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fluid
flow
stream
power
pressure
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Raymond W Warren
Ralph G Barclay
John G Moorhead
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15CFLUID-CIRCUIT ELEMENTS PREDOMINANTLY USED FOR COMPUTING OR CONTROL PURPOSES
    • F15C1/00Circuit elements having no moving parts
    • F15C1/08Boundary-layer devices, e.g. wall-attachment amplifiers coanda effect
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S239/00Fluid sprinkling, spraying, and diffusing
    • Y10S239/03Fluid amplifier
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/206Flow affected by fluid contact, energy field or coanda effect [e.g., pure fluid device or system]
    • Y10T137/2087Means to cause rotational flow of fluid [e.g., vortex generator]
    • Y10T137/2104Vortex generator in interaction chamber of device

Definitions

  • This invention relates generally to pure fluid systems and more specifically to a self-adaptive pure fluid system which incorporates a pure fluid amplifier therein.
  • a typical pure fluid amplifier that is preferably incorporated in the self adaptive fluid system of this invention includes an interaction chamber defined for example by an end wall and .two outwardly diverging sidewalls, hereinafter referred to as the left and right sidewalls.
  • a nozzle having an orifice in the end wall is provided to issue a well-defined and relatively large energy stream, hereinafter referred to as a power stream, into the interaction chamber.
  • a substantially V-shaped flow divider has one end thereof disposed a predetermined distance from the end wall, the sides of the divider being generally parallel to the left and right sidewalls of the chamber. The regions between the sides of the divider and the left and right sidewalls define left and right output passages, respectively.
  • Fluid control signals in the form of control streams are supplied by a control nozzle to the interaction chamber, the control nozzle being positioned generally perpendicularly to the power nozzle.
  • the power stream is deflected in the interaction chamber by interaction with the fluid of the control stream, the smaller energy of the control stream controlling the larger energy of the power stream so that amplification is achieved. Since no moving mechanical parts are required for operation of such amplifiers they are known and referred to by those working in the art as pure fluid amplifiers.
  • the following types of pure fluid amplifier units can be constructed and embodied in the fluid pressure recovery system of the instant invention.
  • Fluid amplifiers wherein the control and power streams interact in such a way that the resulting flow patterns and pressure distribution into the output passages are greatly affected by the details of the design of the sidewalls.
  • the effect of sidewall configuration on the flow patterns and pressure distribution which can be achieved depends upon: the relation between width of the power nozzle supplying the fluid stream to the chamber and the distance between opposite sidewalls of the interaction chamber adjacent the orifice of the power nozzle; the angle that the sidewalls make with respect to the centerline of the power stream; the length of the sidewall (when a flow divider is not used); the spacing between the power nozzle and the flow divider (if used); and the density, viscosity, compressibility and uniformity of the fluid flowing in the chamber. It also depends to some extent on the thickness of the fluid element.
  • fluid devices utilizing boundary layer effects i.e., effects which depend upon details of sidewalls configuration can be subdivided into three categories:
  • Boundary layer elements in which there is no appreciable lock on effect. Such a unit has a power gain which can be increased by boundary layer effects, but these effects are not dominant;
  • Boundary layer units in which lock-on effects are dominant and are sufficient to maintain the power stream in a particular flow pattern through the action of the pressure distribution arising from boundary layer effects, and requiring no streams other than the power stream to maintain that flow pattern, once established, but having a flow pattern which can be changed to a new stable flow pattern by control stream flow, or by altering the pressures at one or more of the output passages;
  • Boundary layer units in which the flow pattern can be maintained through the action of the power stream along without being continuously controlled by control stream flow.
  • the flow pattern in this type of unit can be modified by the application of a control stream but otherwise maintains the power stream flow pattern, including lock on to the sidewall, even though the pressure distribution at the output passages is increased.
  • the lock-on phenomena referred .to hereinabove is due to a boundary layer effect existing between the stream and a sidewall.
  • the fluid stream is issuing from the power nozzle and is directed toward the apex of the divider.
  • the fluid issuing from the power nozzle orifice, in passing through the chamber, entrains fluid in the chamber and removes this fluid therefrom. If the power stream is slightly closer to, for instance, the left wall than the right wall, it is more effective in removing the fluid in the region between the stream and the left wall than it is in removing fluid between the stream and the right wall.
  • the pressure in the left region between the left wall and stream is lower than the pressure in the right region of the chamber and a differential pressure is set up across the power stream tending to deflect it toward the left wall.
  • a differential pressure is set up across the power stream tending to deflect it toward the left wall.
  • This action is self-reinforcing and results in the power stream becoming deflected toward the left wall and entering the left outlet passage.
  • the stream intersects the left wall at a predetermined distance downstream from the outlet of the main orifice; this point being normally referred to as the point of attachment. This phenomena is referred to as boundary layer lock on.
  • the operation of this type of apparatus may be completely symmetrical in that if the stream had initially been slightly deflected toward the right wall rather than the left wall, boundary layer lock on would have occurred against the right wall.
  • the boundary layer unit type a above utilizes a combination of boundary layer effects and momentum interaction between streams in order to achieve a power gain which is enhanced by the boundary layer effects, but since boundary layer effects in type a are not dominant, the power stream does not of itself remain locked to the sidewall. The power stream remains diverted from its initial direction only if there is a continuing control flow that interacts to maintain the deflection of the power stream.
  • Boundary layer unit type b has a suflicient lock on effect that the power stream continues to fiow entirely out one passage in the absence of any fluid control signal.
  • a boundary layer unit type b can be made as a bistable unit, but it can be dislodged from one of its stable states by control fluid flow or by the blocking of the output passage connected to the aperture receiving the major portion of the power stream.
  • Boundary layer units type 0 have a very strong tendency to maintain the direction of flow of the power stream through the interaction chamber, this tendency being so strong that complete blockage of the passage connected to one of the output apertures toward which the power stream is directed does not dislodge the power stream from its locked on condition.
  • Boundary layer units type c are therefore memory units which while sensitive to interacting control fluid flow, are relatively insensitive to positive loading conditions at their output passages.
  • boundary layer effects have been found to influence the performance of a fluid amplifier element if it is made as follows: the width of the interacting chamber at the point where the power nozzle issues its stream is two to three times the width, W, of the power nozzle, i.e., the chamber width at this oint is 3W; and the sidewalls of the chamber diverge so that each sidewall makes a 12 angle with the center line of the power stream.
  • W width
  • the sidewalls of the chamber diverge so that each sidewall makes a 12 angle with the center line of the power stream.
  • This unit with a divider spacing of 2W is a boundary layer unit type a which if the spacing is less than 2W an amplifier of the first class, i.e., a proportional amplifier results. If the di vider is spaced more than three power nozzle widths 3W, but less than eight power nozzle widths, 8W, from the power nozzle, then the power stream remains locked onto one of the chamber walls and is a boundary layer type b. A substantial blockage of the output passage of such a unit generally causes the power stream to take a new flow pattern into the adjacent output passage if that passage is not blocked.
  • Another factor effecting the type of operation achieved by these units is the pressure of the fluid applied to the power nozzle relative to the width of the chamber.
  • the types of operation described are achieved if the pressure of the fluid is less than 60 psi. If, however, the pressure exceeds 80 p.s.i. the expansion of the fluid stream upon issuing from the power nozzle is sufliciently great to cause the stream to contact both sidewalls of the chamber and lock-on is prevented. Lock-on can be achieved at the higher pressures by increasing the widths of the interaction chamber.
  • the output passages of the aforedescribed pure fluid amplifier are connected to drive loads such as pistons or to various types of pure fluid systems, known to those working in the art. Since many types of load utilization devices require pressure for the operation or control thereof, the fluid flow from the pure fluid amplifier must be converted to a fluid pressure head which preferably increases as the load increases.
  • a self adaptive fluid system incorporates a pure fluid amplifier preferably of the type described hereinabove.
  • the system provides maximum pressure or flow when maximum pressure or flow are respectively required at the output load, and is designed to effect an impedance match between the load device and the pure fluid amplifier incorporated in the system by a novel duct configuration.
  • FIGURE 1 illustrates a self adaptive pure fluid system constructed in accordance with this invention and the flow pattern of the fluid in the system when an output passage is backloaded;
  • FIGURE 2 illustrates the flow pattern in the self adaptive system of this invention when an output passage is partially backloaded
  • FIGURE 3 illustrates the flow pattern in the self-adaptive fluid system of this invention when the output passage is almost completely blocked by backloading.
  • FIGURE 1 for a more complete understanding of this invention, there is shown a self adaptive pure fluid system which is formed between two flat plates 11 and 12 sealed one to the other by adhesives, machine screws, or other suitable means.
  • the plates 11 and 12 may be composed of any material compatible with the fluid employed in the system 10 and for purposes of illustration are shown to be composed of a clear plastic material.
  • the configuration required to provide the system 10 is formed in the lower plate 11 by molding, etching, or other suitable techniques and the plate 11 is thereafter covered with the plate 12 so that the various passages, ducts and nozzles are enclosed and sealed in a fluid-tight relationship between the two plates.
  • the system 10 incorporates a pure fluid amplifier shown enclosed by the dotted block 13 in FIGURE 1, the pure fluid amplifier 13 including a power nozzle 14, control nozzles 15 and 16 and interaction chamber 17.
  • Tubes 21), 21 and 22 are respectively threadedly connected to the nozzles 14, 15 and 16, respectively, the tubes being connected to sources of fluid for supplying a power stream to the power nozzle 14 and control streams to the control nozzles 21 and 22.
  • the flow divider 27 has symmetrically tapering sidewalls 30 and 31 the sidewalls being located symmetrically with respect to a centerline taken through the power nozzle 20 and located equidistances from the diverging sidewalls 25 and 26 of the interaction chamber 17.
  • the flow divider 27 terminates at a concave tip or apex 32 which is positioned to directly receive the power stream issuing from the power nozzle 14.
  • the sidewalls which are positioned in opposed relationship with respect to the sidewalls 30 and 31 of the flow divider 27 are not continuous, the sidewall sections 25 and Z6 terminate at cusps 33 and 34, respectively.
  • the sidewall sections 25:: and 26a, respectively, are formed by apices 35 and 36, respectively, which are spaced a relatively short distance down-stream at the cusps 33 and 34, as illustrated.
  • the sidewall sections 25a and 26a are set back from the apices 33 and 34 of the sidewall sections 25 and 26, respectively, and therefore the lateral distance between the sidewall section 25 and the sidewall 30 is smaller than the lateral distance between the sidewall section 25a and the sidewall 30. correspondingly the lateral distance between the sidewall section 26 and the sidewall 31 of the flow splitter 27 is less than the lateral distance between the sidewall section 26:: and the sidewall 31.
  • the cusp 33 and the apex 35 define opposite sides of the entrance to a duct or passage 40 and the cusp 34 and the apex 36 define opposite sides of the entrance to a duct or passage 41.
  • the flow divider 27 is formed with an essentially concave tip 32 against which the power stream issuing from the power stream 14 will impinge with high velocity so as to create a high pressure region at a point substantially at the center of the tip 32 and a vortex V3 in the interaction chamber 17.
  • the high pressure region created in the tip 32 will be sufficient to seal 01f fluid flow which might otherwise flow around the tip of the flow divider 27 and into an output passage.
  • the concave tip divider raises the pressure in the interaction region 17 beyond that which would be developed in the interaction chamber 17 if the tip were rounded, pointed, or of some shape other than concave.
  • a pair of ducts 40 and 41 are provided with sidewalls 42, 43 and 44, 45, respectively, that may diverge only slightly or that may be parallel.
  • the sidewalls 25 and 26 are set back from the orifice of the power nozzle 14 a distance such that the power stream has a tendency to lock on to the sidewalls 25 and 26 at points B1 and B, respectively, when control streams from control nozzles 16 and 15, respectively, displace the power stream in the interaction chamber 17.
  • high pressure regions or points of boundary layer attachments are produced by the power stream impinging at relatively high velocity against a surface. Such high pressure regions tend to seal off the downstream flow of the stream from feeding back through the high pressure region.
  • the pressure of the fluid downstream of the region will have to exceed the pressure of the region before the point of attachment will be disturbed.
  • the point in effect moves upstream to a new location until the pressure between the point of attachment and the surface exceeds the increased downstream pressure.
  • the point of attachment move along the sidewalls of either the chamber 17 or the flow splitter 27 as a result of increasing and decreasing pressure downstream of the point of attachment.
  • the power nozzle 14 is issuing a power stream into the interaction chamber 17. If a control stream is directed from the control nozzle into the interaction chamber it will tend to displace the power stream into the output pas sage 48.
  • the sidewall 26 is positioned sufliciently close to the orifice of the power nozzle 14 so that boundary layer attachment occurs at point B and may occur at point C depending upon the amount or quantity of flow from the power nozzle 14 and the width of the passage between the sidewall section and the opposite section of sidewall 31. If the quantity of flow from the nozzle 14 is insuflicient to completely fill the passage between the section 26 and the sidewall 31, the power stream will attach to the wall section closest to the edge of the stream.
  • the points B and C or alternatively, the point B or the point C may each represent points of attachment of the power stream and the control stream entrained in the power stream.
  • a portion of the combined power and control stream will also be directed against the concave tip 32 of the divider 27 at the point E.
  • the point B will also be a high pressure region because the cusp 32 is positioned to receive direct impingement of the power stream.
  • a vortex V represents a high pressure region in the interaction chamber 17 will be created as a result of fluid impinging against the tip of the apex 32.
  • the vortex V rotates clockwise as illustrated in FIGURE 1 and tends to suck fluid from the duct 40 and from the output passage 47 into the entrance of the output passage 48.
  • FIGURE 2 there is illustrated the flow pattern which results as the backloading in the output passage 48 increases as a result of increasing the load which may for example take the form of a piston 50.
  • the velocity decreases and the point of attachment D is effectively moved upstream to a position closer to the apex 36 as illustrated in FIGURE 2.
  • the points of attachment B and C move upstream, the point C ultimately coinciding with the concave end 32 of the divider 27.
  • a recirculating vortex V1 may now be created between the apices 34 and 36 by flow across the entrance of the duct 41 from the apex 34 to the point of attachment D and the pressure of the vortex V1 may be sufficient to prevent any fluid entering the output passage 48 from the duct 41, the vortex V1 increasing in pressure as the point D moves upstream towards the apex 36.
  • the high pressure region created by the vortex V is now sufficient to stop any appreciable flow from the output passage 47 or the duct 40 into the interaction chamber 17.
  • the cusps 33 and 34 generate vortices such as the vortex V1 in the duct 41.
  • the vortex V increases in velocity.
  • the vortex V in the duct 41 rotating counterclockwise ensures a uniform distribution of flow output between the sidewalls of the duct 41.
  • FIGURE 3 there is shown the flow patterns which result in the self adaptive system 10 when the output passage 48 is blocked by the progressively increasing force applied to fluid egressing from the output passage 48 by the piston 50 that is movable in a closed cylinder system connected to receive fluid from either output passage 47 or 48.
  • the greatly increased pressure in the output passage 48 which is correspondingly created by the increased backloading of that output passage causes the point of attachment D to move to a position at the apex 36.
  • the fluid from the power stream turns with a radius of curvature substantially about the apex 34 and impinges against the sidewall 44 adjacent the apex 36 thereby creating a high pressure region at that point.
  • a portion of the fluid from the power stream will now egress from the duct 41 because of the movement of the point of attachment D into that duct, as illustrated in FIGURE 3.
  • the point D located in the duct 41 defines the downstream point of attachment. In effect the ambient pressure in channel 41 prevents fluid from flowing upstream to the point B.
  • the reduced flow out passage 48 increases the flow out of passage 41 and more flow reinforces the vortex V raising the pressure in the interaction region 17 and the controls 15 and 16. This vortex forces the power jet stream toward the wall 26.
  • the vortex V increases in velocity as the flow across the tip of the cusp 34 increases and thus tends to maintain uniform flow from the duct 41.
  • the vortices created by the flow in the system which includes the setback of sidewall sections 25a and 26a and the cusps 33 and 34 enable the sidewalls of ducts 40 and 41 to be made essentially parallel without creating oscillation in the system 10.
  • An impedance match between the flow and pressure in channel 48 caused by load 50, the flow and pressure in passage 41 and the flow and pressure in the interaction region 17 is thereby accomplished without oscillation.
  • An abrupt discontinuity may for example take the form of relatively abrupt change in flow direction as for example by a right angle bend between a passage and a tube or pipe or by an abrupt change of pressure between the fluid in the tube or pipe and a pressure of the region into which the fluid discharges.
  • An abrupt discontinuity in a pure fluid system reflects shock waves which create oscillations in the fluid flowing in the passage or tube in the same manner that a pipe organ produces standing waves in the air columns of each pipe; that is, nodes or antinodes are produced by the abrupt discontinuity which cause fundamental and overtone oscillations in the air columns.
  • oscillating shock waves created by abrupt discontinuities are generally undesirable in pure fluid systems because they create high levels of noise and tend to cause unanticipated oscillation of the unit.
  • a diverging duct to fluid output flow from the system it a relatively smooth transistion is provided between the fluid pressure in the system and the ambient pressure of fluid egress.
  • the impedance of the ambient pressure conditions and the impedance of the output from the system 10 are somewhat matched by the divergence of the ducts 40 and 41 and the possibility of unanticipated oscillation in the system 10 accordingly reduced.
  • the entrances to the ducts 40 and 41 are illustrated in the figures of the accompanying drawing as positioned downstream of the tip 32, the entrances may alternatively be positioned upstream of the tip 32 as long as they remain downstream of the points of attachment B and B1. If the entrances are positioned upstream of the points of attachment B and B1 then the flow will enter the low pressure separation region from the ducts 40 or 41 directly resulting in instability.
  • the positioning of the entrances to the ducts 40 and 41 is determined primarily by the velocity of the power stream anticipated at the point of attachment B. As will be obvious from the foregoing description it is important that the point of attachment D receive fluid with a velocity high enough to seal off the pressure downstream of the point D.
  • the position of the tip 32 relative to the orifice of the power nozzle 14 is also determined by the velocity of the fluid impinging against the cusp 32. Optimum sealing results when the cusp 32 is positioned in the high velocity portion of the power stream.
  • V-lhat we claim is:
  • a pure fluid system comprising an interaction chamber for receiving and confining fluid flow, a power nozzle for issuing a power stream into one end of said chamber, a control nozzle for issuing a control stream in interacting relationship with said power stream for eflecting amplified directional displacement thereof, plural passages located downstream of said interaction chamber for receiving fluid flow therefrom, a substantially wedge shaped flow splitter located between said passages for splitting flow into said passages, a concave tip formed at the converging end of said flow splitter for receiving fluid from said power nozzle and a duct extending laterally from at least one of said passages downstream of the apex of said flow splitter and communicating with a pre determined fluid environment, the walls forming said duct being substantially parallel.
  • a pure fluid system comprising an interaction chamber for receiving and confining fluid flow, a power nozzle for issuing a power stream into one end of said chamber, a control nozzle for issuing a control stream in interacting relationship with said power stream for effecting amplified directional displacement thereof, plural passages located downstream of said interaction chamber for receiving fluid flow therefrom, a substantially wedge shaped flow splitter located between said passages for splitting flow into said passages, a concave tip formed at the converging end of said flow splitter for receiving fluid from said power nozzle, a duct extending laterally from at least one of said passages downstream of the apex of said flow splitter, the entrance of said duct communicating with said one of said passages and the exit of said duct communicating with a predetermined fluid environment, a cusp formed adjacent said entrance of said duct, so that fluid flowing upstream in said one of said passages across said entrance generates a vortex in said duct.
  • a pure fluid system comprising an interaction chamber for receiving and confining fluid flow therein formed by a pair of diverging sidewalls and an end wall, a power nozzle communicating with said end wall for issuing a power stream therefrom, at least one control nozzle communicating with one of said sidewalls for issuing a control stream in interacting relationship to said power stream so as to effect displacement thereof in said interaction chamber, a substantially V-shaped divider located downstream of said power nozzle and having diverging edges positioned intermediate said sidewalls so as to form output passages, each sidewall extending from said chamber comprising at least two sections forming a duct thereoetween, the lateral distance between the edge of said divider and a downstream section of each sidewall being greater than the lateral difference between the edge of said divider and an upstream section of a sidewall, a cusp formed by the upstream section of a sidewall and positioned adjacent the entrance to said duct so that fluid flowing upstream between said sections creates a vortex adjacent the entrance to said duct.
  • each of said output passages is provided with a duct having a cusp formed adjacent the entrance thereof so that fluid flowing upstream of said output passages generates a fluid vortex in the cusp.
  • each duct is formed by a pair of opposed and substantially parallel sidewalls.

Description

R. w. WARREN ET AL 3,225,780
PRESSURE RECOVERY FROM BISTABLE ELEMENT Dec. 28, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed May 20, 1963 Z we M w. W W m W m 2 "1.
BY g4 1 Dec. 28, 1965 w. WARREN ETAL 3,
PRESSURE RECOVERY FROM BISTABLE ELEMENT Filed May 20, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Patent 3,225,780 PRESSURE REQUVERY FRQM BISTABLE ELEMENT Raymond W. Warren, McLean, Va., and Ralph G.
Barclay and John G. Moorhead, Silver Spring, Md, assignors to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army Filed May 20, 1963, Ser. No. 281,847 8 Claims. (Cl. 137-815) (Granted under Title 35, US. Code (1952), see. 266) The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.
This invention relates generally to pure fluid systems and more specifically to a self-adaptive pure fluid system which incorporates a pure fluid amplifier therein.
A typical pure fluid amplifier that is preferably incorporated in the self adaptive fluid system of this invention includes an interaction chamber defined for example by an end wall and .two outwardly diverging sidewalls, hereinafter referred to as the left and right sidewalls. A nozzle having an orifice in the end wall is provided to issue a well-defined and relatively large energy stream, hereinafter referred to as a power stream, into the interaction chamber. A substantially V-shaped flow divider has one end thereof disposed a predetermined distance from the end wall, the sides of the divider being generally parallel to the left and right sidewalls of the chamber. The regions between the sides of the divider and the left and right sidewalls define left and right output passages, respectively.
Fluid control signals in the form of control streams are supplied by a control nozzle to the interaction chamber, the control nozzle being positioned generally perpendicularly to the power nozzle. The power stream is deflected in the interaction chamber by interaction with the fluid of the control stream, the smaller energy of the control stream controlling the larger energy of the power stream so that amplification is achieved. Since no moving mechanical parts are required for operation of such amplifiers they are known and referred to by those working in the art as pure fluid amplifiers.
In accordance with this invention, the following types of pure fluid amplifier units can be constructed and embodied in the fluid pressure recovery system of the instant invention.
Fluid amplifiers wherein the control and power streams interact in such a way that the resulting flow patterns and pressure distribution into the output passages are greatly affected by the details of the design of the sidewalls. The effect of sidewall configuration on the flow patterns and pressure distribution which can be achieved depends upon: the relation between width of the power nozzle supplying the fluid stream to the chamber and the distance between opposite sidewalls of the interaction chamber adjacent the orifice of the power nozzle; the angle that the sidewalls make with respect to the centerline of the power stream; the length of the sidewall (when a flow divider is not used); the spacing between the power nozzle and the flow divider (if used); and the density, viscosity, compressibility and uniformity of the fluid flowing in the chamber. It also depends to some extent on the thickness of the fluid element. In general, fluid devices utilizing boundary layer effects, i.e., effects which depend upon details of sidewalls configuration can be subdivided into three categories:
(a) Boundary layer elements in which there is no appreciable lock on effect. Such a unit has a power gain which can be increased by boundary layer effects, but these effects are not dominant;
3,2538% Patented Dec. 28, 1965 (b) Boundary layer units in which lock-on effects are dominant and are sufficient to maintain the power stream in a particular flow pattern through the action of the pressure distribution arising from boundary layer effects, and requiring no streams other than the power stream to maintain that flow pattern, once established, but having a flow pattern which can be changed to a new stable flow pattern by control stream flow, or by altering the pressures at one or more of the output passages;
(0) Boundary layer units in which the flow pattern can be maintained through the action of the power stream along without being continuously controlled by control stream flow. The flow pattern in this type of unit can be modified by the application of a control stream but otherwise maintains the power stream flow pattern, including lock on to the sidewall, even though the pressure distribution at the output passages is increased.
The lock-on phenomena referred .to hereinabove is due to a boundary layer effect existing between the stream and a sidewall. Assume initially that the fluid stream is issuing from the power nozzle and is directed toward the apex of the divider. The fluid issuing from the power nozzle orifice, in passing through the chamber, entrains fluid in the chamber and removes this fluid therefrom. If the power stream is slightly closer to, for instance, the left wall than the right wall, it is more effective in removing the fluid in the region between the stream and the left wall than it is in removing fluid between the stream and the right wall. There-fore, the pressure in the left region between the left wall and stream is lower than the pressure in the right region of the chamber and a differential pressure is set up across the power stream tending to deflect it toward the left wall. As the power stream is deflected further toward the left wall, it becomes even more efficient in entraining air in the left region and the pressure in this region is further reduced. This action is self-reinforcing and results in the power stream becoming deflected toward the left wall and entering the left outlet passage. The stream intersects the left wall at a predetermined distance downstream from the outlet of the main orifice; this point being normally referred to as the point of attachment. This phenomena is referred to as boundary layer lock on. The operation of this type of apparatus may be completely symmetrical in that if the stream had initially been slightly deflected toward the right wall rather than the left wall, boundary layer lock on would have occurred against the right wall.
Continuing the discussion of the three categories of the second class of beam type fluid amplifying units, the boundary layer unit type a above utilizes a combination of boundary layer effects and momentum interaction between streams in order to achieve a power gain which is enhanced by the boundary layer effects, but since boundary layer effects in type a are not dominant, the power stream does not of itself remain locked to the sidewall. The power stream remains diverted from its initial direction only if there is a continuing control flow that interacts to maintain the deflection of the power stream. Boundary layer unit type b has a suflicient lock on effect that the power stream continues to fiow entirely out one passage in the absence of any fluid control signal. A boundary layer unit type b can be made as a bistable unit, but it can be dislodged from one of its stable states by control fluid flow or by the blocking of the output passage connected to the aperture receiving the major portion of the power stream. Boundary layer units type 0 have a very strong tendency to maintain the direction of flow of the power stream through the interaction chamber, this tendency being so strong that complete blockage of the passage connected to one of the output apertures toward which the power stream is directed does not dislodge the power stream from its locked on condition. Boundary layer units type c are therefore memory units which while sensitive to interacting control fluid flow, are relatively insensitive to positive loading conditions at their output passages.
To give a specific example: boundary layer effects have been found to influence the performance of a fluid amplifier element if it is made as follows: the width of the interacting chamber at the point where the power nozzle issues its stream is two to three times the width, W, of the power nozzle, i.e., the chamber width at this oint is 3W; and the sidewalls of the chamber diverge so that each sidewall makes a 12 angle with the center line of the power stream. In a unit made in this way, a spacing between the power nozzle and the center divider equal to two power nozzle widths 2W will exhibit increased gain because of boundary layer effects, but the stream will not remain locked on either side. This unit with a divider spacing of 2W is a boundary layer unit type a which if the spacing is less than 2W an amplifier of the first class, i.e., a proportional amplifier results. If the di vider is spaced more than three power nozzle widths 3W, but less than eight power nozzle widths, 8W, from the power nozzle, then the power stream remains locked onto one of the chamber walls and is a boundary layer type b. A substantial blockage of the output passage of such a unit generally causes the power stream to take a new flow pattern into the adjacent output passage if that passage is not blocked.
A boundary layer unit having a divider which is spaced more than twelve power nozzle widths 12W, from the power nozzle remains locked on to a chamber Wall even though there is almost a complete blockage of the output passage into which the power stream is directed, and thus it is a boundary layer unit type c. Another factor effecting the type of operation achieved by these units is the pressure of the fluid applied to the power nozzle relative to the width of the chamber. In the above examples, the types of operation described are achieved if the pressure of the fluid is less than 60 psi. If, however, the pressure exceeds 80 p.s.i. the expansion of the fluid stream upon issuing from the power nozzle is sufliciently great to cause the stream to contact both sidewalls of the chamber and lock-on is prevented. Lock-on can be achieved at the higher pressures by increasing the widths of the interaction chamber.
In general, the output passages of the aforedescribed pure fluid amplifier are connected to drive loads such as pistons or to various types of pure fluid systems, known to those working in the art. Since many types of load utilization devices require pressure for the operation or control thereof, the fluid flow from the pure fluid amplifier must be converted to a fluid pressure head which preferably increases as the load increases.
As the load into which the output flow from the aforedescribed pure fluid amplifiers increases, lock-on will exist in the class c type of amplifier, and may continue to exist in the class b type of amplifier depending upon the amount of output passage backloading. However, the pressure will not rapidly build up as desired since the fluid from the power stream under increased backloading will flow back and around the apex of the flow divider and into an adjacent output passage. Therefore, the greater the backloading of, for example, the left output passage, the greater the flow from the right output passage and generally the pressure applied to the load will not increase at a high enough rate to provide a constant output pressure to the load.
According to this invention, a self adaptive fluid system is provided that incorporates a pure fluid amplifier preferably of the type described hereinabove. The system provides maximum pressure or flow when maximum pressure or flow are respectively required at the output load, and is designed to effect an impedance match between the load device and the pure fluid amplifier incorporated in the system by a novel duct configuration.
Broadly, therefore, it is an object of this invention to provide a self adaptive pure fluid system that incorporates a novel duct configuration for effecting an automatic impedance match between the system and a load applied to the output of the system, even if both outputs are blocked.
The above and still further objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description of one specific embodiment thereof, especially when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 illustrates a self adaptive pure fluid system constructed in accordance with this invention and the flow pattern of the fluid in the system when an output passage is backloaded;
FIGURE 2 illustrates the flow pattern in the self adaptive system of this invention when an output passage is partially backloaded; and
FIGURE 3 illustrates the flow pattern in the self-adaptive fluid system of this invention when the output passage is almost completely blocked by backloading.
Referring now to FIGURE 1 for a more complete understanding of this invention, there is shown a self adaptive pure fluid system which is formed between two flat plates 11 and 12 sealed one to the other by adhesives, machine screws, or other suitable means. The plates 11 and 12 may be composed of any material compatible with the fluid employed in the system 10 and for purposes of illustration are shown to be composed of a clear plastic material. The configuration required to provide the system 10 is formed in the lower plate 11 by molding, etching, or other suitable techniques and the plate 11 is thereafter covered with the plate 12 so that the various passages, ducts and nozzles are enclosed and sealed in a fluid-tight relationship between the two plates.
The system 10 incorporates a pure fluid amplifier shown enclosed by the dotted block 13 in FIGURE 1, the pure fluid amplifier 13 including a power nozzle 14, control nozzles 15 and 16 and interaction chamber 17. Tubes 21), 21 and 22 are respectively threadedly connected to the nozzles 14, 15 and 16, respectively, the tubes being connected to sources of fluid for supplying a power stream to the power nozzle 14 and control streams to the control nozzles 21 and 22. The flow divider 27 has symmetrically tapering sidewalls 30 and 31 the sidewalls being located symmetrically with respect to a centerline taken through the power nozzle 20 and located equidistances from the diverging sidewalls 25 and 26 of the interaction chamber 17.
The flow divider 27 terminates at a concave tip or apex 32 which is positioned to directly receive the power stream issuing from the power nozzle 14. The sidewalls which are positioned in opposed relationship with respect to the sidewalls 30 and 31 of the flow divider 27 are not continuous, the sidewall sections 25 and Z6 terminate at cusps 33 and 34, respectively. The sidewall sections 25:: and 26a, respectively, are formed by apices 35 and 36, respectively, which are spaced a relatively short distance down-stream at the cusps 33 and 34, as illustrated. As illustrated in FIGURE 1, the sidewall sections 25a and 26a are set back from the apices 33 and 34 of the sidewall sections 25 and 26, respectively, and therefore the lateral distance between the sidewall section 25 and the sidewall 30 is smaller than the lateral distance between the sidewall section 25a and the sidewall 30. correspondingly the lateral distance between the sidewall section 26 and the sidewall 31 of the flow splitter 27 is less than the lateral distance between the sidewall section 26:: and the sidewall 31. The cusp 33 and the apex 35 define opposite sides of the entrance to a duct or passage 40 and the cusp 34 and the apex 36 define opposite sides of the entrance to a duct or passage 41.
The flow divider 27 is formed with an essentially concave tip 32 against which the power stream issuing from the power stream 14 will impinge with high velocity so as to create a high pressure region at a point substantially at the center of the tip 32 and a vortex V3 in the interaction chamber 17. The high pressure region created in the tip 32 will be sufficient to seal 01f fluid flow which might otherwise flow around the tip of the flow divider 27 and into an output passage.
The concave tip divider raises the pressure in the interaction region 17 beyond that which would be developed in the interaction chamber 17 if the tip were rounded, pointed, or of some shape other than concave. A pair of ducts 40 and 41 are provided with sidewalls 42, 43 and 44, 45, respectively, that may diverge only slightly or that may be parallel.
The sidewalls 25 and 26 are set back from the orifice of the power nozzle 14 a distance such that the power stream has a tendency to lock on to the sidewalls 25 and 26 at points B1 and B, respectively, when control streams from control nozzles 16 and 15, respectively, displace the power stream in the interaction chamber 17. In general, high pressure regions or points of boundary layer attachments are produced by the power stream impinging at relatively high velocity against a surface. Such high pressure regions tend to seal off the downstream flow of the stream from feeding back through the high pressure region. Thus, once a high pressure region is created by deflection of a high velocity stream, the pressure of the fluid downstream of the region will have to exceed the pressure of the region before the point of attachment will be disturbed. As the pressure downstream of the point of attachment increases and exceeds that of the point of attachment the point in effect moves upstream to a new location until the pressure between the point of attachment and the surface exceeds the increased downstream pressure. Thus, it is possible to have the point of attachment move along the sidewalls of either the chamber 17 or the flow splitter 27 as a result of increasing and decreasing pressure downstream of the point of attachment.
In order to understand the operation of the pure fluid system 10, illustrated in FIGURE 1, assume that the power nozzle 14 is issuing a power stream into the interaction chamber 17. If a control stream is directed from the control nozzle into the interaction chamber it will tend to displace the power stream into the output pas sage 48. The sidewall 26 is positioned sufliciently close to the orifice of the power nozzle 14 so that boundary layer attachment occurs at point B and may occur at point C depending upon the amount or quantity of flow from the power nozzle 14 and the width of the passage between the sidewall section and the opposite section of sidewall 31. If the quantity of flow from the nozzle 14 is insuflicient to completely fill the passage between the section 26 and the sidewall 31, the power stream will attach to the wall section closest to the edge of the stream. Thus, the points B and C or alternatively, the point B or the point C may each represent points of attachment of the power stream and the control stream entrained in the power stream.
A portion of the combined power and control stream will also be directed against the concave tip 32 of the divider 27 at the point E. The point B will also be a high pressure region because the cusp 32 is positioned to receive direct impingement of the power stream. A vortex V represents a high pressure region in the interaction chamber 17 will be created as a result of fluid impinging against the tip of the apex 32. The vortex V rotates clockwise as illustrated in FIGURE 1 and tends to suck fluid from the duct 40 and from the output passage 47 into the entrance of the output passage 48. The fluid stream flowing over the apex 34 of the sidewall section 26 reattaches at the point D to the sidewall section 26a and issues from the output passage 48 along with fluid sucked from the duct 41 into the stream passing across the apices 34 and 36 at relatively high velocity. Thus, in the absence of any backloading of the output passage 48 maximum flow will issue from that passage because of the entrainment of fluid from the ducts 4t and 41 and from the output passage 47.
Referring now to FIGURE 2, there is illustrated the flow pattern which results as the backloading in the output passage 48 increases as a result of increasing the load which may for example take the form of a piston 50. As a result of the increasing pressure in the output passage 48 the velocity decreases and the point of attachment D is effectively moved upstream to a position closer to the apex 36 as illustrated in FIGURE 2. Similarly the points of attachment B and C move upstream, the point C ultimately coinciding with the concave end 32 of the divider 27. A recirculating vortex V1 may now be created between the apices 34 and 36 by flow across the entrance of the duct 41 from the apex 34 to the point of attachment D and the pressure of the vortex V1 may be sufficient to prevent any fluid entering the output passage 48 from the duct 41, the vortex V1 increasing in pressure as the point D moves upstream towards the apex 36. The high pressure region created by the vortex V is now sufficient to stop any appreciable flow from the output passage 47 or the duct 40 into the interaction chamber 17. As fluid flows over the tips of the cusps and into the ducts 40 and 41, the cusps 33 and 34 generate vortices such as the vortex V1 in the duct 41. Thus as the back pressure in the associated output passage increases the vortex V increases in velocity. The vortex V in the duct 41 rotating counterclockwise ensures a uniform distribution of flow output between the sidewalls of the duct 41.
Referring now to FIGURE 3, there is shown the flow patterns which result in the self adaptive system 10 when the output passage 48 is blocked by the progressively increasing force applied to fluid egressing from the output passage 48 by the piston 50 that is movable in a closed cylinder system connected to receive fluid from either output passage 47 or 48. The greatly increased pressure in the output passage 48 which is correspondingly created by the increased backloading of that output passage causes the point of attachment D to move to a position at the apex 36. Thus the fluid from the power stream turns with a radius of curvature substantially about the apex 34 and impinges against the sidewall 44 adjacent the apex 36 thereby creating a high pressure region at that point. A portion of the fluid from the power stream will now egress from the duct 41 because of the movement of the point of attachment D into that duct, as illustrated in FIGURE 3. The point D located in the duct 41 defines the downstream point of attachment. In effect the ambient pressure in channel 41 prevents fluid from flowing upstream to the point B.
When flow is from the left output passage in FIGURE 3, the piston 50 will move to the right forcing fluid into the downstream end of the right output passage. Because the cusp 33 extends laterally outwardly from the downstream sidewall section, the fluid flowing into the right output passage as indicated by the arrows, the flow tends to be scooped into, and thereby flow into, the duct 40. Fluid which does not enter the duct 40 continues to flow upstream into the interaction chamber 17 where it reinforces the vortex V3 and ultimately enters the left output passage to reinforce flow from that passage.
The reduced flow out passage 48 increases the flow out of passage 41 and more flow reinforces the vortex V raising the pressure in the interaction region 17 and the controls 15 and 16. This vortex forces the power jet stream toward the wall 26. The vortex V increases in velocity as the flow across the tip of the cusp 34 increases and thus tends to maintain uniform flow from the duct 41.
From the foregoing description of operation it will be apparent to those working in the art that a maximum pressure is produced by the system 10 when a maximum load is applied to the output passage and that a maximum flow results when the back-loading of the output passage is minimum. As illustrated in the accompanying drawing, the sidewall sections 25a and 26a are set back from the sidewall sections 25 and 26. Such setback is preferable because the possibility of undesired oscillation of the system llll'is minimized and the amount of fluid which would bleed from the ducts 4th and 41 is reduced. The vortices created by the flow in the system which includes the setback of sidewall sections 25a and 26a and the cusps 33 and 34 enable the sidewalls of ducts 40 and 41 to be made essentially parallel without creating oscillation in the system 10. An impedance match between the flow and pressure in channel 48 caused by load 50, the flow and pressure in passage 41 and the flow and pressure in the interaction region 17 is thereby accomplished without oscillation.
With regard to impedance matching in general, it is known to those skilled in the art that if a moving column of fluid meets an abrupt discontinuity in the system, a reflected wave will be produced which travels the length of the column of fluid as a sinusoidal oscillating wave. An abrupt discontinuity may for example take the form of relatively abrupt change in flow direction as for example by a right angle bend between a passage and a tube or pipe or by an abrupt change of pressure between the fluid in the tube or pipe and a pressure of the region into which the fluid discharges. An abrupt discontinuity in a pure fluid system reflects shock waves which create oscillations in the fluid flowing in the passage or tube in the same manner that a pipe organ produces standing waves in the air columns of each pipe; that is, nodes or antinodes are produced by the abrupt discontinuity which cause fundamental and overtone oscillations in the air columns. As will be appreciated by those working in the art, oscillating shock waves created by abrupt discontinuities are generally undesirable in pure fluid systems because they create high levels of noise and tend to cause unanticipated oscillation of the unit. By providing a diverging duct to fluid output flow from the system it a relatively smooth transistion is provided between the fluid pressure in the system and the ambient pressure of fluid egress. Thus, the impedance of the ambient pressure conditions and the impedance of the output from the system 10 are somewhat matched by the divergence of the ducts 40 and 41 and the possibility of unanticipated oscillation in the system 10 accordingly reduced.
Although the entrances to the ducts 40 and 41 are illustrated in the figures of the accompanying drawing as positioned downstream of the tip 32, the entrances may alternatively be positioned upstream of the tip 32 as long as they remain downstream of the points of attachment B and B1. If the entrances are positioned upstream of the points of attachment B and B1 then the flow will enter the low pressure separation region from the ducts 40 or 41 directly resulting in instability. The positioning of the entrances to the ducts 40 and 41 is determined primarily by the velocity of the power stream anticipated at the point of attachment B. As will be obvious from the foregoing description it is important that the point of attachment D receive fluid with a velocity high enough to seal off the pressure downstream of the point D.
The position of the tip 32 relative to the orifice of the power nozzle 14 is also determined by the velocity of the fluid impinging against the cusp 32. Optimum sealing results when the cusp 32 is positioned in the high velocity portion of the power stream.
Since vortices, such as the vortex V are formed by fluid flow over the tips of the cusps 33 and 34, and since such vortices provide uniform output flow from the ducts 40 and 41, the divergence of the sidewalls of the ducts 40 and 41 is essentially noncritical. The uniform flow created by cusps and the vortices rotating therein tend to reduce the possibility of oscillations in the ducts 4t and 41, and consequently the sidewalls of the ducts 40 and 41 may be made substantially parallel, if desired.
While we have described and illustrated one specific embodiment of our invention, it will be clear that variations of the details of construction which are specifically illustrated and described may be resorted to without de parting from the true spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
V-lhat we claim is:
l. A pure fluid system comprising an interaction chamber for receiving and confining fluid flow, a power nozzle for issuing a power stream into one end of said chamber, a control nozzle for issuing a control stream in interacting relationship with said power stream for eflecting amplified directional displacement thereof, plural passages located downstream of said interaction chamber for receiving fluid flow therefrom, a substantially wedge shaped flow splitter located between said passages for splitting flow into said passages, a concave tip formed at the converging end of said flow splitter for receiving fluid from said power nozzle and a duct extending laterally from at least one of said passages downstream of the apex of said flow splitter and communicating with a pre determined fluid environment, the walls forming said duct being substantially parallel.
2. A pure fluid system comprising an interaction chamber for receiving and confining fluid flow, a power nozzle for issuing a power stream into one end of said chamber, a control nozzle for issuing a control stream in interacting relationship with said power stream for effecting amplified directional displacement thereof, plural passages located downstream of said interaction chamber for receiving fluid flow therefrom, a substantially wedge shaped flow splitter located between said passages for splitting flow into said passages, a concave tip formed at the converging end of said flow splitter for receiving fluid from said power nozzle, a duct extending laterally from at least one of said passages downstream of the apex of said flow splitter, the entrance of said duct communicating with said one of said passages and the exit of said duct communicating with a predetermined fluid environment, a cusp formed adjacent said entrance of said duct, so that fluid flowing upstream in said one of said passages across said entrance generates a vortex in said duct.
3. A pure fluid system comprising an interaction chamber for receiving and confining fluid flow therein formed by a pair of diverging sidewalls and an end wall, a power nozzle communicating with said end wall for issuing a power stream therefrom, at least one control nozzle communicating with one of said sidewalls for issuing a control stream in interacting relationship to said power stream so as to effect displacement thereof in said interaction chamber, a substantially V-shaped divider located downstream of said power nozzle and having diverging edges positioned intermediate said sidewalls so as to form output passages, each sidewall extending from said chamber comprising at least two sections forming a duct thereoetween, the lateral distance between the edge of said divider and a downstream section of each sidewall being greater than the lateral difference between the edge of said divider and an upstream section of a sidewall, a cusp formed by the upstream section of a sidewall and positioned adjacent the entrance to said duct so that fluid flowing upstream between said sections creates a vortex adjacent the entrance to said duct.
4. The pure fluid system as claimed in claim 3 wherein the converging end of said V-shaped divider is substantially concave.
5. The pure fluid system as claimed in claim 3 wherein each of said output passages is provided with a duct having a cusp formed adjacent the entrance thereof so that fluid flowing upstream of said output passages generates a fluid vortex in the cusp.
6. The pure fluid system as claimed in claim 5 wherein each duct is formed by a pair of opposed and substantially parallel sidewalls.
7. The pure fluid system as claimed in claim 2, wherein References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2/ 1928 Charette et a1.
1 Sowers.
Woodward.
Adams et a1. 137-815 Boothe 137-815 FOREIGN PATENTS France.
M. CARY NELSON, Primary Examiner.
10 LAVERNE D. GEIGER, Examiner.
S. SCOTT, Assistant Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A PURE FLUID SYSTEM COMPRISING AN INTERACTION CHAMBER FOR RECEIVING AND CONFINING FLUID FLOW, A POWER NOZZLE FOR ISSUING A POWER STREAM INTO ONE END OF SAID CHAMBER, A CONTROL NOZZLE FOR ISSUING A CONTROL STREAM IN INTERACTING RELATIONSHIP WITH SAID POWER STREAM FOR EFFECTING AMPLIFIED DIRECTIONAL DISPLACEMENT THEREOF, PLURAL PASSAGES LOCATED DOWNSTREAM OF SAID INTERACTION CHAMBER FOR RECEIVING FLUID FLOW THEREFROM, A SUBSTANTIALLY WEDGE SHAPED FLOW SPLITTER LOCATED BETWEEN SAID PASSAGES FOR SPLITTING FLOW INTO SAID PASAGES, A CONCAVE TIP FORMED AT THE COVERGING END OF SAID FLOW SPLITTER FOR RECEIVING FLUID FROM SAID POWER NOZZLE AND A DUCT EXTENDING LATERALLY FROM AT LEAST ONE OF SAID PASSAGES DOWNSTREAM OF THE APEX OF SAID FLOW SPLITTER AND COMMUNICATING WITH A PREDETERMINED FLUID ENVIRONMENT, THE WALLS FORMING SAID DUCT BEING SUBSTANTIALLY PARALLEL.
US281847A 1963-05-20 1963-05-20 Pressure recovery from bistable element Expired - Lifetime US3225780A (en)

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DE19641523675 DE1523675A1 (en) 1963-05-20 1964-05-20 Flow amplifier

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US3329152A (en) * 1964-06-12 1967-07-04 Elmer L Swartz Impedance-matching fluid amplifier
US3362422A (en) * 1964-12-21 1968-01-09 Gen Electric Fluid amplifier
US3403691A (en) * 1964-10-02 1968-10-01 Aviat Electric Ltd Vortex vent for fluid amplifiers
US3420253A (en) * 1965-06-09 1969-01-07 Nasa Fluid jet amplifier
US3439695A (en) * 1965-09-29 1969-04-22 Bowles Eng Corp Fluid-driven timing mechanism
US3468330A (en) * 1967-03-27 1969-09-23 Moore Products Co Diverting valve
US3468220A (en) * 1967-01-25 1969-09-23 Honeywell Inc Control systems
US3507295A (en) * 1967-08-16 1970-04-21 Pitney Bowes Inc Fluid amplifier
US3552413A (en) * 1962-09-10 1971-01-05 Us Army Feedback divider for fluid amplifier
US3561476A (en) * 1968-10-17 1971-02-09 Bertea Corp Valve
US3590842A (en) * 1969-04-02 1971-07-06 Corning Glass Works Means for switching wall attachment fluidic devices
US3610266A (en) * 1968-08-29 1971-10-05 Bizerba Werke Kraut Kg Wilh Pressure fluid control device

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US1658797A (en) * 1927-08-11 1928-02-14 Jean B Charette Vacuum-producing apparatus
FR1278782A (en) * 1960-01-26 1961-12-15 Development of Fluid Actuated Systems
US3122039A (en) * 1962-02-16 1964-02-25 Sperry Rand Corp Fluid amplifier with automatic reset of the power stream
US3124999A (en) * 1964-03-17 Fluid oscillator
US3168897A (en) * 1961-12-22 1965-02-09 Ibm Fluid control apparatus
US3181546A (en) * 1962-11-08 1965-05-04 Gen Electric Fluid control devices

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3124999A (en) * 1964-03-17 Fluid oscillator
US1658797A (en) * 1927-08-11 1928-02-14 Jean B Charette Vacuum-producing apparatus
FR1278782A (en) * 1960-01-26 1961-12-15 Development of Fluid Actuated Systems
US3168897A (en) * 1961-12-22 1965-02-09 Ibm Fluid control apparatus
US3122039A (en) * 1962-02-16 1964-02-25 Sperry Rand Corp Fluid amplifier with automatic reset of the power stream
US3181546A (en) * 1962-11-08 1965-05-04 Gen Electric Fluid control devices

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3552413A (en) * 1962-09-10 1971-01-05 Us Army Feedback divider for fluid amplifier
US3329152A (en) * 1964-06-12 1967-07-04 Elmer L Swartz Impedance-matching fluid amplifier
US3403691A (en) * 1964-10-02 1968-10-01 Aviat Electric Ltd Vortex vent for fluid amplifiers
US3362422A (en) * 1964-12-21 1968-01-09 Gen Electric Fluid amplifier
US3420253A (en) * 1965-06-09 1969-01-07 Nasa Fluid jet amplifier
US3439695A (en) * 1965-09-29 1969-04-22 Bowles Eng Corp Fluid-driven timing mechanism
US3468220A (en) * 1967-01-25 1969-09-23 Honeywell Inc Control systems
US3468330A (en) * 1967-03-27 1969-09-23 Moore Products Co Diverting valve
US3507295A (en) * 1967-08-16 1970-04-21 Pitney Bowes Inc Fluid amplifier
US3610266A (en) * 1968-08-29 1971-10-05 Bizerba Werke Kraut Kg Wilh Pressure fluid control device
US3561476A (en) * 1968-10-17 1971-02-09 Bertea Corp Valve
US3590842A (en) * 1969-04-02 1971-07-06 Corning Glass Works Means for switching wall attachment fluidic devices

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DE1523675A1 (en) 1969-07-10

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