US3174166A - Boats and method of making the same - Google Patents

Boats and method of making the same Download PDF

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Publication number
US3174166A
US3174166A US319276A US31927663A US3174166A US 3174166 A US3174166 A US 3174166A US 319276 A US319276 A US 319276A US 31927663 A US31927663 A US 31927663A US 3174166 A US3174166 A US 3174166A
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Prior art keywords
plate
boat
keel
hull
extending
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US319276A
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Ehrenberg Gustave
Jr Thomas Bilinski
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ELECTRO NITE Inc
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ELECTRO NITE Inc
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B5/00Hulls characterised by their construction of non-metallic material
    • B63B5/24Hulls characterised by their construction of non-metallic material made predominantly of plastics
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/31504Composite [nonstructural laminate]
    • Y10T428/31815Of bituminous or tarry residue

Description

March 23,1965 a. EHRENBERG ETA]: 3,174,166

BOATS AND mzmon OF MAKING THE SAME Filed Oct. 28, 1963 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTORS GUSTAVE EHREWBERG Fla. 3 BY THOMAS EILINSKI, JR.

ATTORNEY March 23, 1965 G. EHRENBERG ETAL 3,174,166

BOATS AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 28, 1963 INVENTORS GU57 V5 [NEE/V9556 BY THOMA .5 5/1. INSK/ Jfi.

March 23, 1965 G. EHRENBERG ETAL 3,174,155

BOATS AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed Oct. 28, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTORS GUS TAVE EHRENBERG 7' HOMA S BIL INS/(l, JR.

BY M74. 5w

ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,174,166 BGATS AND METHGD 0F MAKING THE SAME Gustave Ehrenberg, Havertown, and Thomas Bilinsld, Jr.,

Levittown, Pa, assignors to Electra Nite, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa, a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed Get. 28, 1963, Ser. No. 319,276 6 Clmms. (Cl. 9-6) In general, this invention relates to new and improved boats and other water craft and a method of manufacturing the same which is simple and easy. More particularly, the invention relates to a simple method of manufacturing a strong lightweight boat which can be accomplished with a minimum of effort.

In the past, boats have been manufactured with closed cell foam material placed within a cast hull to give lightness to the resulting structure. As an alternative, closed cell material was molded in special die molds in the shape of a hull. However, none of these prior art teachings has considered the utilization of a consumable mold or form which becomes part of the hull during the manufacture thereof.

Therefore, it is the general object of this invention to provide a new and improved boat manufactured in a simple and easy manner from a foam material.

Another object of this invention is the manufacture of a new and improved boat of a foam material which forms a consumable mold or the hull.

Still another object of this invention is the provision of a new and better boat which is strong, lightweight, and durable.

Other objects will appear hereinafter.

For the purpose of illustrating the invention, there are shown in the drawings forms which are presently preferred; it being understood, however, that this invention is not limited to the precise arrangements and instrumentalities shown.

FiGURE l is a perspective View of a boat built in accordance with the principles of the present invention.

FIGURE 2 is a top plan view partially broken away of the boat in FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 3 is a cross sectional view of the boat of FIGURE 1 taken along lines 3-3.

FIGURE 4 is a perspective view of a sail boat built in accordance with the principles of the present invention.

FIGURE 5 is a cross sectional view of the sail boat of FTGURE 4 taken along lines 55.

FIGURE 6 is a perspective view of a second type of sail boat built in accordance with the principles of the present invention.

FIGURE 7 is a cross sectional view of the sail boat of FIGURE 6 taken along lines 7--7.

FIGURE 8 is a cross sectional view of the sail boat of FIGURE 6 taken along lines 8-8.

In FIGURE 1, there is shown a boat 11) built in accordance with the principles of the present invention. The boat 11? is built from a plurality of basic materials which are supplied to a home fabricator so that he can put the boat together in a simple and easy manner.

The materials supplied to the home fabricator would include a pair of gunnels 12 and 14 which are channelshaped aluminum extrusions designed to extend the length of the boat. Additionally, a keel 16 would be provided. The keel 16 is a double channel-shaped aluminum extrusion extending the length of the boat. The keel 16 has two channels 18 and 2% extending the length thereof on opposite sides thereof adapted to cooperate respectively with similar channels on gunnels 12 and 14.

Further, the home fabricator would receive a transom 22 of plywood or aluminum which would be connected to the rear end of gunnels 12 and 14 and keel 16. A how 7 ice 24 is provided to .join the front ends of gunnels 12 and 14 with the front end of keel 16.

In order to form the boat, the fabricator will also be supplied with hull sections 28 of Styrofoam or other molded closed cell plastic material having a thickness equal to the width of the channels 18 and 20 and the corresponding channels in gunnels 12 and 14. Thus, the hull sections 28 are intended to be placed perpendicular to the gunnels 12 and 14 and keel 16 with their ends within the channels and abutting other hull sections to form the hull of the boat.

The fabricator boat kit would also include a plurality of fiberglass epoxy rods 30 which are intended to give increased strength to the boat. Other materials which would be included in the kit would be fiberglass cloth, adhesives, impregnants, and assorted hardware for outfitting the boat.

The basic method of fabrication of the boat 14 is as follows:

The frame of the boat including gunnels 12 and 14, keel 16, transom 22 and how 24 are fixed together forming the basic boat shape. The hull sections 28 are then inserted in proper sequence in accordance with their size between channel 18 and gunnel 12 and between channel 21 and gunnel 14 in abutting relation to each other. The hull sections 28 are then smoothed by sanding or other means to form a smooth surface for the hull both within and without the boat.

The fiberglass epoxy rods 38 are then pushed through the hull sections 28 at spaced intervals. These fiberglass rods will give strength to the boat in a direction perpendicular to the hull so as to prevent injury to the hull.

A fiberglass cloth 32 impregnated with an epoxy resin, as by coating the fiberglass cloth by using a spatula or the like, is laminated to the hull sections 28, the epoxy glass rods 30, and the basic frame members both inside and out to form an inner hull surface 34 and an outer hull surface 36 for the boat 10.

The hull can now be sanded and painted if so desired. Once this is completed, the hardware for the boat can be attached and the boat is finished.

It can be easily seen, that the hull sections 28 can be sawed or scraped to form any shaped object and are so light that they can be easily handled. The styrofoam hull sections used to form the hull merely create a mold which in a sense is consumed as it is surrounded by the inner and outer hull. The hull sections 28 have sufficient strength to hold a considerable number of the epoxy im pregnated fiberglass rods 30 in their respective positions while the inner and outer hull surfaces are formed over the styrofo-am. In other words, the Styrofoam hull is a sort of consumable mold or form upon which the boat is built. The form which is used up is of a unicellular structure so that it creates an unsinkable boat. The rods give rigidity and strength between the inner and outer hull surfaces in a simple and easy manner.

In FIGURE 4, there is shown a sail boat built in accordance with the principles of the present invention. The sail boat 38 is built from a single flat sheet 40 of closed cell foam material such as styrofoam which has been shaped in the form of a boat with a fiat stern portion 42 and a bow 44- at the front thereof. In the center of the boat there is initially placed a slot 46 which is to receive a removable keel 48. The single flat sheet 40 with the slot 46 therein has a plurality of rigid epoxy impregnated fiberglass rods 50 pushed therethrough in the same manner as was discussed with respect to FIGURES 1-3. Then, a fiberglass cloth 52 is laminated to the fiat sheet 40 and the rods 50 by the use of epoxy resin impregnants. The fiberglass sheet 52 covers the entire sheet 40 on top and bottom sides and through the slot 46.

. bow 40. A mast 56 for a sail is then removably secured Within the mast support 54.

The removable keel 48 includes a main keel portion 58 having a width equal to the length of the slot 46 and a thickness equal to the space within the slot 46 so that the main keel portion 58 may be slidably engaged with the slot 46. Along the top surface of the main keel portion 58 vthere is provided a limit stop 60' which is in the form of a fiat board having greater dimensions than the dimensions of the slot 46 so that the main keel portion 58 will not fall through the slot 46 but will be held in position by its own weight. A handle 62 secured to the limit stop 60 allows the keel 48 to be removed when the boat 38 is to be transported from one place to another.

Secured to the stern 42 is a suitable rudder 64- removably mounted on the boat 38 adjacent the stern 42. Thus, it can be seen, that the boat 38 is easily transportable and that it can be collapsed to a fiat disposition by merely removing the rudder 64, removing the keel 48 by lifting the same through the slot 46, and removing the mast 56 from the mast support 54.

In FIGURE 6, there is shown a boat 66 exactly similar to the boat 38 with the exception of the mounting of the keel and mast. A keel 68 is provided for the boat 66 exactly similar to the keel 48 shown in FIGURE 4. As more clearly shown in FIGURE 7, the boat 66 has a slot 70 formed therein to receive the slidably removable keel 68. The keel 6S fits within the slot 79. Slot 70 is formed by the provision of a flat plate 72 placed on the top surface of the boat 66 which has a tubular flange 74 at the center thereof extending a distance equal to or slightly greater than the thickness of the boat 66. A bottom plate 76 is placed on the bottom of the boat and has an opening '78 therein for receiving the flange 74. The plates 72 and 76 are spaced from one another by suitable spacers 80 bolted to the plates 72 and 76. The fiberglass sheet 82 overlies the top and bottom metal plates 72 and 76 and is glued thereto by the epoxy resin. It will be understood however that the sheet 82 could be placed between the plates 72 and 76 and the closed cell foam material 84.

The mast 86 is held in place by a suitable mast holder 88 as shown in FIGURE 8. The mast holder 88 includes a tubular mast support 90 welded to a flat bottom plate 92. The flat bottom plate 92 extends the width of the boat 66 so as to give broad support for the mast 86. The flat bottom plate 92 and the mast support 90 are pressed into place by pushing the mast support 90 through the closed cell foam material 84. Then, a flat top plate 94 having a hole 96 therein is fitted over the tubular mast support 90. The flat plate 94 is rigidly spaced from the flat bottom plate 92 by metal spacers 96 which are bolted to the top plate 94 and bottom plate 92. Top plate 94 also extends the width of the boat 66 so as to give broad support for the mast support 90. The fiberglass sheet 82 covers both the bottom flat sheet 92 and the .top flat sheet 94 so as to give a completely smooth outward appearance for the boat 66.

Thus it can be seen, that the embodiments of the present invention have been manufactured in a simple and easy manner utilizing the principles of the method of the present invention.

The present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential attributes theneof and, accordingly, reference should be made to the appended claims, rather than to the foregoing specification as indicating the scope of the invention.

We claim:

1. A boat comprising a closed cell foam structure formed in the shape of a hull having an upper and lower surface, a plurality of spaced rigid reinforcing rods extending through said closed cellfoam structure, each of said reinforcing rods having one end thereof flush with said upper surface and the other end thereof flush with said lower surface, and a cloth sheet bonded to said structure upper and lower surfaces, and to the ends of said rods, a longitudinally extending keel slot extending through said structure from the upper to the lower surface thereof, keel retaining means comprising a flat plate on the upper surface of said structure, a slot in said plate substantially conforming to the keel slot, a tubular flange depending from said plate and extending through said keel slot, a flat bottom plate on the lower surface of said boat, an opening in said bottom plate adapted to receive said tubular flange, spacer means extending between said upper surface plate and said bottom plate in abutting relation therewith, and means for attaching said upper surface plate and bottom plate to said spacer means, and a removable keel fitting within said tubular flange.

2. The boat of claim 1 wherein said cloth sheet is fiberglass and said rigid reinforcing rods are epoxy resin impregnated fiberglass rods, said fiberglass sheet being epoxy resin bonded to said closed cell foam structure and to the ends of said epoxy resin impregnated fiberglass rods.

3. A boat comprising a closed cell foam structure formed in the shape of a hull having an upper and lower surface, a plurality of spaced rigid reinforcing rods extending through said closed foam structure,-each of said reinforcing rods having one end thereof flush with said upper surface and the other end thereof flush with said lower surface, and a cloth sheet bonded to said structure upper and lower surfaces and to the ends of said rods, a mast holder fixedly secured to said boat, said mast holder including a tubular mast support extending from the lower to the upper surface of said hull, a flat-bottomed mast support plate extending across the bottom of said mast support and across the Width of said hull for forming an end wall for said mast support and providing lateral support for said mast holder, and a flat upper mast plate secured to said mast support adjacent the upper surface of said hull and extending across the width of said hull, rigid spacers secured between said fiat upper mast plate and said bottom support mast plate for rigidly spacing said flat upper mast support plate from said flat bottom mast support plate, and means for attaching said upper and bottom mast plate to said spacers.

4. A boat comprising a closed cell foam structure formed in the shape of a hull having an upper and lower surface, a plurality of spaced rigid reinforcing rods extending through said closed cell foam structure, each of said reinforcing rods having one end thereof flush with said upper surface and the other end thereof flush with said lower surface, and a cloth sheet bonded to said structure upper and lower surfaces and to the ends of said rods, a longitudinally extending keel slot extending through said structure from the upper to the lower surface thereof, keel retaining means comprising a flat plate on the upper surface of said structure, a slot in said plate substantially conforming to said keel slot, a tubular flange depending from said plate and extending through said keel slot, a flat bottom plate on the lower surface of said boat, an opening in said bottom plate adapted to receive said tubular flange, spacer means extending between said upper surface plate and said bottom plate in abutting relation therewith, and means for attaching said upper surface plate and bottom plate to said spacer means, a removable keel fitting within said tubular flange, a mast holder fixedly secured to said boat, said mast holder including a tubular mast support extending from the lower to the upper surface of said hull, a flat bottom mast support plate extending across the bottom of said mast support and across the width of said hull for forming an end wall for said mast support providing lateral support for said mast holder, and a flat upper mast plate secured to said mast support adjacent the upper surface of said hull and extending across the width of said hull, rigid spacers secured between said fiat upper mast plate and said bottom support mast plate for rigidly spacing said upper mast plate from said mast bottom plate, and means for attaching said upper and bottom mast plates to said spacers.

5. A method of manufacturing a boat comprising the steps of providing rigid channel-shaped frame members defining the outline of a hull and a keel for said boat, providing hull-shaped closed cell foam sections, pushing rigid reinforcing rods through said sections at spaced points with one end of the rods flush with the inner surface of said sections, and the other end flush with the outer surface of said sections, placing the closed cell foam sections between the rigid frame members and keel within the channel formed thereon, whereby said rigid frame members, keel and said sections form the hull, and adhesively bonding a flexible cloth sheet to the inner and outer surfaces of the sections, to the ends of the rods and to the rigid frame members.

6. The method of manufacturing the boat of claim 5 wherein the step of pushing rigid reinforcing rods through said structure includes the step of pushing epoxy impregnated fiberglass rods, said step of bonding including coating a flexible fiberglass sheet with an epoxy resin, and

applying said flexible fiberglass sheet to said foam structure and to the ends of said rods.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 987,059 3/11 Frampton 96 1,625,579 4/27 Walters 114-39 X 1,761,451 6/ 30 Ohnstrand 96 2,404,594 7/46 Pfleumer 98 2,572,623 10/51 Hoppenstand 96 2,743,465 5/56 Vogel 96 2,744,042 5/56 Pace 161-161 X 3,008,442 11/61 Russell 11439 3,013,922 12/61 Fisher 93 X 3,030,256 4/62 Rosenthal 16l161 X 3,037,220 6/62 Jantzen 11439 X 3,041,220 6/ 62 Martin 161-161 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,123,150 6/56 France.

328,458 5 30 Great Britain.

455,088 10/ 36 Great Britain.

FERGUS S. MIDDLETON, Primary Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A BOAT COMPRISING A CLOSED CELL FOAM STRUCTURE FORMED IN THE SHAPE OF A HULL HAVING AN UPPER AND LOWER SURFACE, A PLURALITY OF SPACED RIGID REINFORCING RODS EXTENDING THROUGH SAID CLOSED CELL FOAM STRUCTURE, EACH OF SAID REINFORCING RODS HAVING ONE END THEREOF FLUSH WITH SAID UPPER SURFACE AND THE OTHER END THEREOF FLUSH WITH SAID LOWER SURFACE, AND A CLOTH SHEET BONDED TO SAID STRUCTURE UPPER AND LOWER SURFACES AND TO THE ENDS OF SAID RODS, A LONGITUDINALLY EXTENDING KEEL SLOT EXTENDING THROUGH SAID STRUCTURE FROM THE UPPER TO THE LOWER SURFACE THEREOF, KEEL RETAINING MEANS COMPRISING A FLAT PLATE ON THE UPPER SURFACE OF SAID STRUCTURE, A SLOT IN SAID PLATE SUBSTANTIALLY CONFORMING TO THE KEEL SLOT, A TUBULAR FLANGE DEPENDING FROM SAID PLATE AND EXTENDING THROUGH SAID KEEL SLOT, A FLAT BOTTOM PLATE ON THE LOWER SURFACE OF SAID BOAT AN OPENING IN SAID BOTTOM PLATE ADAPTED TO RECEIVE SAID TUBULAR FLANGE, SPACER MEANS EXTENDING BETWEEN SAID UPPER SURFACE PLATE AND SAID BOTTOM PLATE IN ABUTTING RELATION THEREWITH, AND MEANS FOR ATTACHING SAID UPPER SURFACE PLATE AND BOTTOM PLATE TO SAID SPACER MEANS, AND A REMOVABLE KEEL FITTING WITHIN SAID TUBULAR FLANGE.
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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3268924A (en) * 1964-09-04 1966-08-30 Jr Ernest B Dane Sandwiched structural surfaces
US3459617A (en) * 1964-09-04 1969-08-05 Ernest B Dane Jr Method for constructing a boat hull
US3593354A (en) * 1969-08-04 1971-07-20 Aeromarine Corp Boat hull construction
US3755063A (en) * 1970-03-09 1973-08-28 Xox Corp Thermoformable laminated structures
US4702187A (en) * 1985-04-01 1987-10-27 Oy Wartsila Ab Bottom construction for a ship
DE3635918A1 (en) * 1986-10-22 1988-04-28 Zander Wolf Dietrich Centreboard case insert for surfboards
US6105532A (en) * 1998-02-17 2000-08-22 Brunswick Corporation RIB, rigid-hull inflatable boat with transom spacer struts permitting flexure and movement
US8281732B1 (en) * 2007-04-30 2012-10-09 Pipe Welders, Inc. Boat conversion towers
USD754562S1 (en) * 2014-03-31 2016-04-26 Patricia F. Harvey Sand and water sleigh
US20170273464A1 (en) * 2016-03-24 2017-09-28 Av Composites Buoyant rigid sunbath and method for making the same

Citations (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US987059A (en) * 1910-10-10 1911-03-14 Franklin W Frampton Boat-hull and ballast means therefor.
US1625579A (en) * 1926-07-14 1927-04-19 Gaco Corp Bathing boat
GB328458A (en) * 1929-05-08 1930-05-01 Samuel Edgar Saunders Improvements in the construction of boats and the like
US1761451A (en) * 1928-01-24 1930-06-03 Ohnstrand Enoch Aluminum boat
GB455088A (en) * 1935-03-13 1936-10-13 Bertram George Calver Improvements in or relating to boats, canoes and such like craft, and methods of making same
US2404594A (en) * 1942-06-06 1946-07-23 Rubatex Products Inc Reinforced buoyant rubber disk
US2572623A (en) * 1946-12-05 1951-10-23 Hoppenstand David Boat structure
US2744042A (en) * 1951-06-21 1956-05-01 Goodyear Tire & Rubber Laminated panels
US2743465A (en) * 1953-12-09 1956-05-01 Vogel Dick Boat and method of making same
FR1123150A (en) * 1955-04-21 1956-09-18 Sailboat light with detachable elements and flat hull and unsinkable
US3008442A (en) * 1959-01-07 1961-11-14 Jr Thomas M Russell Sailing craft
US3013922A (en) * 1957-03-27 1961-12-19 Fisher Pierce Co Inc Manufacture of plastic articles having spaced shells with reinforced foam filling
US3030256A (en) * 1960-03-08 1962-04-17 Rosenthal Harry Reinforced laminated panels with foam core
US3037220A (en) * 1960-02-25 1962-06-05 William L Jantzen Sail-float
US3041220A (en) * 1959-10-09 1962-06-26 Us Rubber Co Laminated boat construction

Patent Citations (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US987059A (en) * 1910-10-10 1911-03-14 Franklin W Frampton Boat-hull and ballast means therefor.
US1625579A (en) * 1926-07-14 1927-04-19 Gaco Corp Bathing boat
US1761451A (en) * 1928-01-24 1930-06-03 Ohnstrand Enoch Aluminum boat
GB328458A (en) * 1929-05-08 1930-05-01 Samuel Edgar Saunders Improvements in the construction of boats and the like
GB455088A (en) * 1935-03-13 1936-10-13 Bertram George Calver Improvements in or relating to boats, canoes and such like craft, and methods of making same
US2404594A (en) * 1942-06-06 1946-07-23 Rubatex Products Inc Reinforced buoyant rubber disk
US2572623A (en) * 1946-12-05 1951-10-23 Hoppenstand David Boat structure
US2744042A (en) * 1951-06-21 1956-05-01 Goodyear Tire & Rubber Laminated panels
US2743465A (en) * 1953-12-09 1956-05-01 Vogel Dick Boat and method of making same
FR1123150A (en) * 1955-04-21 1956-09-18 Sailboat light with detachable elements and flat hull and unsinkable
US3013922A (en) * 1957-03-27 1961-12-19 Fisher Pierce Co Inc Manufacture of plastic articles having spaced shells with reinforced foam filling
US3008442A (en) * 1959-01-07 1961-11-14 Jr Thomas M Russell Sailing craft
US3041220A (en) * 1959-10-09 1962-06-26 Us Rubber Co Laminated boat construction
US3037220A (en) * 1960-02-25 1962-06-05 William L Jantzen Sail-float
US3030256A (en) * 1960-03-08 1962-04-17 Rosenthal Harry Reinforced laminated panels with foam core

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3268924A (en) * 1964-09-04 1966-08-30 Jr Ernest B Dane Sandwiched structural surfaces
US3459617A (en) * 1964-09-04 1969-08-05 Ernest B Dane Jr Method for constructing a boat hull
US3593354A (en) * 1969-08-04 1971-07-20 Aeromarine Corp Boat hull construction
US3755063A (en) * 1970-03-09 1973-08-28 Xox Corp Thermoformable laminated structures
US4702187A (en) * 1985-04-01 1987-10-27 Oy Wartsila Ab Bottom construction for a ship
DE3635918A1 (en) * 1986-10-22 1988-04-28 Zander Wolf Dietrich Centreboard case insert for surfboards
US6105532A (en) * 1998-02-17 2000-08-22 Brunswick Corporation RIB, rigid-hull inflatable boat with transom spacer struts permitting flexure and movement
US8281732B1 (en) * 2007-04-30 2012-10-09 Pipe Welders, Inc. Boat conversion towers
USD754562S1 (en) * 2014-03-31 2016-04-26 Patricia F. Harvey Sand and water sleigh
US20170273464A1 (en) * 2016-03-24 2017-09-28 Av Composites Buoyant rigid sunbath and method for making the same

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