US3152385A - Ceramic tools - Google Patents

Ceramic tools Download PDF

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Publication number
US3152385A
US3152385A US150756A US15075661A US3152385A US 3152385 A US3152385 A US 3152385A US 150756 A US150756 A US 150756A US 15075661 A US15075661 A US 15075661A US 3152385 A US3152385 A US 3152385A
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US
United States
Prior art keywords
cutting
ceramic
tool
tools
tumbling
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US150756A
Inventor
Jr William Maxwell Wheildon
George W Barnes
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Saint Gobain Abrasives Inc
Original Assignee
Norton Co
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Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Norton Co filed Critical Norton Co
Priority to US150756A priority Critical patent/US3152385A/en
Priority claimed from FR914639A external-priority patent/FR1338747A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3152385A publication Critical patent/US3152385A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B27/00Tools for turning or boring machines; Tools of a similar kind in general; Accessories therefor
    • B23B27/14Cutting tools of which the bits or tips or cutting inserts are of special material
    • B23B27/141Specially shaped plate-like cutting inserts, i.e. length greater or equal to width, width greater than or equal to thickness
    • B23B27/145Specially shaped plate-like cutting inserts, i.e. length greater or equal to width, width greater than or equal to thickness characterised by having a special shape
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B2200/00Details of cutting inserts
    • B23B2200/24Cross section of the cutting edge
    • B23B2200/245Cross section of the cutting edge rounded
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B2226/00Materials of tools or workpieces not comprising a metal
    • B23B2226/18Ceramic
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T407/00Cutters, for shaping
    • Y10T407/27Cutters, for shaping comprising tool of specific chemical composition
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T407/00Cutters, for shaping
    • Y10T407/28Miscellaneous

Description

1964 w. M. WHEILDON, JR, ETAL 3,152,385
CERAMIC TOQLS Filed Nov. 7. 1961 INVENTORS- WILL/AM MAXWELL WHEILDONJE. 6502s.: MQYBA ENES TTORN'EY United States Patent ()fifice 3,152,385 Patented Oct. 13, 1964 3,152,335 CERAMIC TOQLS Wilharn Maxwell Wheildon, .lra, Framingham Center,
and George W. Barnes, Templeton, M'ass., assignors to Norton Company, Worcester, Mass, a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Nov. 7, 1961, Ser. No. 150,756 3 Claims. (Cl. 2995) This invention relates to improved ceramic tools for machining metals and non-metals.
Ceramic inserts have recently become more and more widely employed in machining operations. These tools have high heat and wear resistance and are able to cut the newer, harder to machine metals. Production costs in machining operations can be reduced substantially because of the faster rates of cutting possible with ceramic tools as opposed to conventional materials which have been used as cutting tools.
Exemplary of such cutting tools are those described in US. Patent 2,618,567 to Comstock. An improved ceramic tool and method of producing it are described in application Serial No. 113,997 of Whittemore, King and Logan, filed June 1, 1961. Aluminum Oxide tooling to which this invention is applicable are those such as tool bits sold by Vascoloy-Ramet Corporation, Waukegan, Illinois, under the designation JR-97.
As indicated above, ceramic inserts have certain advantages in machine cutting of certain materials such as hard to machine metalse.g. metals which heretofore had to be ground because of the lack of a suitable cutting tool material. Ceramic tools are, for example, usable at cutting speeds of 1000' to 2000 surface feet per minute whereas carbide tools are generally limited to speeds up to 1000 surface feet per minute. Although having higher heat and wear resistance than carbide cutting elements, ceramic inserts or cutting tools are more rittle and shock sensitive than the conventional materials (such as cemented carbides).
It is therefore an object of this invention to improve the stock resistance and lasting qualities of ceramic cutting elements.
It has been found that by carefully controlling the geometry of ceramic inserts an improved cutting tool having much greater durability at no sacrifice in cutting characteristics is achieved.
In particular it has been found that if the cutting edges of these tool elements are provided with a convex land, having a small radius of curvature, a greatly improved result is achieved in terms of durability of ruggedness of the element.
It has also been found that a radius of the desired character may be produced by a tumbling operation. T umbling not only produces the precise convex land which improves the cutting characteristics of the tool, but also is an efficient way of producing such a result.
The invention will now be described in greater detail with reference to the accompanying drawing in which FIGURE 1 is an enlarged view of a ceramic tool insert according to our invention, and FIGURE 2 is a partial section taken in the direction 22 indicated in FIG- URE 1.
The shape of the element shown in FIGURE 1 is arbitrarily chosen since the tools may be cylindrical, triangular, square or diamond shaped or some irregular shape as desired. Other shapes than those listed may of course be employed depending upon the holder in which the insert is positioned and upon the particular job for which the tool is to be employed.
The cutting edges of the tool I!) are provided with a convex land 11 having a radius of curvature of from less than .002" to .012", as is more clearly shown in FIGURE 2.
The manufacture of the tools of this invention, the starting material, which is alumina which may contain additives such as magnesia to control crystal growth and/ or small amounts of other additives to modify the physical characteristics of the product, is molded by a hot pressing technique such as taught in the patent to Ballard, No. 2,538,959, or in the copending application Serial No. 113,997 of Whittemore, King and Logan. After molding, the article is ground to the proper shape. After grinding, the cutting edges where planes Of the tool meet are sharp edges. Prior practice required that a 30 to 60 flat land be honed on such edges to prevent chipping of the tool. Such an operation was ordinarily performed by hand honing.
It has been discovered that instead of a sharp cutting edge and instead of a chamfercd edge, a dull convex edge having a radius of curvature of from less than .002" to .012" produces best results for a ceramic cutting tool. Although theoretically it is possible to produce such an edge by precise grinding of the tool, the best and most eflicient method of producing the convex land is by a tumbling operation.
Tumbling, for the purposes of this invention, may be defined as an abrading process where the work to be abraded is in more or less random motion in contact with loose abrasive particles. The operation is conventionally performed (and may for the purposes of this invention be performed) by placing a large number of the articles to be finished in a revolving barrel with a charge of abrasive grains and balls or blocks of various materials. The desired results are obtained by adjusting the many vmiables such as type, size, and speed of the barrel, kind and size of abrasive, load in the barrel, length of time tumbled, etc.
Instead of a drum simply rotating on its own axis, a more complex rotation in which the drum rotates on a mandrel in a direction opposite to its am'al rotation may be employed. Such tumbling equipment is sold under the trademark Harperizer and may be purchased from the Harper Buffing Machine Company, East Hampton, Connecticut.
Instead of rotational tumbling vibrational tumbling may be employed in attaining the desired geometry on the cutting tools. In such an operation the container may be either a tub machine (U shaped) or a horizontal octagonal container. The action is a constant movement of the entire mass of abrasive, workpieces, compound, and liquid. The vibration frequency usually ranges from 900 to 3600 vibrations per minute.
An example of the formation of convex edge lands, and control of the radii is as follows.
Cutting edge radius Tumbling media used were as follows:
25 pounds random shaped 8 grit size aluminum oxide grains; 1 pound grit size silicon carbide grains; 1 quart of water.
The tumbling media and the ceramic tools were placed in a standard 6" long 12 diameter octagonal barrel on a horizontal shaft which was rotated at 6 to 8 revolutions per minute.
The particular geometry of the ceramic insert will vary with the material to be cut and the rate of cut. The tool illustrated in FIGURE 1 may have cutting edge lands having radii of between .002 or less and .012, as previ- Z5 ously indicated to be the desirable range of radii for the cutting edges, and a nose radius 12 of The nose radius is not critical and, in the case of a disc shaped insert, there will of course be no nose radius.
In tests on both hard or soft steels ceramic tool bits having tumbled edge lands were found to last on the average from 2 to 6 times as long as ceramic tools bits having a fiat land ground on the cutting edge.
What is claimed is:
1. A method of improving the shock resistance and chip resistance of ceramic cutting tools comprising form ing a convex land on the cutting edges of said tools by tumbling with loose abrasive particles.
2. A ceramic cutting tool having at least one cutting edge thereon, said edge having a convex land thereon formed by tumbling with loose abrasive particles and having a radius of curvature of from .002" to .012".
3. A method of producing a convex land on the edge of a brittle cutting tool comprising tumbling the tool with loose abrasive particles for a period of from 12 to 90 hours.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,070,156 De Bats Feb. 9, 1937 2,130,684 Hintermeyer Sept. 20, 1938 2,831,240 Maurer Apr. 22, 1958 2,979,805 Johnson Apr. 18, 1961 3,078,546 Kiernan Feb. 26, 1963

Claims (1)

  1. 2. A CERAMIC CUTTING TOOL HAVING AT LEAST ONE CUTTING EDGE THEREON, SAID EDGE HAVING A CONVEX LAND THEREON FORMED BY TUMBLING WITH LOOSE ABRASIVE PARTICLES AND HAVING A RADIUS OF CURVATURE OF FROM .002" TO .012".
US150756A 1961-11-07 1961-11-07 Ceramic tools Expired - Lifetime US3152385A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US150756A US3152385A (en) 1961-11-07 1961-11-07 Ceramic tools

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US150756A US3152385A (en) 1961-11-07 1961-11-07 Ceramic tools
GB3851262A GB953287A (en) 1961-11-07 1962-10-11 Ceramic tools
FR914639A FR1338747A (en) 1961-11-07 1962-11-07 Cutting tool of ceramic nature

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US3152385A true US3152385A (en) 1964-10-13

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GB (1) GB953287A (en)

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3350972A (en) * 1964-12-18 1967-11-07 Du Pont Low friction punch tool
US3871092A (en) * 1972-12-08 1975-03-18 Feldmuehle Anlagen Prod Cutting tool
US3929044A (en) * 1972-10-16 1975-12-30 Roulements Soc Nouvelle Cutting wheels for the isostatic cutting of pieces, notably from tubes
US3973307A (en) * 1974-11-29 1976-08-10 Kennametal Inc. Cutting insert
US4203690A (en) * 1975-05-23 1980-05-20 Ngk Spark Plug Co., Ltd. Ceramic cutting tip
FR2469235A1 (en) * 1979-11-15 1981-05-22 Snecma CUTTING INSERT SUITABLE FOR MACHINING REFRACTORY MATERIALS
US4570838A (en) * 1982-09-14 1986-02-18 Magyar Optikai Muvek Ampoule opener
US4674365A (en) * 1983-07-27 1987-06-23 Spectra Products Corporation Method for extending the life of a cutting tool
JPH0253302U (en) * 1988-10-12 1990-04-17
EP0364938A2 (en) * 1988-10-20 1990-04-25 Konica Corporation Method of manufacturing a photoreceptor
EP0409143A2 (en) * 1989-07-18 1991-01-23 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Cutting-off tool
EP0621090A1 (en) * 1993-03-30 1994-10-26 Alusuisse-Lonza Services Ag Extrusion tool
US5477054A (en) * 1991-04-30 1995-12-19 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Denture curing apparatus and method
US5553518A (en) * 1994-07-21 1996-09-10 Akemi, Inc. Industrial tool for forming metal having a thermoplastic honeycomb core
EP1093875A1 (en) * 1998-10-22 2001-04-25 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Cutting insert with polycrystalline hard sintered material
US20050226695A1 (en) * 2004-04-13 2005-10-13 Karleugen Laegler Milling disk for a floor machining appliance
US20080227620A1 (en) * 2007-03-12 2008-09-18 Sandvik Intellectual Property Ab Ceramic cutting insert and method of making same
JP2014117775A (en) * 2012-12-17 2014-06-30 Mitsubishi Materials Corp Cutting insert

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2070156A (en) * 1934-07-25 1937-02-09 Howard W Dix Tool and method of making same
US2130684A (en) * 1936-10-30 1938-09-20 Heald Machine Co Method of forming a cutting tool
US2831240A (en) * 1955-05-16 1958-04-22 Maurer William Compound duplex cutting tool bit
US2979805A (en) * 1957-07-01 1961-04-18 George B Johnson Cut-off tool
US3078546A (en) * 1960-06-13 1963-02-26 Bruce E Kiernan Cutting tool

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2070156A (en) * 1934-07-25 1937-02-09 Howard W Dix Tool and method of making same
US2130684A (en) * 1936-10-30 1938-09-20 Heald Machine Co Method of forming a cutting tool
US2831240A (en) * 1955-05-16 1958-04-22 Maurer William Compound duplex cutting tool bit
US2979805A (en) * 1957-07-01 1961-04-18 George B Johnson Cut-off tool
US3078546A (en) * 1960-06-13 1963-02-26 Bruce E Kiernan Cutting tool

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3350972A (en) * 1964-12-18 1967-11-07 Du Pont Low friction punch tool
US3929044A (en) * 1972-10-16 1975-12-30 Roulements Soc Nouvelle Cutting wheels for the isostatic cutting of pieces, notably from tubes
US3871092A (en) * 1972-12-08 1975-03-18 Feldmuehle Anlagen Prod Cutting tool
US3973307A (en) * 1974-11-29 1976-08-10 Kennametal Inc. Cutting insert
US4203690A (en) * 1975-05-23 1980-05-20 Ngk Spark Plug Co., Ltd. Ceramic cutting tip
FR2469235A1 (en) * 1979-11-15 1981-05-22 Snecma CUTTING INSERT SUITABLE FOR MACHINING REFRACTORY MATERIALS
EP0029764A1 (en) * 1979-11-15 1981-06-03 Societe Nationale D'etude Et De Construction De Moteurs D'aviation, "S.N.E.C.M.A." Cutting bit adapted for the machining of refractory material
US4570838A (en) * 1982-09-14 1986-02-18 Magyar Optikai Muvek Ampoule opener
US4674365A (en) * 1983-07-27 1987-06-23 Spectra Products Corporation Method for extending the life of a cutting tool
JPH0253302U (en) * 1988-10-12 1990-04-17
EP0364938A2 (en) * 1988-10-20 1990-04-25 Konica Corporation Method of manufacturing a photoreceptor
EP0364938A3 (en) * 1988-10-20 1991-01-02 Konica Corporation Method of manufacturing a photoreceptor
EP0409143A3 (en) * 1989-07-18 1991-04-17 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Cutting-off tool
EP0409143A2 (en) * 1989-07-18 1991-01-23 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Cutting-off tool
US5477054A (en) * 1991-04-30 1995-12-19 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Denture curing apparatus and method
EP0621090A1 (en) * 1993-03-30 1994-10-26 Alusuisse-Lonza Services Ag Extrusion tool
US5553518A (en) * 1994-07-21 1996-09-10 Akemi, Inc. Industrial tool for forming metal having a thermoplastic honeycomb core
EP1093875A1 (en) * 1998-10-22 2001-04-25 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Cutting insert with polycrystalline hard sintered material
US20050226695A1 (en) * 2004-04-13 2005-10-13 Karleugen Laegler Milling disk for a floor machining appliance
US7104739B2 (en) * 2004-04-13 2006-09-12 Eugen Laegler Gmbh Milling disk for a floor machining appliance
US20080227620A1 (en) * 2007-03-12 2008-09-18 Sandvik Intellectual Property Ab Ceramic cutting insert and method of making same
EP1970158A3 (en) * 2007-03-12 2010-11-17 Sandvik Intellectual Property AB Ceramic cutting insert
CN101450862B (en) * 2007-03-12 2014-04-09 山特维克知识产权股份有限公司 Ceramic cutting insert
US9238285B2 (en) * 2007-03-12 2016-01-19 Sandvik Intellectual Property Ab Ceramic cutting insert and method of making same
JP2014117775A (en) * 2012-12-17 2014-06-30 Mitsubishi Materials Corp Cutting insert

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