US3077364A - Stadium seating structure - Google Patents

Stadium seating structure Download PDF

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US3077364A
US3077364A US842646A US84264659A US3077364A US 3077364 A US3077364 A US 3077364A US 842646 A US842646 A US 842646A US 84264659 A US84264659 A US 84264659A US 3077364 A US3077364 A US 3077364A
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standards
seating
standard
securing
seat
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US842646A
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Reno P Eppink
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CALIFORNIA CHURCH FURNITURE Co
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CALIFORNIA CHURCH FURNITURE CO
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47BTABLES; DESKS; OFFICE FURNITURE; CABINETS; DRAWERS; GENERAL DETAILS OF FURNITURE
    • A47B91/00Feet for furniture in general
    • A47B91/08Feet for furniture in general connected to the floor

Description

Feb. 12, 1963 R. P. EPPINK STADIUM SEATING STRUCTURE Filed Sept. 28, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 15 01. 3 g D 6 '30 30 5T i/m 44/ g rm A 7 TOIENE Y5.

Feb. 12, 1963 R. P. EPPINK 3,077,364

STADIUM SEATING STRUCTURE Filed Sept. 28, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 1 VENTOR. E/V0 P. pm/K k/m 401/ %L 147701NEY$ United States Patent Ofifice 3,fi?7,3h4 Patented Feb. 12, 1963 3,077,364 STADIUM iEATiNG STRUCTURE Reno P. Eppink, Whittier, Calif. California Church Furniture Co, 11900 Center St, Hollydale, Calif.) Filed Sept. 28, 1959, Ser. No. 842,646 2 Claims. (Cl. 297-248) This invention relates to stadium seating structure and the like.

Spectators demand and deserve seating that provides more comfort than heretofore. One of the primary objects of this invention is to provide an improved stadium seating structure that, while utilizing durable and inexpensive elements, achieves a substantial measure of comfort.

In spectator seating, there are generally aisles that radiate from the common center of activity. Usually, the rows of seating are curved so that, without discontinuity, the center of activity is ultimately encircled. Since the radius of curvature is usually quite large, and the curvature correspondingly small, it has been convenient in the past for manufacturers of stadium seating to consider the rows actually straight, rather than curved. Seating made to rectilinear dimensions then was forced to conform to the slight curvature of the supporting structure of the stadium. Slight stresses, unfortunately, accumulate and, typically, the end seat tends to pull away from the supporting structure, or actually, to rupture. As the seating is used over an extended period of time, the stresses created due to the curvature of the support exert their telling effect, and fatigue failure, due to this cause, occurs. Naturally, expensive precautions could be taken. Generally, this would mean fitting each row of seating to the various and diverse curvatures. An object of this invention accordingly is to overcome these disadvantages by providing a seating structure that conforms to curvatures, if necessary.

The usual radiating character of stadium aisles also creates a second problem. The length of successive rows increases as the distance from the center of activity in creases. Unfortunately, incremental row length is not necessarily uniform and furthermore, the incremental length does not necessarily correspond to the standard width of a seat or a multiple thereof. In the past, and in order to maintain the desired uniform aisle width, oversized seats may be substituted, under-sized seats added, or the like. Obviously, this means the duplication of equivalent elements and elaborate fitting jobs. An object of this invention is to provide a seating structure that incorporates by virtue of its very construction, the necessary means for achieving the effective variation in the length of the arc constituting a row, and without requiring any parts of non-standard sizes.

Another objective of this invention is to provide an improved stadium seating structure that comprises, in essence, a series of spaced and separate seat supporting standards (whereby various adjustments above-mentioned may be accomplished), and a series of seat structures, each arranged and suspended between a pair of standards.

Another object of this invention is to provide a unique manner of supporting the standards so that they can be placed at any desired adjusted position along the seating rows.

Another object of this invention is to provide a supporting structure that does not complicate the building of the stadium foundation. Thus, no exact measurements are required, and no tedious operations are required.

Another object of this invention is to provide a unique seating structure that leaves the floor unobstructed for cleaning the structure being carried entirely on the vertical face of the drop between rows. The height of the step face is quite small, whereby the versitility of the support is maximized.

This invention possesses many other advantages, and has other objects which may be made more clearly apparent from a consideration of one embodiment of the invention. For this purpose, there is shown a form in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the present specification. This form will now be described in detail, illustrating the general principles of the invention; but it is to be understood that this detailed description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, since the scope of this invention is best defined by the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings:

FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary front elevation of a stadium seating structure incorporating my invention;

FIG. 2 is an end view showing successive rows of seating structures in a typical installation;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged sectional view taken along a plane indicated by line 3-3 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a further enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken along a plane indicated by line 4-4 of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a pictorial view of a strap that supports the seat back and FIG. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary view of a portion of the structure taken on line 66 of FIG. 3.

In FIG. 1, a series of seats A, B, C, and D are illustrated along a row in a stadium. The seats A, B, C, D, etc., are supported between spaced standards 10 that are respectively secured along the vertical step face 12 (see also FIG. 2) of the cast concrete stadium foundation 14.

The seating structure can be used with stadiums made of other materials, but the special provisions, to be described hereinafter, serve as a unique means for supporting the seating structure.

Each standard id is made of tubular lightweight material for the purposes of maximum strength per unit of weight. In the present instance, the standards 10 are made of square section aluminum alloy.

Each standard 1t} illustrated in FIG. 2 includes a vertical leg 16, the upper end 16a of which angies rearwardly from a point 18. The rearward inclination of the upper end 16a serves as a means for achieving a comfortable orientation of the seat back. The lower portion of the leg 16 is intended to abut the vertical step face 12, the length of the leg to the point 18 being adequate to allow for step faces of substantial height.

integrally joined to the vertical leg 16 is a generally C-shaped arm 20. The end of the upper portion 22 of the arm 20 is welded to the leg adjacent the point 18, and the end of the lower portion 24 of the arm 20 is welded to the leg 16 adjacent a point spaced substantially above the lower end of the leg 16. By virtue of this construction, the floor area 26 of the stadium 15 is maintained entirely clear for sweeping or cleaning. Thus, in a manner to be described hereinafter, the leg 16, which in fact is the only leg for the seating structure, forms the sole means of attachment to the stadium foundation.

The upper portion 22. of the arm 20 forms a rest for the arms of the spectator in a conventional manner.

Each seat is of two-part construction, comprising a fixed back 28 and a foldable seat rest 23. Both are made of molded two-ply Fiberglas or like material.

The back 28 is supported between adjacent standards 10 by the aid of upper and lower brackets 30 and 32 at each side. Each bracket 30 (FIG. 5) is in the form of a strap, the central portion of which is affixed (FIG. 3) to the rear face of the leg 15 adjacent the upper end thereof. In the present example, a self-tapping screw 34 secures the strap to the leg 16. The ends or cars of the bracket 30 project laterally on opposite sides of the.

standard 10, and provide slots 35 (FIG. 5) elongated horizontally. The lower brackets 32 are similarly formed. Hence, between each pair of adjacent standards, four ears are available for mounting the seat back 28. Bolts 36 (FIG. 5), extending rearwardly through apertures in the back 28, extend through the slots 35 (see also FIG. 5). Nuts 38 serve to fasten the back 28 in position.

The lower brackets 32 are located forwardly of the upper brackets 31!? by virtue of rearward inclination of the upper end 16a of the standard legs 16. Accordingly, a rearward tilt of the seat back 28 is provided, the extent of tilt being subject to variation by the provision of various brackets having different configurations. For example, the lower brackets 32 have their central portions substantially offset, whereby the ears of the brackets slant downwardly and forwardly (FIG. 3). A greater inclination is thus provided.

The offset furthermore causes an interengagement with the legs 16 that stabilizes the seat back against angular movement.

Each leg 16 or standard mounts one upper bracket 30 and one lower bracket 32, opposite ends of the brackets supporting edges of the adjacent seats. Brackets 3th and 32' for the end standard it? are equivalent to th brackets 3d and 32, except that the ends that would otherwise project into the aisle are omitted.

The seat rests 2% are mounted by a pair of pivot brackets 4% whereby the seat rest 29 can be raised out of the Way, or lowered when it is to be used.

The aisle standard 16 (FIG. 1) supports one pivot bracket 40 on its inner side, and the next standard It) supports a pair of brackets MB on opposite sides, one of which cooperates with the bracket of the aisle standard to support the seat rest 29 of the seat A. The pivot bracket 46 includes a bearing 44 (FIGS. 3 and 6) and a generally triangular arm 46 mounted thereon for angular movement about an appropriately situated horizontal axis 4%. Appropriate means, such as a pin 50 and a slot 52 of the respective parts, determines limited angular positions of the arm 46.

The bearing 44 is mounted upon a strap 54, in turn Supported at its ends by the upwardly slanting intermediate portion 56 of the standard arm 2%, and the intermediate portion of the standard leg 16. Self-tapping screws 58 are provided for securing the strap. The companion and other brackets are otherwise secured.

The pivot bracket arms 46 have integrally formed peripheral flanges 60 that provide strength and rigidity. The upper contour of the bracket arm 46 is formed to conform with and thereby provide a support for the contoured seat rest 29. Slots 62 (PEG. 6) in the upper flange of the arm 46 receive bolts 64 passing downward- 1y through the seat 29, nuts 66 fastening the bolts 64 to the flange 69. Obviously slight variations in the spacing of the standards it can be tolerated by the slots, just as in connection with the brackets 30 and 32. Hence, all of the seat rests and backs are made in one size only, yet the number of seats can be adjusted to fit a given length of a stadium row, assuming of course that the row is at least of moderate length. No problem is created by virtue of any variation in row length.

The bearings 44 tolerate slight departures from true parallel relationship of successive standards. Hence, slight curvatures of the stadium do not affect appropriate coaction of the sets of bearings 44. The adjustable mounting of the seat rests and backs allows for slight curvatures.

In FIG. 3, the phantom lines illustrate the seat rest 29 in raised position such as for cleaning purposes.

In place of the pivot bracket on the aisle side of the end standard 10, a special insert 68 (FIG. 2) is provided. This insert fits substantially flush with the lower portion of the opening defined by the C-shaped arm and provides a finished appearance, concealing the strap 54. Furthermore, the insert 68 provides a support at which an aisle light 70 and row number or letter may be accommodated.

If desired, two standards could be provided for each seat, in which case separate arm rests would be available for each seat. In such circumstances, separate chairs would in essence be provided for suspension along the stadium rows.

The legs 16 are supported solely by the aid of the step faces 12. Where the step faces are relatively high, adequate fastening can be obtained by a few explosively propelled concrete nails located along the length of the leg 16. However, where the step face is of relatively small height, other means must be provided. In such in stances, a clamp structure 72 for each leg 16 (see FIGS. 3 and 4) is provided. This clamp structure is horizontally adjustable along the face 12, by virtue of a horizontally extending dovetail slot 78, opening in the face 12.

The clamp structure includes a belt or screw 74 that projects outwardly of the slot 78 to serve as an anchoring means for the leg 16. The bolt 74 is limited again-st movement outwardly of the step face by a bar 76. The bar 7 6 is accommodated on the bolt 74, and is prevented from moving off the end of the bolt by the bolt head 75. The bar 76 extends along dovetail slot 78. The slot 78 as an opening 80 that is uniformly accessible along the entire length of the step face 12, as illustrated clearly in FIG. 1. The height of the mouth or opening 80, however, is less than the length of the bar 76, although the slot 78 is quite adequate by virtue of its dovetail taper to accommodate the bar 76. The sloping upper and lower walls 84 and 32 ther-of accordingly form a wedge at which the bar 76 is lodged. The bar, of course, is easily inserted by longitudinal alignment with the dovetail slot 78, the bar being rotated to operative position after insertion.

The bolt or screw 74 passes through apertures 77 of the leg 16, and an aperture 87 of an elongated U-shaped bracket 86 that fits the outer surface of the leg 16. A nut 83 is accommodated on the threaded end 90 of the bolt 74. As it is tightened, it tends to move the bolt 74 outwardly, but the bar 76 by engagement with the dovetail slot 73 prevents this. Hence, the nut 88 causes a force to be applied firmly, urging the leg 16 into contact with the step face 12.

The leg 16 is held rigidly against the step face '12 throughout its length, and exceptional stability is provided. Since the slot 78 extends uniformly along the entire length of the step face, obviously the standards can be located at any desired position. Accordingly, it is a simple matter to modify the spacing of the standards to allow for varying the lengths of successive rows. Curvature of the step face is immaterial since the standards are not connected together. Furthermore, the slot 78 is located only a slight distance above the floor 26. This means that the leg 16 adequately and properly can be secured in position for various heights of step faces. This, of course, is a variable, allowance for which is unnecessary by virtue of the present construction.

The slot 7 8 may be formed by the aid of a sheet metal channel, nailed in place to the forms prior to actual pouring of the concrete foundation 14. Precise tolerances in the location of the channel are unnecesary. The leg 16 can be drilled at the site, and the clamps operate even if the slot departs from horizontal.

The seat rests 29 and backs 28 are preferably provided with apertures 92 (FIG. 1), the edges of which are curved downwardly to avoid harsh contact with the person or a cushion resting on the seat rest. These apertures 92 provide suitable drainage of moisture for quick drying from weather or cleaning processes. At the same time, the apertures 92 provide ventilation for maximum comfort.

In outdoor installations, the seating structure is desir-ably finished with dull paint in order to avoid glare.

The inventor claims:

1. In a seating structure cooperable with a stadium foundation having step faces: a plurality of seat members; a plurality of standards; securing means extending substantially uniformly along the length of each step face; an element for each of said standards cooperating with said securing means at any position therealong and rigidiy securing the corresponding standard at any desired position along the step face; means which are operable independently of variations in the spacing of adjacent standards for securing the sides of said seat members respectively to the said standards, so that the entire row.' of seats may be adapted to length variations, said securing means comprising a groove formed in the step face, the mouth of which has a height less than the maximum height of the groove, and in which the companion element is a clamp comprising a member having a first pant received in the groove and a second part projecting out of the groove, and means reacting against the second part and the standard for clamping the standard against the step face while the first part is caused to engage the groove.

2. In a seating structure cooperable with a stadium foundation having step faces; a plurality of seat members; a plurality of standards; securing means extending substantially uniformly along the length of each step face; an element for each of said standards cooperating with said securing means at any position therealong and rigidly securing the corresponding standard at any desired posi- \tion along the step face; means which are operable independently of variations in the spacing of adjacent standards for se tiring the sides of said seat members respectively to the said standards, so that the entire row of seats may be adapted to length variations, said securing means comprising a groove formed in the step face, the month of which has a height less than the maximum height of the groove, and in which the companion element is a clamp comprising a threaded member extending through the standard, and a bar attached to the threaded member and wedged in the groove.

Reierenees titted in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 931,821 Wanner Aug. 24, 1909 1,145,340 allace July 6, 1915 1,237,850 Wiils Aug. 21, 1917 1,922,582 Goodrich Aug. 15, 1933 1,998,668 Gedris Apr. 23, 1935 2,113,103 Yost Apr. 5, 1938 2,215,127 Merrill Sept. 17, 1940 2,246,160 Yost June 17, 1941 2,568,896 Morgan et a1 Sept. 25, 1951 2,582,599 Nordrnark Jan. 15, 1952 2,737,230 Mackintosh Mar. 6, 1956 2,921,622 Henrikson et al. Ian. 19, 1960 FOREEGN PATENTS 252,882 Great Britain June 10, 1926 930,106 Germany July 11, 1955 952,555 Germany Nov. 15, 1956 958,505 Germany Feb. 21, 1957

Claims (1)

1. IN A SEATING STRUCTURE COOPERABLE WITH A STADIUM FOUNDATION HAVING STEP FACES: A PLURALITY OF SEAT MEMBERS; A PLURALITY OF STANDARDS; SECURING MEANS EXTENDING SUBSTANTIALLY UNIFORMLY ALONG THE LENGTH OF EACH STEP FACE; AN ELEMENT FOR EACH OF SAID STANDARDS COOPERATING WITH SAID SECURING MEANS AT ANY POSITION THEREALONG AND RIGIDLY SECURING THE CORRESPONDING STANDARD AT ANY DESIRED POSITION ALONG THE STEP FACE; MEANS WHICH ARE OPERABLE INDEPENDENTLY OF VARIATIONS IN THE SPACING OF ADJACENT STANDARDS FOR SECURING THE SIDES OF SAID SEAT MEMBERS RESPECTIVELY TO THE SAID STANDARDS, SO THAT THE ENTIRE ROW OF SEATS MAY BE ADAPTED TO LENGTH VARIATIONS, SAID SECURING MEANS COMPRISING A GROOVE FORMED IN THE STEP FACE, THE MOUTH OF WHICH HAS A HEIGHT LESS THAN THE MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF THE GROOVE, AND IN WHICH THE COMPANION ELEMENT IS A CLAMP COMPRISING A MEMBER HAVING A FIRST PART RECEIVED IN THE GROOVE AND A SECOND PART PROJECTING OUT OF THE GROOVE, AND MEANS REACTING AGAINST THE SECOND PART AND THE STANDARD FOR CLAMPING THE STANDARD AGAINST THE STEP FACE WHILE THE FIRST PART IS CAUSED TO ENGAGE THE GROOVE.
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Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3156502A (en) * 1963-01-11 1964-11-10 Arlington Seating Co Seat structures
US3297359A (en) * 1964-10-14 1967-01-10 Douglas James Bruce Theatre seat with folding arm tablet
US3347593A (en) * 1966-04-18 1967-10-17 Cramer Ind Inc Spectator seating structure
US3482874A (en) * 1968-03-13 1969-12-09 North American Aluminum Corp Stadium bench
US3619004A (en) * 1969-12-23 1971-11-09 American Seating Co Cantilever seat structure
US3638998A (en) * 1969-08-28 1972-02-01 Paul G Anderson Stadium chair with folding seat
US3655239A (en) * 1968-09-12 1972-04-11 Ettore Agosti Chair having identical and interchangeable seat and backrest
US3785600A (en) * 1972-01-25 1974-01-15 1P Ind Chimica Arredamento S P Adjustable mounting assemblies for groups of seats in aircraft or other vehicles
US4000586A (en) * 1973-04-11 1977-01-04 American Seating Company System for mounting articles to telescopic structures
US4052101A (en) * 1975-07-07 1977-10-04 Delong David C Stadium riser individual seat, support and armrest with common seat-row backrest
WO1998002065A1 (en) * 1996-07-11 1998-01-22 Donnelly Brian F Seat for elderly and disabled
USD422426S (en) * 1998-08-18 2000-04-11 LifeSpan Furnishings, L.L.C. Stackable seat
USD433577S (en) * 1999-03-01 2000-11-14 LifeSpan Furnishings, L.L.C. Chair
US6293621B1 (en) * 1999-06-07 2001-09-25 All Star Bleachers Gravity lift chair
US20030102703A1 (en) * 2000-08-28 2003-06-05 Alex Tenenboym Theater seat assembly
US6582020B1 (en) 2000-08-28 2003-06-24 Greystone International, Inc. Theater seat assembly
US20040084943A1 (en) * 2002-07-08 2004-05-06 Fisher Adam William Chair or seat
US7303235B1 (en) * 2004-01-20 2007-12-04 Preferred Engineering Chair for venues with tiered seating

Citations (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US931821A (en) * 1908-02-11 1909-08-24 Albert Wanner Jr Opera-chair.
US1145340A (en) * 1914-05-20 1915-07-06 James Wallace Theater and like chair.
US1237850A (en) * 1915-08-30 1917-08-21 American Seating Co Adjustable chair.
GB252882A (en) * 1925-05-22 1926-06-10 Charles Mercer Improvements in or in connection with seats such as are used in cinemas, theatres and like places
US1922582A (en) * 1930-09-10 1933-08-15 Goodrich Anne Austelle Folding desk, chair, and the like
US1998668A (en) * 1933-06-19 1935-04-23 William A Gedris Adjustable seat construction
US2113103A (en) * 1937-05-26 1938-04-05 American Seating Co Seat structure
US2215127A (en) * 1939-09-08 1940-09-17 American Seating Co Seat pivot
US2246160A (en) * 1938-10-31 1941-06-17 American Seating Co Chair
US2568896A (en) * 1947-06-20 1951-09-25 American Seating Co Riser type stadium chair
US2582599A (en) * 1947-08-06 1952-01-15 American Seating Co Seat mounting for theater chairs or the like
DE930106C (en) * 1947-01-31 1955-07-11 Gaumont Kalee Seating Ltd Folding armchair for row seating
US2737230A (en) * 1953-06-15 1956-03-06 Mackintosh Charles Row of nesting chairs
DE952555C (en) * 1951-10-10 1956-11-15 Armin Wirth Row connection for chairs
DE958505C (en) * 1952-08-12 1957-02-21 Fritz Drabert Dr Ing Single column chair with height-adjustable seat and backrest
US2921622A (en) * 1958-04-14 1960-01-19 American Seating Co Chair

Patent Citations (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US931821A (en) * 1908-02-11 1909-08-24 Albert Wanner Jr Opera-chair.
US1145340A (en) * 1914-05-20 1915-07-06 James Wallace Theater and like chair.
US1237850A (en) * 1915-08-30 1917-08-21 American Seating Co Adjustable chair.
GB252882A (en) * 1925-05-22 1926-06-10 Charles Mercer Improvements in or in connection with seats such as are used in cinemas, theatres and like places
US1922582A (en) * 1930-09-10 1933-08-15 Goodrich Anne Austelle Folding desk, chair, and the like
US1998668A (en) * 1933-06-19 1935-04-23 William A Gedris Adjustable seat construction
US2113103A (en) * 1937-05-26 1938-04-05 American Seating Co Seat structure
US2246160A (en) * 1938-10-31 1941-06-17 American Seating Co Chair
US2215127A (en) * 1939-09-08 1940-09-17 American Seating Co Seat pivot
DE930106C (en) * 1947-01-31 1955-07-11 Gaumont Kalee Seating Ltd Folding armchair for row seating
US2568896A (en) * 1947-06-20 1951-09-25 American Seating Co Riser type stadium chair
US2582599A (en) * 1947-08-06 1952-01-15 American Seating Co Seat mounting for theater chairs or the like
DE952555C (en) * 1951-10-10 1956-11-15 Armin Wirth Row connection for chairs
DE958505C (en) * 1952-08-12 1957-02-21 Fritz Drabert Dr Ing Single column chair with height-adjustable seat and backrest
US2737230A (en) * 1953-06-15 1956-03-06 Mackintosh Charles Row of nesting chairs
US2921622A (en) * 1958-04-14 1960-01-19 American Seating Co Chair

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3156502A (en) * 1963-01-11 1964-11-10 Arlington Seating Co Seat structures
US3297359A (en) * 1964-10-14 1967-01-10 Douglas James Bruce Theatre seat with folding arm tablet
US3347593A (en) * 1966-04-18 1967-10-17 Cramer Ind Inc Spectator seating structure
US3482874A (en) * 1968-03-13 1969-12-09 North American Aluminum Corp Stadium bench
US3655239A (en) * 1968-09-12 1972-04-11 Ettore Agosti Chair having identical and interchangeable seat and backrest
US3638998A (en) * 1969-08-28 1972-02-01 Paul G Anderson Stadium chair with folding seat
US3619004A (en) * 1969-12-23 1971-11-09 American Seating Co Cantilever seat structure
US3785600A (en) * 1972-01-25 1974-01-15 1P Ind Chimica Arredamento S P Adjustable mounting assemblies for groups of seats in aircraft or other vehicles
US4000586A (en) * 1973-04-11 1977-01-04 American Seating Company System for mounting articles to telescopic structures
US4052101A (en) * 1975-07-07 1977-10-04 Delong David C Stadium riser individual seat, support and armrest with common seat-row backrest
US5938287A (en) * 1996-07-11 1999-08-17 Donnelly; Brian F. Seat for elderly and disabled
WO1998002065A1 (en) * 1996-07-11 1998-01-22 Donnelly Brian F Seat for elderly and disabled
USD422426S (en) * 1998-08-18 2000-04-11 LifeSpan Furnishings, L.L.C. Stackable seat
USD433577S (en) * 1999-03-01 2000-11-14 LifeSpan Furnishings, L.L.C. Chair
US6293621B1 (en) * 1999-06-07 2001-09-25 All Star Bleachers Gravity lift chair
US20030102703A1 (en) * 2000-08-28 2003-06-05 Alex Tenenboym Theater seat assembly
US6582020B1 (en) 2000-08-28 2003-06-24 Greystone International, Inc. Theater seat assembly
US6612652B1 (en) 2000-08-28 2003-09-02 Greystone International, Inc. Theater seat assembly
US20040084943A1 (en) * 2002-07-08 2004-05-06 Fisher Adam William Chair or seat
US7000989B2 (en) * 2002-07-08 2006-02-21 Camatic Pty. Limited Chair or seat
US7303235B1 (en) * 2004-01-20 2007-12-04 Preferred Engineering Chair for venues with tiered seating

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