US3063394A - Control system for submarine vessel - Google Patents

Control system for submarine vessel Download PDF

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US3063394A
US3063394A US48460A US4846060A US3063394A US 3063394 A US3063394 A US 3063394A US 48460 A US48460 A US 48460A US 4846060 A US4846060 A US 4846060A US 3063394 A US3063394 A US 3063394A
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submarine
screw
craft
cowling
vessel
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US48460A
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Rebikoff Dimitri Issaiewitch
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Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems Inc
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Loral Electronics Corp
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63GOFFENSIVE OR DEFENSIVE ARRANGEMENTS ON VESSELS; MINE-LAYING; MINE-SWEEPING; SUBMARINES; AIRCRAFT CARRIERS
    • B63G8/00Underwater vessels, e.g. submarines; Equipment specially adapted therefor
    • B63G8/14Control of attitude or depth
    • B63G8/20Steering equipment

Definitions

  • a submarine has usually in or on its rear part a direction fin or rudder and a depth or elevator fin, the operation of the latter being coupled with that of submersing bars or hydroplanes in front.
  • the task of these rear controls is to deflect the current of water, created by the propulsion system, consisting of one or several screws which may sometimes operate inside open channels in front and behind in the desired direction, making it possible to direct the vehicle both in the lateral and vertical directions.
  • the initial propulsive force is always directed along the longitudinal axis of the submarine vessel, and this necessary deviation results in a considerable loss of energy. This has two disadvantageous results.
  • the effective output of the power unit is much lower if the path of the vessel deviates from the straight line, leading to a costly and useless expenditure of energy; this is serious, because the driving force of a submerged (nonatomic) submarine is supplied by an accumulator battery and is, therefore, very limited.
  • the manoeuvrability of the submarine is reduced, owing to the braking effect of the fins, if the path is not straight. If this braking eifect could be eliminated, it would be possible to obtain a considerable increase in the development particularly of small submarine driving units.
  • This principle is, in fact known broadly from the specification of French Patent No. 171,878 which describes the use of a propeller screw on a universal shaft and with a universal joint, making it possible to manoeuvre in any direction and thus to do without fins.
  • the present invention starts with this principle, but eliminates the universal joints on the propeller shaft, it is, in fact, rather diflicult to realize such a joint operating in water and transmitting considerable power. It was therefore attempted to develop an arrangement orienting only the parts which are non-rotating themselves, whilst creating a liquid current directly in the desired direction.
  • a submarine craft in which control of direction in both the vertical and in the horizontal planes is effected by directing the liquid jet acting as propellant, from its point of generation, in such a way as to reduce or even eliminate the conventional fins at the rear of the craft, wherein the screw or screws are enclosed by an annular duct cooperating therewith so as to create the propelling jet of liquid, said annular duct being orientable by the pilot both in the vertical and horizontal planes, so as to enable him to control the liquid jet at will and to adjust the direction of thrust, and thus to steer his craft.
  • the entire rear portion of the submarine vessel may be articulated, including the engine, being hinged to the remainder of the craft by means of a balland-socket joint or a universal joint, which does not transmit a rotational movement.
  • This arrangement has the advantage of making possible the provision of a cowling or streamlining very near to the screws, this cowling being equipped with fixed blades which cooperate with the blades of the screw and form thus a kind of turbine.
  • the motor is rigidly fixed to the frame and its single screw is connected to the motor without the interposition of a universal joint or the like; the direction of the liquid current or jet is effected by swivelling the annular cowling surrounding the screw and channeling the jet right from the beginning.
  • the direction of the submarine craft may be chosen by the generation of a liquid jet of appropriate direction, whereby the conventional fins placed at the rear of the craft may be reduced or even omitted.
  • FIG. 1 is a longitudinal vertical cross-section of a first embodiment of a submarine craft of the invention
  • FIG. 2 is a transverse and vertical cross-section of the same embodiment along the line II--II of FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 3 shows the rearward portion of a second embodiment of the submarine craft of the invention in vertical longitudinal section
  • FIG. 4 is a rearward view of a part of the embodiment of FIG. 3.
  • FIG. 1 relates to a small submarine craft, ridden by a diver for independent diving operations; in this craft all rearward fins have been omitted, in that the entire rearward portion A, comprising the motor 2, the screw 3, and the streamlining annular cowling 4 of the screw, are articulated about a geometrical point 1 by means of a ball joint.
  • the screw 3 is a multi-blade screw, and the cowling 4 forms a tube whereby the liquid jet is directed.
  • Fixed blades 5 and 5' serve both to support the cowling 4 and to direct the jet suitably, whereby the assembly of blades 5 and 5 and the blades of the screws 3 constitutes a kind of turbine operating like a pump.
  • the screw blades are carried by a boss 6.
  • the main enclosure 7 of the vessel has walls which are sufficiently thick to withstand th water pressure and holds an accumulator battery 17, connected to the motor by a cable 8 passing through the joint 1.
  • Two control cables or rods 9 and 9 are connected to the ends 10 and 10' of a frame which is integral with the rear portion A and are fixed at their other ends to a cen trally pivoted bar 11, which is in turn connected by a rigid rod 12. to a control lever 13,.
  • This lever controls, in a manner known per se, the submersing bars 14 in front, which are retained.
  • These submersing front bars 14 may be expediently replaced by mobile ailerons.
  • a longitudinal movement of the lever 13 acts simul taneously on the right and left ailerons and on the an does not form part of the invention and has been disclosed already in the specification of my French Patent No. 1,136,673.
  • the lateral movements of the part A are directly controlled by the pilots feet, who lies flat on the craft so that his feet rest on the ends of a second frame 1515', positioned at right angles to frame 10.
  • the operation is easy to understand.
  • the pilot of the craft controls the angular position of the rear portion of his craft by the lever 13 and the foot frame 1515'. He directs the liquid jet as he pleases, without entailing any braking by a fin, and can propel his craft without loss of energy.
  • FIGS. 3 and 4 show schematically a more simple embodiment applicable to a craft of the same kind.
  • the rear part of the submarine craft is fixed relative to the front part, so that the axis of the screw 3a is always the same.
  • Only the cowling 4a now swivels about the ball joint 1a, which may consist of ball bearings and is now placed at the point of the boss 6a of the screw.
  • the position of the cowling 4a is controlled by a system of rods or cables 9a and 9'a, connected to a bar (not shown) and controlled as described above. The direction control is always assured by the action of the pilots feet.
  • the cowling 4a is connected to the joint In by three arms 16, clearly shown in FIG. 4, which also shows the five blades of screw 3a.
  • the ends of the screw and the centre of the joint 1a are located in the same plane
  • the deflection of the liquid jet is obtained simply by displacing the cowling 4a, located at the starting point of this jet, whereby the braking effect is eliminated and advantages result, which are similar to those of the first embodiment, whilst the tension of the rods or cables is sufiicient to hold the cowling on the boss.
  • a submarine craft comprising a longitudinally extending body member, an energy source housed in said body member, a screw located at the rear of said body member, a motor connected to said energy source and rotating said screw, an annular duct surrounding said screw and substantially coaxial therewith, a universal joint connecting said duct to said body member at a point substantially along the longitudinal axis thereof permitting swinging of said duct relative to said body member about a vertical and a transverse axis, a first control means for swinging said duct about said vertical axis and a second control means for swinging said duct independently of said first control means about said transverse axis.
  • a submarine craft according to claim 1 wherein said universal joint is defined by a ball and socket joint.
  • a submarine craft according to claim 1 including laterally projecting fins mounted on the forward portion of said body member and tiltable about a transverse axis with the swinging of said duct about a transverse axis.
  • a submarine craft according to claim 1 wherein said second control means comprises foot pieces projecting laterally from said duct.

Description

Nov. 13, 1962 D. l. REBIKOFF 3,063,394
CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SUBMARINE VESSEL Filed Aug. 9, 1960' v HI Q Q 6 g; 0 n 2 LL INVENTOR DIMITRI ISSAIEWITCH REBIKOFF ATTORNEY United States Patent Ofifice 3,063,394 Patented Nov. 13, 1962 3,063,394 CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SUBMARINE VESSEL Dimitri Issaiewitch Rebikoflt, Cannes, France, assignor to Loral Electronics Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Aug. 9, 1960, Ser. No. 48,460 6 Claims. (Cl. 114-16) The present invention relates to a new control system for submarine vessels of all types, large structures as well as small sports equipment actuated by riders equipped with independent breathing apparatus.
A submarine has usually in or on its rear part a direction fin or rudder and a depth or elevator fin, the operation of the latter being coupled with that of submersing bars or hydroplanes in front. The task of these rear controls is to deflect the current of water, created by the propulsion system, consisting of one or several screws which may sometimes operate inside open channels in front and behind in the desired direction, making it possible to direct the vehicle both in the lateral and vertical directions. The initial propulsive force is always directed along the longitudinal axis of the submarine vessel, and this necessary deviation results in a considerable loss of energy. This has two disadvantageous results. Firstly, the effective output of the power unit is much lower if the path of the vessel deviates from the straight line, leading to a costly and useless expenditure of energy; this is serious, because the driving force of a submerged (nonatomic) submarine is supplied by an accumulator battery and is, therefore, very limited. Secondly, the manoeuvrability of the submarine is reduced, owing to the braking effect of the fins, if the path is not straight. If this braking eifect could be eliminated, it would be possible to obtain a considerable increase in the development particularly of small submarine driving units.
It is the object of the present invention to provide an improved arrangement for directing the liquid current in the desired direction without any braking so that the propelling units create this liquid current directly in the desired direction. This principle is, in fact known broadly from the specification of French Patent No. 171,878 which describes the use of a propeller screw on a universal shaft and with a universal joint, making it possible to manoeuvre in any direction and thus to do without fins. However, the present invention starts with this principle, but eliminates the universal joints on the propeller shaft, it is, in fact, rather diflicult to realize such a joint operating in water and transmitting considerable power. It was therefore attempted to develop an arrangement orienting only the parts which are non-rotating themselves, whilst creating a liquid current directly in the desired direction.
It is, for various reasons, advantageous to surround the screw of a submarine vessel by an annular streamlining or cowling. More particularly, in the case of a small vessel, ridden by a pilot equipped for independent submersion, serious risks are avoided, since the diver cannot be injured by a blade of the screw. Moreover, the blades are pro tected against any accidental contact with obstacles which the vessel might encounter. Finally, it is possible to operate a multi-blade screw rather after the manner of a turbine, by equipping the annular tube with stationary blades, whilst the moving blades are designed to fulfil the task of turbine blades, whereby the performance of the apparatus is further improved.
According to the present invention there is provided a submarine craft, in which control of direction in both the vertical and in the horizontal planes is effected by directing the liquid jet acting as propellant, from its point of generation, in such a way as to reduce or even eliminate the conventional fins at the rear of the craft, wherein the screw or screws are enclosed by an annular duct cooperating therewith so as to create the propelling jet of liquid, said annular duct being orientable by the pilot both in the vertical and horizontal planes, so as to enable him to control the liquid jet at will and to adjust the direction of thrust, and thus to steer his craft.
Several variations of this basic principle are possible. In particular, the entire rear portion of the submarine vessel may be articulated, including the engine, being hinged to the remainder of the craft by means of a balland-socket joint or a universal joint, which does not transmit a rotational movement. This arrangement has the advantage of making possible the provision of a cowling or streamlining very near to the screws, this cowling being equipped with fixed blades which cooperate with the blades of the screw and form thus a kind of turbine. It is also possible to maintain the conventional structure of the submarine vessel; in this case the motor is rigidly fixed to the frame and its single screw is connected to the motor without the interposition of a universal joint or the like; the direction of the liquid current or jet is effected by swivelling the annular cowling surrounding the screw and channeling the jet right from the beginning.
It can thus be seen from the foregoing two examples that the direction of the submarine craft, both in the vertical and horizontal planes, may be chosen by the generation of a liquid jet of appropriate direction, whereby the conventional fins placed at the rear of the craft may be reduced or even omitted.
The invention will be further described, by way of ex ample with reference to the accompanying drawing, relating to the two embodiments. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal vertical cross-section of a first embodiment of a submarine craft of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a transverse and vertical cross-section of the same embodiment along the line II--II of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 shows the rearward portion of a second embodiment of the submarine craft of the invention in vertical longitudinal section;
FIG. 4 is a rearward view of a part of the embodiment of FIG. 3.
FIG. 1 relates to a small submarine craft, ridden by a diver for independent diving operations; in this craft all rearward fins have been omitted, in that the entire rearward portion A, comprising the motor 2, the screw 3, and the streamlining annular cowling 4 of the screw, are articulated about a geometrical point 1 by means of a ball joint. The screw 3 is a multi-blade screw, and the cowling 4 forms a tube whereby the liquid jet is directed. Fixed blades 5 and 5' serve both to support the cowling 4 and to direct the jet suitably, whereby the assembly of blades 5 and 5 and the blades of the screws 3 constitutes a kind of turbine operating like a pump. The screw blades are carried by a boss 6. The main enclosure 7 of the vessel has walls which are sufficiently thick to withstand th water pressure and holds an accumulator battery 17, connected to the motor by a cable 8 passing through the joint 1. Two control cables or rods 9 and 9 are connected to the ends 10 and 10' of a frame which is integral with the rear portion A and are fixed at their other ends to a cen trally pivoted bar 11, which is in turn connected by a rigid rod 12. to a control lever 13,.
This lever controls, in a manner known per se, the submersing bars 14 in front, which are retained. These submersing front bars 14 may be expediently replaced by mobile ailerons.
A longitudinal movement of the lever 13 acts simul taneously on the right and left ailerons and on the an does not form part of the invention and has been disclosed already in the specification of my French Patent No. 1,136,673. The lateral movements of the part A are directly controlled by the pilots feet, who lies flat on the craft so that his feet rest on the ends of a second frame 1515', positioned at right angles to frame 10.
The operation is easy to understand. The pilot of the craft controls the angular position of the rear portion of his craft by the lever 13 and the foot frame 1515'. He directs the liquid jet as he pleases, without entailing any braking by a fin, and can propel his craft without loss of energy.
A modification of this embodiment, not shown in the drawings, lies in the use of two coaxial counter-rotating screws: this modification eliminates the tendency of the rear part to twist relative to the front. Thus the articulation by a ball and socket joint without transmission of forces is perfecly suitable.
FIGS. 3 and 4 show schematically a more simple embodiment applicable to a craft of the same kind. The rear part of the submarine craft is fixed relative to the front part, so that the axis of the screw 3a is always the same. Only the cowling 4a now swivels about the ball joint 1a, which may consist of ball bearings and is now placed at the point of the boss 6a of the screw. The position of the cowling 4a is controlled by a system of rods or cables 9a and 9'a, connected to a bar (not shown) and controlled as described above. The direction control is always assured by the action of the pilots feet.
The cowling 4a is connected to the joint In by three arms 16, clearly shown in FIG. 4, which also shows the five blades of screw 3a. The ends of the screw and the centre of the joint 1a are located in the same plane The deflection of the liquid jet is obtained simply by displacing the cowling 4a, located at the starting point of this jet, whereby the braking effect is eliminated and advantages result, which are similar to those of the first embodiment, whilst the tension of the rods or cables is sufiicient to hold the cowling on the boss.
I claim:
1. A submarine craft comprising a longitudinally extending body member, an energy source housed in said body member, a screw located at the rear of said body member, a motor connected to said energy source and rotating said screw, an annular duct surrounding said screw and substantially coaxial therewith, a universal joint connecting said duct to said body member at a point substantially along the longitudinal axis thereof permitting swinging of said duct relative to said body member about a vertical and a transverse axis, a first control means for swinging said duct about said vertical axis and a second control means for swinging said duct independently of said first control means about said transverse axis.
2. A submarine craft according to claim 1 wherein said motor and said screw are connected to said duct and swingable therewith about said universal joint.
3. A submarine craft according to claim 1 wherein said universal joint is defined by a ball and socket joint.
4. A submarine craft according to claim 1 including laterally projecting fins mounted on the forward portion of said body member and tiltable about a transverse axis with the swinging of said duct about a transverse axis.
5. A submarine craft according to claim 1 wherein said second control means comprises foot pieces projecting laterally from said duct.
6. A submarine craft according to claim 1 wherein said energy source is an electric battery and said motor is an electric motor.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,028,333 Desenberg et al. June 4, 1912 1,265,309 Dunne May 7, 1918 1,530,560 Heminger Mar. 24, 1925 2,510,561 De Laval June 6, 1950 2,921,435 Landgraf Jan. 19, 1960 2,965,065 Tinker Dec. 20, 1960 2,987,893 Robinson June 13, 1961 3,014,448 Fogarty Dec. 26, 1961 FOREIGN PATENTS 378,479 Great Britain Aug. 15, 1932 899,168 Germany Dec. 10, 1953 1,136,673 France Dec. 29, 1956 1,183,743 France Feb. 2, 1959
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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3131664A (en) * 1962-10-22 1964-05-05 Ling Temco Vought Inc Underwater sleds
US3162169A (en) * 1964-01-23 1964-12-22 Theodore E Ferris & Sons Ship of reduced structural weight for given cargo weight carrying capacity
US3258916A (en) * 1963-10-28 1966-07-05 Lehmann Guenther Wolfgang Jet stream steering and controlling means
US3422787A (en) * 1967-05-31 1969-01-21 Stephen K Rush Propulsion system for swimmers
US3442240A (en) * 1967-12-13 1969-05-06 Franklin J Wild Power swimming aid
US3893406A (en) * 1973-02-02 1975-07-08 Kermit H Burgin Twin keel jet boat
US5365868A (en) * 1993-06-10 1994-11-22 Culotta Kenneth W Underwater propulsion system having reduced weight penalty and variable angle of thrust
WO1996008407A1 (en) * 1993-06-10 1996-03-21 Culotta Kenneth W Underwater propulsion system having reduced weight penalty
US6109985A (en) * 1999-03-02 2000-08-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Propeller deflection snubber
US6572422B2 (en) * 2000-10-10 2003-06-03 Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (Mbari) Tail assembly for an underwater vehicle

Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1028333A (en) * 1911-09-05 1912-06-04 Edward B Desenberg Propeller.
US1265309A (en) * 1917-10-22 1918-05-07 Thomas P Dunne Propelling mechanism for vessels.
US1530560A (en) * 1924-05-27 1925-03-24 Heminger Joel Robert Swimming appliance
GB378479A (en) * 1931-04-13 1932-08-15 Yasujiro Kinoshita Improvements in submersible boats
US2510561A (en) * 1944-07-22 1950-06-06 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Airplane control surface
DE899168C (en) * 1951-07-22 1953-12-10 Alwin Franz Water sports equipment
FR1136673A (en) * 1955-12-07 1957-05-16 Single command of the evolutions of an underwater vehicle
FR1183743A (en) * 1957-09-16 1959-07-13 Two-seater underwater vehicle for autonomous divers
US2921435A (en) * 1957-10-07 1960-01-19 Ryan Aeronautical Company Directional control for aircraft
US2965065A (en) * 1955-06-15 1960-12-20 Walter H Tinker Hydraulic jet propulsion units for boats
US2987893A (en) * 1956-10-29 1961-06-13 American Mach & Foundry Underwater craft
US3014448A (en) * 1959-04-21 1961-12-26 Wilfred J Fogarty Underwater propulsion device for swimmers

Patent Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1028333A (en) * 1911-09-05 1912-06-04 Edward B Desenberg Propeller.
US1265309A (en) * 1917-10-22 1918-05-07 Thomas P Dunne Propelling mechanism for vessels.
US1530560A (en) * 1924-05-27 1925-03-24 Heminger Joel Robert Swimming appliance
GB378479A (en) * 1931-04-13 1932-08-15 Yasujiro Kinoshita Improvements in submersible boats
US2510561A (en) * 1944-07-22 1950-06-06 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Airplane control surface
DE899168C (en) * 1951-07-22 1953-12-10 Alwin Franz Water sports equipment
US2965065A (en) * 1955-06-15 1960-12-20 Walter H Tinker Hydraulic jet propulsion units for boats
FR1136673A (en) * 1955-12-07 1957-05-16 Single command of the evolutions of an underwater vehicle
US2987893A (en) * 1956-10-29 1961-06-13 American Mach & Foundry Underwater craft
FR1183743A (en) * 1957-09-16 1959-07-13 Two-seater underwater vehicle for autonomous divers
US2921435A (en) * 1957-10-07 1960-01-19 Ryan Aeronautical Company Directional control for aircraft
US3014448A (en) * 1959-04-21 1961-12-26 Wilfred J Fogarty Underwater propulsion device for swimmers

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3131664A (en) * 1962-10-22 1964-05-05 Ling Temco Vought Inc Underwater sleds
US3258916A (en) * 1963-10-28 1966-07-05 Lehmann Guenther Wolfgang Jet stream steering and controlling means
US3162169A (en) * 1964-01-23 1964-12-22 Theodore E Ferris & Sons Ship of reduced structural weight for given cargo weight carrying capacity
US3422787A (en) * 1967-05-31 1969-01-21 Stephen K Rush Propulsion system for swimmers
US3442240A (en) * 1967-12-13 1969-05-06 Franklin J Wild Power swimming aid
US3893406A (en) * 1973-02-02 1975-07-08 Kermit H Burgin Twin keel jet boat
US5365868A (en) * 1993-06-10 1994-11-22 Culotta Kenneth W Underwater propulsion system having reduced weight penalty and variable angle of thrust
WO1996008407A1 (en) * 1993-06-10 1996-03-21 Culotta Kenneth W Underwater propulsion system having reduced weight penalty
US6109985A (en) * 1999-03-02 2000-08-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Propeller deflection snubber
US6572422B2 (en) * 2000-10-10 2003-06-03 Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (Mbari) Tail assembly for an underwater vehicle

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