US3012882A - Temperature responsive cadmium-silver-gold alloys - Google Patents

Temperature responsive cadmium-silver-gold alloys Download PDF

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US3012882A
US3012882A US483860A US3012882A US 3012882 A US3012882 A US 3012882A US 483860 A US483860 A US 483860A US 3012882 A US3012882 A US 3012882A
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alloy
temperatures
temperature
critical
atomic
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Muldawer Leonard
Feder Ralph
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Muldawer Leonard
Feder Ralph
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H37/00Thermally-actuated switches
    • H01H37/02Details
    • H01H37/32Thermally-sensitive members
    • H01H37/323Thermally-sensitive members making use of shape memory materials
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C5/00Alloys based on noble metals
    • C22C5/02Alloys based on gold
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/006Resulting in heat recoverable alloys with a memory effect
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RLINE CONNECTORS; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R4/00Electrically-conductive connections between two or more conductive members in direct contact and means for effecting or maintaining such contact
    • H01R4/01Connections using shape memory materials, e.g. shape memory metal
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S439/00Electrical connectors
    • Y10S439/932Heat shrink material

Description

United States Patent Ofiice 3,012,882 Patented Dec. 12., 1961 3,012,882 7 TEMPERATURE RESPONSIVE CADMIUM- SILVER-GOLD ALLOYS Leonard Muldawer, Bala-Cynwyd, and Ralph Feder, Philadelphia, Pa., assignors to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army Filed Jan. 26, 1960, Ser. No. 4,838 3 Claims. (Cl. 75-134) This invention relates to metal alloys and more especially to a metal alloy which undergoes a phase change 'at a temperature which is dependent on its composition and its previous treatment.

It is known that certain gold-cadmium alloys undergo a phase change when exposed to a critical temperature which is hereinafter designated as T5. Thus rods of these alloys are flexible at temperatures below T and rigid at temperatures above T If such a rod is subjected to a transverse force in its flexible condition, it will suddenly straighten when heated to T As a result of this characteristic such rods are capable of producing mechanical effects when their temperature is raised or lowered through their critical temperatures.

T has a value which is close to 70 C. in the case of an alloy consisting of 52.5% atomic percent gold and 47.5 atomic percent cadmium. It is the purpose of the present invention to extend the range of temperatures at which a phase change in the alloy may be realized. This is advantageous in that a member consisting of the alloy may be made to produce a mechanical effect at any selected temperature within a wide range of temperatures. It is accomplished by replacing variable atomic percentages of gold by silver.

The invention will be better understood from the following description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings and its scope is indicatedby the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings:

FIG. 1 illustrates one of the many possible uses' of the alloy,

FIG. 2 indicates the positions assumed by the free end of a Au Cd rod in response to various temperatures, and

FIG. 3 indicates the relation between T and the atomic percentage of gold replaced by silver in alloy (AuAg) Cd curve A showing this relation as the temperature is raised through T and curve B showing this relation as the temperature is loweredthrough' T The switch of FIG. 1 includes a movable contact and fixed contacts 11 and 12. The contact 10 is fixed to the free end of a rod 13 consisting of an alloy of the type discussed above. The opposite end of the rod 13 is fixed to a support 14. Connected between the contacts 10 and 11 are the rod 13, a power source shown as a battery 15 and a load device 16. Similarly connected between the contacts 10 and 12 are a battery 17 and a load device 18. The rod 13' has a transverse force applied to it by a spring 19.

Under these conditions, the contacts 10 and 11 are engaged when the temperature is raised through T and the contacts 10 and 12 are engaged when the temperature is lowered through T If the rod 13 has a length of 8.7 cm., a diameter of 1 mm., a composition of A-u -"a--Cd and is subjected to a pull of 12 gm., the position of the contact 10 at various temperatures is indicated by the curve of FIG. 2. It can be seen from this curve that there is a sudden change in the position of the end of the rod 13 and the movable contact 10 at the temperature T.,.

The beta range for Au-Cd alloys has an appreciable width and the transformation of the cubic phase into a lower symmetry phase takes place at a temperature which depends upon the percentages of gold and cadmium. Thus the 47.5% Cd alloy shows a T at about 60 C. on cooling and about C. on heating. The 49.0% Cd alloy shows a T at about 30 C. on cooling and about 35 C. on heating. The maximum range in T for pure Au-Cd alloy is therefore about 75 C. since alloys can be made over a 3 or 4% range.

We have found that this maximum range of 75 C. in T maybe greatly extended by substituting third elements for various percentages of the gold or cadmium. The ad vantages of such substitutions are that much greater changes in T can be produced and that the phase transformation maintains the same character. Thus alloys of 47.5% Cd, with the remainder either all gold or all silver, undergo similar transformations.

FIG. 3 shows T for alloys from Au -Cd to Ag Cd these percentages being atomic in all cases as previously indicated. In this figure, curves A and B show the variation in T as the percentage of silver is changed, curve A indicating the change in T when the temperature is raised through T and curve B indicating the change in T when the temperature is lowered through T It can be seen from these curves that T for raising the temperature through the critical value is somewhat higher than the T for lowering the temperature through the critical value.

The particular alloy to be chosen depends on the temperature at which the mechanical efifect is to be produced. As can be 'seen from FIG. 3, T values from about +70 C. to about -160 C. are available. While the silvergold-cadmium alloy has been shown as applied to an electrical switching device, this is only one of the many applications possible. Other uses of it to produce mechanical stood by those skilled in the art.

As shown in FIG. 1, the alloy rod itself is part of the electrical circuit but this need not be the case. It may be used to produce mechanical effects which may include the operation of electrical switches.

We claim:

1. An alloy having critical temperatures at which it changes phase, said critical temperatures being about 60 C. and 40 C. when said alloy is heated and cooled respectively through said critical temperatures, said alloy consisting essentially of 47.5 atomic percent cadmium, about 2.5 atomic percent silver and about 50.0 atomic percent gold.

2. An alloy having critical temperatures at which it changes phase, said critical temperatures being about 0 C. and -6 C. when said alloy is heated and cooled respectively through said critical temperatures, said alloy consisting essentially of 47.5 atomic percent cadmium, about 10 atomic percent silver and about 42.5 atomic percent gold.

3. An alloy having critical temperatures at which it changes phase, said critical temperatures being about l45 C. and C. when said alloy is heated and cooled respectively through said critical temperatures,

said alloy consisting essentially of 47.5 atomic percent Gleason Mar. 23, 1915 Wiegand Apr. 21, 1942

Claims (1)

  1. 2. AN ALLOY HAVING CRITICAL TEMPERATURES AT WHICH IT CHANGES PHASE, SAID CRITICAL TEMPERATURES BEING ABOUT 0* C. AND -6*C. WHEN SAID ALLOY IS HEATED AND COOLED RESPECTIVELY THROUGH SAID CRITICAL TEMPERATURES, SAID ALLOY CONSISTING ESSENTIALLY OF 47.5 ATOMIC PERCENT CADMIUM, ABOUT 10 ATOMIC PERCENT SILVER AND ABOUT 42.5 ATOMIC PERCENT GOLD.
US3012882A 1960-01-26 1960-01-26 Temperature responsive cadmium-silver-gold alloys Expired - Lifetime US3012882A (en)

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Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2055755A1 (en) * 1969-11-12 1971-05-19 Fulmer Res Inst Ltd
US3622941A (en) * 1968-10-30 1971-11-23 Raychem Corp Heat recoverable article with mechanical insert
US3634803A (en) * 1969-07-22 1972-01-11 Robertshaw Controls Co Temperature-responsive switch assemblies
DE2331568A1 (en) * 1972-06-21 1974-01-31 Raychem Corp Device for temperaturabhaengigen preparation of a compound, in particular an electrical connection
US3913444A (en) * 1972-11-08 1975-10-21 Raychem Corp Thermally deformable fastening pin
US4035007A (en) * 1970-07-02 1977-07-12 Raychem Corporation Heat recoverable metallic coupling
US4198081A (en) * 1973-10-29 1980-04-15 Raychem Corporation Heat recoverable metallic coupling
US4205293A (en) * 1977-05-06 1980-05-27 Bbc Brown Boveri & Company Limited Thermoelectric switch
DE3007307A1 (en) * 1980-01-18 1981-07-23 Bbc Brown Boveri & Cie Detachable shrunk joint - uses shape memory alloy with two=way effect
US4310354A (en) * 1980-01-10 1982-01-12 Special Metals Corporation Process for producing a shape memory effect alloy having a desired transition temperature
US4468076A (en) * 1982-07-23 1984-08-28 Raychem Corporation Array package connector and connector tool
US4522457A (en) * 1983-10-07 1985-06-11 Raychem Corporation Compliant connecting device with heat-recoverable driver
US4553393A (en) * 1983-08-26 1985-11-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Memory metal actuator
US4559512A (en) * 1983-03-14 1985-12-17 Raychem Corporation Self-protecting and conditioning memory metal actuator
US4621844A (en) * 1982-01-25 1986-11-11 Shell Oil Company Memory metal connector
US4759293A (en) * 1986-06-30 1988-07-26 Davis Jr Thomas O Article using shape-memory alloy to improve and/or control the speed of recovery
US4839479A (en) * 1986-06-30 1989-06-13 Davis Jr Thomas O Article using shape-memory alloy to improve and/or control the speed of recovery
WO2001008600A2 (en) 1999-07-28 2001-02-08 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Nitinol medical devices having variable stifness by heat treatment
US20070119165A1 (en) * 2005-11-30 2007-05-31 The Boeing Company Shape memory alloy linear actuator
US20100030246A1 (en) * 2007-02-01 2010-02-04 Dusan Pavcnik Closure Device and Method For Occluding a Bodily Passageway
US8025495B2 (en) 2007-08-27 2011-09-27 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Apparatus and method for making a spider occlusion device
US8308752B2 (en) 2007-08-27 2012-11-13 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Barrel occlusion device
US8617205B2 (en) 2007-02-01 2013-12-31 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Closure device
US8734483B2 (en) 2007-08-27 2014-05-27 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Spider PFO closure device
US9023074B2 (en) 2010-10-15 2015-05-05 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Multi-stage occlusion devices
US9554783B2 (en) 2007-02-01 2017-01-31 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Closure device and method of closing a bodily opening

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1133019A (en) * 1912-05-13 1915-03-23 Richard H King Process of making alloys.
US2280137A (en) * 1939-08-04 1942-04-21 Huenefeld Company Method of fabricating thermoelectric elements

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1133019A (en) * 1912-05-13 1915-03-23 Richard H King Process of making alloys.
US2280137A (en) * 1939-08-04 1942-04-21 Huenefeld Company Method of fabricating thermoelectric elements

Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3622941A (en) * 1968-10-30 1971-11-23 Raychem Corp Heat recoverable article with mechanical insert
US3634803A (en) * 1969-07-22 1972-01-11 Robertshaw Controls Co Temperature-responsive switch assemblies
DE2055755A1 (en) * 1969-11-12 1971-05-19 Fulmer Res Inst Ltd
US4035007A (en) * 1970-07-02 1977-07-12 Raychem Corporation Heat recoverable metallic coupling
DE2331568A1 (en) * 1972-06-21 1974-01-31 Raychem Corp Device for temperaturabhaengigen preparation of a compound, in particular an electrical connection
US3913444A (en) * 1972-11-08 1975-10-21 Raychem Corp Thermally deformable fastening pin
US4198081A (en) * 1973-10-29 1980-04-15 Raychem Corporation Heat recoverable metallic coupling
US4205293A (en) * 1977-05-06 1980-05-27 Bbc Brown Boveri & Company Limited Thermoelectric switch
US4310354A (en) * 1980-01-10 1982-01-12 Special Metals Corporation Process for producing a shape memory effect alloy having a desired transition temperature
DE3007307A1 (en) * 1980-01-18 1981-07-23 Bbc Brown Boveri & Cie Detachable shrunk joint - uses shape memory alloy with two=way effect
US4621844A (en) * 1982-01-25 1986-11-11 Shell Oil Company Memory metal connector
US4468076A (en) * 1982-07-23 1984-08-28 Raychem Corporation Array package connector and connector tool
US4559512A (en) * 1983-03-14 1985-12-17 Raychem Corporation Self-protecting and conditioning memory metal actuator
US4553393A (en) * 1983-08-26 1985-11-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Memory metal actuator
US4522457A (en) * 1983-10-07 1985-06-11 Raychem Corporation Compliant connecting device with heat-recoverable driver
US4759293A (en) * 1986-06-30 1988-07-26 Davis Jr Thomas O Article using shape-memory alloy to improve and/or control the speed of recovery
US4839479A (en) * 1986-06-30 1989-06-13 Davis Jr Thomas O Article using shape-memory alloy to improve and/or control the speed of recovery
WO2001008600A2 (en) 1999-07-28 2001-02-08 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Nitinol medical devices having variable stifness by heat treatment
US6485507B1 (en) 1999-07-28 2002-11-26 Scimed Life Systems Multi-property nitinol by heat treatment
US20030109918A1 (en) * 1999-07-28 2003-06-12 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Multi-property nitinol by heat treatment
US6997947B2 (en) 1999-07-28 2006-02-14 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Multi-property nitinol by heat treatment
US20070119165A1 (en) * 2005-11-30 2007-05-31 The Boeing Company Shape memory alloy linear actuator
US7464548B2 (en) * 2005-11-30 2008-12-16 The Boeing Company Shape memory alloy linear actuator
US9554783B2 (en) 2007-02-01 2017-01-31 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Closure device and method of closing a bodily opening
US20100030246A1 (en) * 2007-02-01 2010-02-04 Dusan Pavcnik Closure Device and Method For Occluding a Bodily Passageway
US9332977B2 (en) 2007-02-01 2016-05-10 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Closure device
US8480707B2 (en) 2007-02-01 2013-07-09 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Closure device and method for occluding a bodily passageway
US8617205B2 (en) 2007-02-01 2013-12-31 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Closure device
US8734483B2 (en) 2007-08-27 2014-05-27 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Spider PFO closure device
US8308752B2 (en) 2007-08-27 2012-11-13 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Barrel occlusion device
US8025495B2 (en) 2007-08-27 2011-09-27 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Apparatus and method for making a spider occlusion device
US9023074B2 (en) 2010-10-15 2015-05-05 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Multi-stage occlusion devices

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