US2937240A - Self-loading hydro-dynamic bearing - Google Patents

Self-loading hydro-dynamic bearing Download PDF

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Publication number
US2937240A
US2937240A US666347A US66634757A US2937240A US 2937240 A US2937240 A US 2937240A US 666347 A US666347 A US 666347A US 66634757 A US66634757 A US 66634757A US 2937240 A US2937240 A US 2937240A
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Prior art keywords
bearing
surface
member
means
pressure
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Expired - Lifetime
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US666347A
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John M Harker
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International Business Machines Corp
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International Business Machines Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/48Disposition or mounting of heads or head supports relative to record carriers ; arrangements of heads, e.g. for scanning the record carrier to increase the relative speed
    • G11B5/58Disposition or mounting of heads or head supports relative to record carriers ; arrangements of heads, e.g. for scanning the record carrier to increase the relative speed with provision for moving the head for the purpose of maintaining alignment of the head relative to the record carrier during transducing operation, e.g. to compensate for surface irregularities of the latter or for track following
    • G11B5/60Fluid-dynamic spacing of heads from record-carriers
    • G11B5/6005Specially adapted for spacing from a rotating disc using a fluid cushion
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C33/00Parts of bearings; Special methods for making bearings or parts thereof
    • F16C33/02Parts of sliding-contact bearings
    • F16C33/04Brasses; Bushes; Linings
    • F16C33/06Sliding surface mainly made of metal
    • F16C33/10Construction relative to lubrication

Description

May 17, 1960 J. M. HARKER SELF-LOADING HYDRO-DYNAMIC BEARING I 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 18, 1957 INVENTOR JOHN M. HARKER 14 r TOR/Vi) Fig.2

y 17, 1960 J. M. HARKER 2,937,240

SELF-LOADING HYDRO-DYNAMIC BEARING Filed June 18, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Patent 2,937,240 SELF-LOADING HYDRO-DYNAMIC BEARING John M. Harker, Santa Clara County, Calif., assignorto International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Application June 18, 1957, Serial No. 666,347 8 Claims. 01. 179-1002 This invention relates in general to fluid bearings and in particular to afluid bearing arrangementin which the bearing member is biased toward the bearing surface. The invention has particular application in controlling the spacing ofrone member Withrespect toa moving surface such as the; spacing of a magnetic transducer with relation to a magnetizable recording surface. I I

The prior art has previously shown that if a-hydrodynamic bearing is mounted adjacent to a moving surface, it will assume a particular gliding angle depending on the speed of the surface and the fluid employed to obtain the bearing action. It has further been shown, both experimentally and mathematically, that a static pressure is developed between'the bearing and thesurface which provides a force tending to space the bearing from the surface. When hydro-dynamic bearings areused for magnetic recording applications, a magnetic transducer is usually housed in the bearing member and spaced from the recording surface by the pressure developed between the bearing member and the moving record member which is usually a rotating disc or drum having, a magnetizable surface. i

In order to maintain the spacing of the transducer sub stantially independent of the run-out characteristics of the recording surface, prior art arrangements employ an external biasing-.means which loads the bearing member after the discor drum has reached its operating speed. While arrangements ofthis type operate satisfactorily, they must be selectively operated and, hence, suitable means must be provided for controlling the operation of the biasing means in accordance with the speed of the recording surface.

The present invention provides a hydro-dynamic bearing arrangement having a bearing member .which is loaded in accordance with the pressure developed between the bearing and the adjacent moving surface. Since this pressure is a function of the speed of the moving surface, no external control means are necessary. The improved fluid bearing arrangement includes a device which is expansible in response to the static pressure between the bearing member andthe bearing surface for transmitting a loading or biasing force to the bearing member.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved hydro-dynamic bearing arrangement.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a self-loading fluid bearing.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a self-loading fluid bearing arrangement for positioning a transducer adjacent a recording surface.

Other objects of the invention will be pointed out in the following description and claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings which disclose by way of example the principle of the invention and the best mode which has been contemplated of applying that principle.

In the drawings:

Fig. l is an enlarged elevational view, partly in section, illustrating a fluid bearing arrangement embodying the present. invention.

Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the pressure,

distribution under the bearing member shown in Fig. '1. Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the loading force on the bearing member shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is a perspective view illustrating a modification of the arrangement shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 5 is an elevational view, partly in section, of the apparatus shown in Fig. 4.

I Referring to the drawing, the preferred embodiment of the present invention is shown in Fig. 1 which illustrates an application of the improved fluid bearing arrangement in connection with magnetic recording. As shown in Fig. l, the bearing arrangement comprises a bearing surface 10 which, in this instance, defines a magnetizable surface of a record disc 11, and a fluid bearing member 12 which forms a housing for amagnetic transducer 13. An expansible device responsive to thepressure developed betweenv surface 10 and member 12 is arranged with respect to a support member 14 to apply a loading force to bearing member 12 to bias it towardsvsurface 10. As shown, the expansible device comprises a bellows 15 having one end 16 attached to support member 14 by means of a universal joint 16a and the other end 18 attached to bearing member 12. Support member 14 and bellows 15 are preferably arranged so that bearing member 12 is just touching the surface 10 when the recording disc 11 is stationary. The bearing arrangement also includes suitable means for connecting the chamber 20 defined by bellows 15 in fluid exchanging relationship with the static larly, since record disc 11 may have a plurality of recording tracks, any suitable means could be employed for moving support member 14 to position thetransducer 13 in recording relationship with a particular record track.

In Fig. 2 curve A showsthe pressure; distribution between the disc 11 and bearing member12 resulting from the flow of fluid generated by movement .of record disc 11 It will be seen from curve A that the highest pressure represented by arrow 26 is in the vicinity of the center of the bearing member 12 and that the pressure decreases toward ambient as the outer edges are approached.

Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 illustrating the biasing force represented by arrows 27 applied to bearing member 12 by the pressure in bellows 15. The area under curve B in Fig. 3 is equal to the area under curve A in Fig. 2, indicating that a stable condition exists. It should be noted that the location of passage 23 may therefore be varied depending on the loading force desired and the It will, of course, be obvious'that other types of pressure responsive expansible devices may be employed in the above described bearing arrangement. Similarly,

' while the preferred embodiment of the invention is illustrated inzeonnection with spacing a magnetic transducer fromamoving record member, the invention may be employed wherever it is desired to regulate the spacing of a member with respect to a moving surface. I

While therehavebeenshown anddescribed andpointed: out the fundamental novel featuresof the: invention as applied to the preferred embodiment,'it will be understood" that various omissions and substitutions and changes in the form and details of the device illustrated and in its operation: may be made by those skilled in theart, without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is the intention, therefore, to be limited only as indicated bythe scope of thefollowing'claims.

What is claimed is: i l. A hydro-dynamic bearing arrangement comprising incombination a movable bearing surface, a fluid hear-- ing: member, support means fixedly spaced from. said moving surface, expansible means extending between said support means and said bearing member for. positioning said member in sliding relationship to said surface, said. bearing member and said surface defining an above-ambient pressure area, and'means for connecting the area defined" by said expansible means in fluid exchanging relationshipwith said-above ambient pressure areatocause said expansible means to expand to bias said member toward: said surface.

2. A hydro-dynamic bearing arrangement comprising in-combinationa movable bearing surface, support means,

a hydro-dynamic bearing member universally mounted on said support meanstopermit the fluid flow caused by said: moving surface to develop a bearingforce pressure necessary to space the bearing member from'said surface, and expansiblemeans for urging said supportmeans toward said surface tospace said member from said: surfacein. accordance with' said pressure between said'memberand said surface resulting from the flow of ing member. in gliding relationship with respect to said surface, and fluid exchange means disposed between the areadefined by said bellows" and said above ambient pressure area.

4. Apparatus for controlling the spacing of a transducer with respect'to a moving'magnetizable surface comprising in: combination afluid bearing, said bearing and said surface defining a high pressure" area, a transducer mounted. in saidbearing,- support means, a bellows 4; mounted between said support means and said fluid bearing for positioning said transducer inrecording relationship with said magnetizable surface, and means connecting the area defined by said bellows with said high pressure area.

5. The apparatus set forth in claim 4 wherein said bellows is universally mounted on said support means.

6. Apparatus for controlling the spacing of a transducer 'with respect to a moving magnetizable surface comprising in. combination said transducer, a. fluidbear. ingfor housing said transducer, said! heating and said surface defining afirst pressurearea, support 'meansmovable toward and away from said surface, means for universallymounting said bearing member to'sa'id support means, expansible means'enclosinga second pressure area and operable to move said support means to load said bearing in response to the pressure in said first area, and means for connecting said areas in fluid exchanging relationship.

7. A hydrodynamic bearing arrangement comprising in combination a movable bearing surface, a fluid hearing member positioned adjacenttsaid movable surface and spaced therefromin accordance withthe pressure and'flow of'fluid' caused by the movement of said sur-- face, expansible means connected to said bearing mem-- her, and means for establishing fluid communication between said expansible. means and the space between saidmember and said. surface so. as to'render said ex-- pansible means responsive to said pressure developed in said'space for transmitting a" loading force to said bearing member.

8. Apparatus for controlling the spacing of atransducer with respectto amoving magnetizable surface comprising in combination a fluid bearing, a transducermounted in said-bearing, support means, expansible meansdisposed between said bearing and said support means, and meansfor establishing fluid communication between said expansible means and pressure space between said" member and saidsurfacesoas to render'said'expansible means responsive to the pressure developed' insaidspace for applying a: force between said support means and said bearing to biassaid bearing'toward said surface;

References-Citedinthe file of this; patent,- UNITED STA-TBS PATENTS 1,990,548 Keller Feb. 12,1935 2,391,896 Hanson Jan. 1, 1946f 2,612,5166 Anderston et al Sept. 30, 1952 2,704,540 Engelder Mar. 22,1955

, FOREIGN PATENTS 688,554 Great Britain Mar. 11, 1953

US666347A 1957-06-18 1957-06-18 Self-loading hydro-dynamic bearing Expired - Lifetime US2937240A (en)

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Cited By (36)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3018152A (en) * 1958-12-30 1962-01-23 Ibm Mounting and operating means for a pneumostatic transducer head
US3041612A (en) * 1958-06-27 1962-06-26 Vickers Electrical Co Ltd Heads for magnetic storage drums
US3065460A (en) * 1957-10-21 1962-11-20 Ibm Floating head
US3132328A (en) * 1958-09-19 1964-05-05 Ferranti Packard Ltd Reading and writing head mounting means
US3151319A (en) * 1961-11-15 1964-09-29 Ibm Hydrodynamic means for supporting a transducer
US3152845A (en) * 1961-06-06 1964-10-13 Commissariat Energie Atomique Air bearing
US3172962A (en) * 1960-03-07 1965-03-09 Netic drum
US3181166A (en) * 1957-12-02 1965-04-27 Rca Corp Data storage apparatus
US3187313A (en) * 1958-11-10 1965-06-01 Ex Cell O Corp Positioning method and apparatus for magnetic head in a magnetic recording device
US3187112A (en) * 1961-01-31 1965-06-01 Ex Ceil O Corp Aerodynamically supported magnetic head construction for magnetic drums, discs and the like
US3191165A (en) * 1962-03-16 1965-06-22 Data Products Corp Transducer positioning apparatus
US3193810A (en) * 1959-06-02 1965-07-06 Sperry Rand Corp Head positioning mechanism
US3205503A (en) * 1958-11-13 1965-09-07 Ex Cell O Corp Apparatus for maintaining a predetermined air gap between a transducer head and a record medium in a magnetic data storage device
US3228014A (en) * 1960-06-30 1966-01-04 Rca Corp Apparatus for providing fluid bearings
US3243790A (en) * 1962-11-13 1966-03-29 Accurate Bushing Co Air bearing electromagnetic transducer head assembly
US3249701A (en) * 1961-12-28 1966-05-03 Rca Corp Fluid supported transducer with laterally stressed resilient flexible diaphragm
US3272115A (en) * 1964-09-11 1966-09-13 Univ California Continuous laminating press
US3381285A (en) * 1965-03-17 1968-04-30 Gen Precision Systems Inc Serrated record disc with internally generated air pressure
US3412383A (en) * 1965-07-19 1968-11-19 Mohawk Data Sciences Corp Air bearing magnetic head mounting apparatus
US3430006A (en) * 1964-12-28 1969-02-25 Data Products Corp Air lubricated magnetic head pad and mounting system therefor
US3488648A (en) * 1966-04-05 1970-01-06 English Electric Computers Ltd Self-loading fluid bearing support means for data recording-sensing heads
US3631425A (en) * 1969-12-29 1971-12-28 Ibm Magnetic head slider with orifice
US3737880A (en) * 1971-09-10 1973-06-05 Arvin Ind Inc Flexible disc with air intake in turntable
US3763331A (en) * 1969-07-11 1973-10-02 Victor Co Ltd Magnetic transducer head supported by flexible diaphragm
JPS5069123U (en) * 1973-10-24 1975-06-19
US4071864A (en) * 1976-01-16 1978-01-31 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Flexible recording head mounting assembly
DE3031817A1 (en) * 1979-08-27 1981-03-12 Tektronix Inc Direct-view storage tubes with two-color information by copy.
EP0025826A1 (en) * 1979-09-06 1981-04-01 International Business Machines Corporation Flying magnetic head/arm transducer assembly
US4402072A (en) * 1981-04-29 1983-08-30 Rca Corporation Video disc mastering using gimballed air puck
FR2567974A1 (en) * 1984-07-19 1986-01-24 Glyco Metall Werke Hydrodynamic arrangement of smooth bearing with automatic adaptation to the momentary operating condition
US5377950A (en) * 1992-09-10 1995-01-03 The University Of British Columbia Platform mountings
US5561570A (en) * 1993-02-26 1996-10-01 International Business Machines Corporation Dynamically loaded suspension for contact recording
US6445541B1 (en) * 1998-03-20 2002-09-03 Seagate Technology Llc High suction air bearing with pressure release
US20070008650A1 (en) * 2005-07-11 2007-01-11 Fujitsu Limited Head slider and information storage apparatus
US20090154024A1 (en) * 2007-12-17 2009-06-18 Tdk Corporation Thin-film magnetic head with through holes reaching medium-opposed surface
US7639449B1 (en) * 2004-07-13 2009-12-29 Maxtor Corporation Passive fly height adjustment to compensate for ambient pressure changes in a disk drive

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1990548A (en) * 1934-06-20 1935-02-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Sound recorder and reproducer
US2391896A (en) * 1940-09-28 1946-01-01 Sperry Gyroscope Co Inc Air-speed regulator for aircraft
US2612566A (en) * 1951-06-05 1952-09-30 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Magnetic recording and reproducing system
GB688554A (en) * 1950-05-25 1953-03-11 Nat Res Dev Improvements in or relating to the measurement of the thickness of sheet material
US2704540A (en) * 1955-03-22 engelder

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2704540A (en) * 1955-03-22 engelder
US1990548A (en) * 1934-06-20 1935-02-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Sound recorder and reproducer
US2391896A (en) * 1940-09-28 1946-01-01 Sperry Gyroscope Co Inc Air-speed regulator for aircraft
GB688554A (en) * 1950-05-25 1953-03-11 Nat Res Dev Improvements in or relating to the measurement of the thickness of sheet material
US2612566A (en) * 1951-06-05 1952-09-30 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Magnetic recording and reproducing system

Cited By (39)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3065460A (en) * 1957-10-21 1962-11-20 Ibm Floating head
US3181166A (en) * 1957-12-02 1965-04-27 Rca Corp Data storage apparatus
US3041612A (en) * 1958-06-27 1962-06-26 Vickers Electrical Co Ltd Heads for magnetic storage drums
US3132328A (en) * 1958-09-19 1964-05-05 Ferranti Packard Ltd Reading and writing head mounting means
US3187313A (en) * 1958-11-10 1965-06-01 Ex Cell O Corp Positioning method and apparatus for magnetic head in a magnetic recording device
US3205503A (en) * 1958-11-13 1965-09-07 Ex Cell O Corp Apparatus for maintaining a predetermined air gap between a transducer head and a record medium in a magnetic data storage device
US3018152A (en) * 1958-12-30 1962-01-23 Ibm Mounting and operating means for a pneumostatic transducer head
US3193810A (en) * 1959-06-02 1965-07-06 Sperry Rand Corp Head positioning mechanism
US3172962A (en) * 1960-03-07 1965-03-09 Netic drum
US3228014A (en) * 1960-06-30 1966-01-04 Rca Corp Apparatus for providing fluid bearings
US3187112A (en) * 1961-01-31 1965-06-01 Ex Ceil O Corp Aerodynamically supported magnetic head construction for magnetic drums, discs and the like
US3152845A (en) * 1961-06-06 1964-10-13 Commissariat Energie Atomique Air bearing
US3151319A (en) * 1961-11-15 1964-09-29 Ibm Hydrodynamic means for supporting a transducer
US3249701A (en) * 1961-12-28 1966-05-03 Rca Corp Fluid supported transducer with laterally stressed resilient flexible diaphragm
US3191165A (en) * 1962-03-16 1965-06-22 Data Products Corp Transducer positioning apparatus
US3243790A (en) * 1962-11-13 1966-03-29 Accurate Bushing Co Air bearing electromagnetic transducer head assembly
US3272115A (en) * 1964-09-11 1966-09-13 Univ California Continuous laminating press
US3430006A (en) * 1964-12-28 1969-02-25 Data Products Corp Air lubricated magnetic head pad and mounting system therefor
US3381285A (en) * 1965-03-17 1968-04-30 Gen Precision Systems Inc Serrated record disc with internally generated air pressure
US3412383A (en) * 1965-07-19 1968-11-19 Mohawk Data Sciences Corp Air bearing magnetic head mounting apparatus
US3488648A (en) * 1966-04-05 1970-01-06 English Electric Computers Ltd Self-loading fluid bearing support means for data recording-sensing heads
US3763331A (en) * 1969-07-11 1973-10-02 Victor Co Ltd Magnetic transducer head supported by flexible diaphragm
US3631425A (en) * 1969-12-29 1971-12-28 Ibm Magnetic head slider with orifice
US3737880A (en) * 1971-09-10 1973-06-05 Arvin Ind Inc Flexible disc with air intake in turntable
JPS5069123U (en) * 1973-10-24 1975-06-19
JPS5642852Y2 (en) * 1973-10-24 1981-10-07
US4071864A (en) * 1976-01-16 1978-01-31 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Flexible recording head mounting assembly
DE3031817A1 (en) * 1979-08-27 1981-03-12 Tektronix Inc Direct-view storage tubes with two-color information by copy.
EP0025826A1 (en) * 1979-09-06 1981-04-01 International Business Machines Corporation Flying magnetic head/arm transducer assembly
US4402072A (en) * 1981-04-29 1983-08-30 Rca Corporation Video disc mastering using gimballed air puck
FR2567974A1 (en) * 1984-07-19 1986-01-24 Glyco Metall Werke Hydrodynamic arrangement of smooth bearing with automatic adaptation to the momentary operating condition
US4636095A (en) * 1984-07-19 1987-01-13 Glyco-Metall-Werke Daelen & Loos Gmbh Hydrodynamic plain bearing
US5377950A (en) * 1992-09-10 1995-01-03 The University Of British Columbia Platform mountings
US5561570A (en) * 1993-02-26 1996-10-01 International Business Machines Corporation Dynamically loaded suspension for contact recording
US6445541B1 (en) * 1998-03-20 2002-09-03 Seagate Technology Llc High suction air bearing with pressure release
US7639449B1 (en) * 2004-07-13 2009-12-29 Maxtor Corporation Passive fly height adjustment to compensate for ambient pressure changes in a disk drive
US20070008650A1 (en) * 2005-07-11 2007-01-11 Fujitsu Limited Head slider and information storage apparatus
US20090154024A1 (en) * 2007-12-17 2009-06-18 Tdk Corporation Thin-film magnetic head with through holes reaching medium-opposed surface
US8085496B2 (en) * 2007-12-17 2011-12-27 Tdk Corporation Thin-film magnetic head with through holes reaching medium-opposed surface

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