US2902822A - Container structure for separate storage of liquid rocket propellants - Google Patents

Container structure for separate storage of liquid rocket propellants Download PDF

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US2902822A
US2902822A US412127A US41212754A US2902822A US 2902822 A US2902822 A US 2902822A US 412127 A US412127 A US 412127A US 41212754 A US41212754 A US 41212754A US 2902822 A US2902822 A US 2902822A
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propellants
rocket
capsule
gas
injector
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US412127A
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James D Mckiernan
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket-engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/42Rocket-engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using liquid or gaseous propellants
    • F02K9/60Constructional parts; Details not otherwise provided for
    • F02K9/605Reservoirs

Definitions

  • the present invention ⁇ relates to a liquid propellant container and supply system for bi-propellant rockets which facilitates separate storage of each of the propellants.
  • liquid propellant systems heretofore known have utilized xed containers and have generally relied upon compressed gas or mechanical pumps to introduce the propellants into the injector.
  • compressed gas necessitates a storage chamber for the gas, thus adding to the weight land space requirements of the system, while mechanical pumps and the turbines employed to operate Vthem are expensive, complicated and subject to frequent failure.
  • the use of fixed propellant containers in close proximity to each other has created a safety hazard in shipboard handling and storage due to the likelihood of rupture of the containers as a result of rough seas, with consequent mingling of the propellants.
  • separable propellant capsules are used in conjunction with a gas pressure producing means to introduce the propellants directly into the injector without the use of mechanical pumps or compressed gas pressure systems.
  • An object of the present invention is the provision of an inexpensive and simple container and supply system for liquid rocket propellants.
  • Another object is the provision of a container and supply system for liquid propellants which allows separate storage of each propellant.
  • a further object of the invention is the provision of a container and supply system for liquid rocket propellants which facilitates delivery of the propellants to the injector without the use of pumps, compressed gas ⁇ systems or any connecting piping.
  • Fig. 1 is a side elevation view in section of a rocket embodying the present invention.
  • Figs. 2 and 3 are elevation views in section showing the propellant capsules of Fig. l separated for individual storage.
  • Fig. 4. is a sectional view of another embodiment of a tubular capsule similar to that of Fig. 2.
  • Fig. 5 is a sectional view of another embodiment of a cylindrical capsule similar to that of Fig. 3.
  • the rocket 10, Fig. 1 contains two propellant capsules 11 and 17 nested in concentric relation, both of said capsules being formed of a light strong material such as plastic, aluminum or the like.
  • the capsule 11 is of elongated annular construction having ends 12 and 15, an exterior wall 13 and an interior wall 14 spaced inwardly therefrom, said interior wall dening a central bore 16 extending throughout the longitudinal axis of the capsule.
  • the remaining capsule 17 is of cylindrical construction having ends Rrice 18 and 19 and an exterior wall 21; Both ends of each of the capsules are formed of a yieldable material which, being frangible, will rupture under the application of pressure.
  • the rocket 10, as illustrated in Fig. l, is in condition for firing; however, for purposes of shipboard handling and storage the rocket is separated into the two components illustrated in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. Each of these components may be stored in a separate compartment and the two brought together just prior to firing of the rocket.
  • the capsule 11 is retained within the rocket casing 22 by means of the end plug 23 which has external threads 24 engaged with the internally threaded portion 25 at the rearward end of the rocket casing.
  • a partition 26 is positioned at the forward end of the casing and is pierced by a plurality of gas ports 27 distributed about the area thereof.
  • the gas ports 27 are each covered by a burst disc 28.
  • a rearwardly opening circular groove 29 On the same side of the partition 26 is a rearwardly opening circular groove 29 with a packing 31 located at the bottom thereof.
  • a gas producing agent 32 On the forward side of the partition a gas producing agent 32 is mounted in close proximity to the igniter 33.
  • the propellant capsule 17 is received within the tubular member 34 which is welded to the injector 35 as at 36, the capsule being retained in the tubular member by temporary closure 37 fitted in the open end of the member 34.
  • the injector 35 is pierced by a plurality of ports 38 which are closed by the burst discs 39, and about the periphery of the injector is a groove 41 to receive ⁇ the O-ring seal 42.
  • the O-ring 42, the nozzle section 43 and the externally threaded nut 44 are all separable from the injector assembly and can be stored and handled either with the injector assembly or separate therefrom as desired.
  • the component of Fig. 3 is first assembled with the component of Fig. 2, this is accomplished by removing the temporary closure 37 and the end plug 23, tting the O-ring 42 in the groove 41 and inserting the tubular member 34 in the bore 16 such that the open end thereof seats in groove 29 and is sealed by packing 31, then inserting the forward end of the nozzle section 43 in the open end of the rocket casing adjacent to the injector 3S and screwing the nut 44 into place in engagement with the threaded portion 25 to hold the entire assembly in place.
  • the rocket is then ready to lbe red.
  • the igniter 33 is activated by connection with a source of electrical current (not shown) and the gas producing agent is ignited.
  • the gas producing agent burns, it produces a gas which builds up pressure forward of the partition 26.
  • suicient pressure is built up, the burst discs 28 are ruptured and the gas ows through the ports 27 into contact with the yieldable ends 15 and 19 of the capsules 11 and 17.
  • the pressure of the gas ruptures ends 15 and 19 ⁇ directly and is transmitted through the propellants to rupture ends 12 and 18, the propellants are then forced yfrom the capsules into Contact with the burst discs 39.
  • Pressure is then built up on the propellants until the burst discs 39 are ruptured, the propellants are then forced through the ports 38 where they are intermingled and injected into the nozzle section 43 where they are burned to create the thrust for propulsion of the rocket.
  • the gas producing agent 32 continues to burn and produce gas until all of the propellants have been forced from the capsules and injected into the nozzle section.
  • an igniter may be provided in the nozzle section to ignite the propellants or self-igniting propellants may -be utilized.
  • the interior wall 46 and rearward end 47 of the capsule 45 are formed of a light, relatively stitr ⁇ material, such as plastic or the like, and the exterior wall 48 and the forward end 49 are formed of a thin, yieldable, pliable membrane, the end 47 having a plurality of frangible inserts 51 spaced about its area.
  • YIn Capsule 52, the rear end 53 and rear portion 54 of 'wall 55 are formed of a light, relatively stii material, suchv as plastic or the like, and the forward end 56 and the forward portion 57 of wall 55 are formed of a thin, yieldable, pliable membrane, the end 53 having a frang'ible insert 58 located therein.
  • a rocket equipped with the capsules 45 and 52 operates in a similar manner to that of ⁇ the rocket of Fig. 1, except that the gas pressure on the yieldable ends 49 and 56 is transmitted through the propellants to rupture inserts 51 and 58.
  • the pliable yieldable, portions of the capsules are then progressively collapsed to the dotted line positions shown in Figs. 4 and 5 forcing the propellants out of the capsules into the injector. This operation is advantageous in that the pressurizing gas is separated from the propellants during their expulsion from the capsules.
  • the present invention is especially useful in bi-propellant rockets since it permits of separate storage and handling of the propellants, but the disclosed system can be used equally as well in a mono-propellant rocket, in which case both capsules would contain the same propellant and separate storage would be unnecessary.
  • a bi-propellant rocket assembly having a casing, a gas producing means and igniter in one end of said casing, a partition having gas ports covered by burst discs positioned adjacent said gas producing means, an injector having gas ports covered by burst discs in the other end of said casing, said injector, partition and casing forming a propellant storagespace, a tubular member concentric with the casing and extending the length of said storage space, the casing and tubular member forming a rst storage chamber and the interior of said tubular member forming a second storage chamber, said injector and casing having cooperating securing means whereby ready access may ybe had to said first and second storage chambers by disengaging the injector from the casing, and first and second removable propellant container means in said rst and second storage chambers, respectively, for separately storing two dilerent propellants, said rst container means comprising an elongated annular capsule, and said second container means comprising a cylindrical capsule having closed ends,
  • a bi-propellant rocket assembly having a casing, a gas producing means and igniter in one end of said casing, a partition having gas ports covered by burst discs positioned adjacent said gas producing means, an injector having gas ports covered by burst discs positioned in the other end of said casing, said injector, partition and casing forming a propellant storage chamber, and removable propellant container means positioned in said chamber for separately storing two different propellants, said container means compris-ing first and second capsules of equal length extending the length of said chamber, said rst capsule being of elongated annular form having an inner wall of relatively stiif material and a spaced outer wall of yieldable material, and said second capsule being cylindrical in form and nested concentrically within said rst capsule, the forward portion of the second capsule adjacent said partition being formed of a yieldable mastii material havingA an orifice covered by a frangible disc in the end adjacent said injector.

Description

Sept. 8, 1959 J. D. McKn-:RNAN 2,902,822
CONTAINER STRUCTURE FOR SEPARATE STORAGE OF LIQUID ROCKET PROPELLANTS Filed Feb. 2s. 1954 1N VENTOR ATTORNEYS Fla. 4
FIG. l
'lll/l assignments, to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy Application February 23, 1954, Serial No. 412,127
2 Claims. (Cl. 6I)-'3`S.6)
The present invention `relates to a liquid propellant container and supply system for bi-propellant rockets which facilitates separate storage of each of the propellants.
The liquid propellant systems heretofore known have utilized xed containers and have generally relied upon compressed gas or mechanical pumps to introduce the propellants into the injector. The use of compressed gas necessitates a storage chamber for the gas, thus adding to the weight land space requirements of the system, while mechanical pumps and the turbines employed to operate Vthem are expensive, complicated and subject to frequent failure. In addition, the use of fixed propellant containers in close proximity to each other has created a safety hazard in shipboard handling and storage due to the likelihood of rupture of the containers as a result of rough seas, with consequent mingling of the propellants.
In the present invention separable propellant capsules are used in conjunction with a gas pressure producing means to introduce the propellants directly into the injector without the use of mechanical pumps or compressed gas pressure systems.
An object of the present invention is the provision of an inexpensive and simple container and supply system for liquid rocket propellants.
Another object is the provision of a container and supply system for liquid propellants which allows separate storage of each propellant.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a container and supply system for liquid rocket propellants which facilitates delivery of the propellants to the injector without the use of pumps, compressed gas` systems or any connecting piping.
Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation view in section of a rocket embodying the present invention.
Figs. 2 and 3 are elevation views in section showing the propellant capsules of Fig. l separated for individual storage.
Fig. 4. is a sectional view of another embodiment of a tubular capsule similar to that of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view of another embodiment of a cylindrical capsule similar to that of Fig. 3.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, the rocket 10, Fig. 1, contains two propellant capsules 11 and 17 nested in concentric relation, both of said capsules being formed of a light strong material such as plastic, aluminum or the like. The capsule 11 is of elongated annular construction having ends 12 and 15, an exterior wall 13 and an interior wall 14 spaced inwardly therefrom, said interior wall dening a central bore 16 extending throughout the longitudinal axis of the capsule. The remaining capsule 17 is of cylindrical construction having ends Rrice 18 and 19 and an exterior wall 21; Both ends of each of the capsules are formed of a yieldable material which, being frangible, will rupture under the application of pressure.
The rocket 10, as illustrated in Fig. l, is in condition for firing; however, for purposes of shipboard handling and storage the rocket is separated into the two components illustrated in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. Each of these components may be stored in a separate compartment and the two brought together just prior to firing of the rocket. In the component of Fig. Z the capsule 11 is retained within the rocket casing 22 by means of the end plug 23 which has external threads 24 engaged with the internally threaded portion 25 at the rearward end of the rocket casing. A partition 26 is positioned at the forward end of the casing and is pierced by a plurality of gas ports 27 distributed about the area thereof. On the rearward side of the partition 26 adjacent to the end 15 of-capsule 11, the gas ports 27 are each covered by a burst disc 28. On the same side of the partition 26 is a rearwardly opening circular groove 29 with a packing 31 located at the bottom thereof. On the forward side of the partition a gas producing agent 32 is mounted in close proximity to the igniter 33.
In the component of Fig. 3 the propellant capsule 17 is received within the tubular member 34 which is welded to the injector 35 as at 36, the capsule being retained in the tubular member by temporary closure 37 fitted in the open end of the member 34. The injector 35 is pierced by a plurality of ports 38 which are closed by the burst discs 39, and about the periphery of the injector is a groove 41 to receive `the O-ring seal 42. The O-ring 42, the nozzle section 43 and the externally threaded nut 44 are all separable from the injector assembly and can be stored and handled either with the injector assembly or separate therefrom as desired.
VIn the operation of the rocket 10, the component of Fig. 3 is first assembled with the component of Fig. 2, this is accomplished by removing the temporary closure 37 and the end plug 23, tting the O-ring 42 in the groove 41 and inserting the tubular member 34 in the bore 16 such that the open end thereof seats in groove 29 and is sealed by packing 31, then inserting the forward end of the nozzle section 43 in the open end of the rocket casing adjacent to the injector 3S and screwing the nut 44 into place in engagement with the threaded portion 25 to hold the entire assembly in place. The rocket is then ready to lbe red. To lire the rocket, the igniter 33 is activated by connection with a source of electrical current (not shown) and the gas producing agent is ignited. As the gas producing agent burns, it produces a gas which builds up pressure forward of the partition 26. When suicient pressure is built up, the burst discs 28 are ruptured and the gas ows through the ports 27 into contact with the yieldable ends 15 and 19 of the capsules 11 and 17. The pressure of the gas ruptures ends 15 and 19 `directly and is transmitted through the propellants to rupture ends 12 and 18, the propellants are then forced yfrom the capsules into Contact with the burst discs 39. Pressure is then built up on the propellants until the burst discs 39 are ruptured, the propellants are then forced through the ports 38 where they are intermingled and injected into the nozzle section 43 where they are burned to create the thrust for propulsion of the rocket. The gas producing agent 32 continues to burn and produce gas until all of the propellants have been forced from the capsules and injected into the nozzle section. If required, an igniter may be provided in the nozzle section to ignite the propellants or self-igniting propellants may -be utilized.
In the alternative embodiments of the annular capr 3 sule and the cylindrical capsule shown in Figs. 4 and 5 respectively, the interior wall 46 and rearward end 47 of the capsule 45 are formed of a light, relatively stitr` material, such as plastic or the like, and the exterior wall 48 and the forward end 49 are formed of a thin, yieldable, pliable membrane, the end 47 having a plurality of frangible inserts 51 spaced about its area. YIn Capsule 52, the rear end 53 and rear portion 54 of 'wall 55 are formed of a light, relatively stii material, suchv as plastic or the like, and the forward end 56 and the forward portion 57 of wall 55 are formed of a thin, yieldable, pliable membrane, the end 53 having a frang'ible insert 58 located therein. A rocket equipped with the capsules 45 and 52 operates in a similar manner to that of` the rocket of Fig. 1, except that the gas pressure on the yieldable ends 49 and 56 is transmitted through the propellants to rupture inserts 51 and 58. The pliable yieldable, portions of the capsules are then progressively collapsed to the dotted line positions shown in Figs. 4 and 5 forcing the propellants out of the capsules into the injector. This operation is advantageous in that the pressurizing gas is separated from the propellants during their expulsion from the capsules.
The present invention is especially useful in bi-propellant rockets since it permits of separate storage and handling of the propellants, but the disclosed system can be used equally as well in a mono-propellant rocket, in which case both capsules would contain the same propellant and separate storage would be unnecessary.
Obviously many modifications and variations of the Y present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention maybe practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
What is claimed is:
1. A bi-propellant rocket assembly having a casing, a gas producing means and igniter in one end of said casing, a partition having gas ports covered by burst discs positioned adjacent said gas producing means, an injector having gas ports covered by burst discs in the other end of said casing, said injector, partition and casing forming a propellant storagespace, a tubular member concentric with the casing and extending the length of said storage space, the casing and tubular member forming a rst storage chamber and the interior of said tubular member forming a second storage chamber, said injector and casing having cooperating securing means whereby ready access may ybe had to said first and second storage chambers by disengaging the injector from the casing, and first and second removable propellant container means in said rst and second storage chambers, respectively, for separately storing two dilerent propellants, said rst container means comprising an elongated annular capsule, and said second container means comprising a cylindrical capsule having closed ends, the ends of each capsule being yieldable and positioned adjacent a gas` port in said partition and injector.
2. A bi-propellant rocket assembly having a casing, a gas producing means and igniter in one end of said casing, a partition having gas ports covered by burst discs positioned adjacent said gas producing means, an injector having gas ports covered by burst discs positioned in the other end of said casing, said injector, partition and casing forming a propellant storage chamber, and removable propellant container means positioned in said chamber for separately storing two different propellants, said container means compris-ing first and second capsules of equal length extending the length of said chamber, said rst capsule being of elongated annular form having an inner wall of relatively stiif material and a spaced outer wall of yieldable material, and said second capsule being cylindrical in form and nested concentrically within said rst capsule, the forward portion of the second capsule adjacent said partition being formed of a yieldable mastii material havingA an orifice covered by a frangible disc in the end adjacent said injector.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS
US412127A 1954-02-23 1954-02-23 Container structure for separate storage of liquid rocket propellants Expired - Lifetime US2902822A (en)

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3001363A (en) * 1958-03-04 1961-09-26 Jr Joseph G Thibodaux Spherical solid-propellant rocket motor
US3094071A (en) * 1959-06-30 1963-06-18 Union Carbide Corp Vacuum insulated storage tanks for missile use
US3117424A (en) * 1962-01-22 1964-01-14 Specialties Dev Corp Apparatus for generating gaseous mixtures for inflating inflatable devices
US3163014A (en) * 1963-05-07 1964-12-29 Specialties Dev Corp Apparatus for generating gaseous mixtures
US3180089A (en) * 1960-02-15 1965-04-27 Aerojet General Co Positive displacement fuel feeding system
US3220674A (en) * 1963-07-16 1965-11-30 Siebelwerke Atg G M B H Spreading attachment for an airborne vehicle
US4807833A (en) * 1986-04-11 1989-02-28 Pori James A Combined space vehicle fuel cell and space station structural building component
US4811556A (en) * 1986-10-14 1989-03-14 General Electric Company Multiple-propellant air vehicle and propulsion system
US4817890A (en) * 1986-10-14 1989-04-04 General Electric Company Multiple-propellant air vehicle and propulsion system
US4835959A (en) * 1986-10-14 1989-06-06 General Electric Company Multiple-propellant air vehicle and propulsion system
US4840025A (en) * 1986-10-14 1989-06-20 General Electric Company Multiple-propellant air vehicle and propulsion system
US4841723A (en) * 1986-10-14 1989-06-27 General Electric Company Multiple-propellant air vehicle and propulsion system
US20130263573A1 (en) * 2011-11-25 2013-10-10 Astrium Gmbh Rocket Stage Having Engine Thrust Frame Integrated With Tank
US20190360431A1 (en) * 2017-01-13 2019-11-28 Orbital Express Launch Limited Rocket propellant tank arrangement, rocket propulsion unit, and rocket

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2385648A (en) * 1944-06-16 1945-09-25 Prager Martin Double container
CH272168A (en) * 1947-06-24 1950-12-15 Hans Dr Scheidegger Rocket.
US2671312A (en) * 1948-11-20 1954-03-09 Onera (Off Nat Aerospatiale) Device for feeding reagents to the mixing chambers of rockets
US2700337A (en) * 1952-02-28 1955-01-25 James M Cumming Liquid propellent rocket
US2711630A (en) * 1951-12-28 1955-06-28 Lehman Sylvester Clyde Rockets

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2385648A (en) * 1944-06-16 1945-09-25 Prager Martin Double container
CH272168A (en) * 1947-06-24 1950-12-15 Hans Dr Scheidegger Rocket.
US2671312A (en) * 1948-11-20 1954-03-09 Onera (Off Nat Aerospatiale) Device for feeding reagents to the mixing chambers of rockets
US2711630A (en) * 1951-12-28 1955-06-28 Lehman Sylvester Clyde Rockets
US2700337A (en) * 1952-02-28 1955-01-25 James M Cumming Liquid propellent rocket

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3001363A (en) * 1958-03-04 1961-09-26 Jr Joseph G Thibodaux Spherical solid-propellant rocket motor
US3094071A (en) * 1959-06-30 1963-06-18 Union Carbide Corp Vacuum insulated storage tanks for missile use
US3180089A (en) * 1960-02-15 1965-04-27 Aerojet General Co Positive displacement fuel feeding system
US3117424A (en) * 1962-01-22 1964-01-14 Specialties Dev Corp Apparatus for generating gaseous mixtures for inflating inflatable devices
US3163014A (en) * 1963-05-07 1964-12-29 Specialties Dev Corp Apparatus for generating gaseous mixtures
US3220674A (en) * 1963-07-16 1965-11-30 Siebelwerke Atg G M B H Spreading attachment for an airborne vehicle
US4807833A (en) * 1986-04-11 1989-02-28 Pori James A Combined space vehicle fuel cell and space station structural building component
US4811556A (en) * 1986-10-14 1989-03-14 General Electric Company Multiple-propellant air vehicle and propulsion system
US4817890A (en) * 1986-10-14 1989-04-04 General Electric Company Multiple-propellant air vehicle and propulsion system
US4835959A (en) * 1986-10-14 1989-06-06 General Electric Company Multiple-propellant air vehicle and propulsion system
US4840025A (en) * 1986-10-14 1989-06-20 General Electric Company Multiple-propellant air vehicle and propulsion system
US4841723A (en) * 1986-10-14 1989-06-27 General Electric Company Multiple-propellant air vehicle and propulsion system
US20130263573A1 (en) * 2011-11-25 2013-10-10 Astrium Gmbh Rocket Stage Having Engine Thrust Frame Integrated With Tank
US9347400B2 (en) * 2011-11-25 2016-05-24 Astrium Gmbh Rocket stage having engine thrust frame integrated with tank
US20190360431A1 (en) * 2017-01-13 2019-11-28 Orbital Express Launch Limited Rocket propellant tank arrangement, rocket propulsion unit, and rocket

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