US2885916A - Forging apparatus - Google Patents

Forging apparatus Download PDF

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US2885916A
US2885916A US692725A US69272557A US2885916A US 2885916 A US2885916 A US 2885916A US 692725 A US692725 A US 692725A US 69272557 A US69272557 A US 69272557A US 2885916 A US2885916 A US 2885916A
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jaws
stock
forging
pair
yoke
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US692725A
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Jr Ralph W Russell
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Jr Ralph W Russell
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J7/00Hammers; Forging machines with hammers or die jaws acting by impact
    • B21J7/02Special design or construction
    • B21J7/18Forging machines working with die jaws, e.g. pivoted, movable laterally of the forging or pressing direction, e.g. for swaging

Description

R. w. RUSSELL, JR 2,885,916

FORGING APPARATUS Filed Oct. 28, 1957 I I? v 2941 II 28 I l0. 5 5

I l M 62 )NI/ENTOR' I By u MM! ATTORNEYS.

United States Patent C) FORGING APPARATUS Ralph W. Russell, In, Chicago, Ill. Application October 28, 1957, Serial No. 692,725

9 Claims. (Cl. 78-20) This invention relates generally to metal forging apparatus, and more particularly to improved forging apparatus particularly adapted for forging metal stock at a rapid rate with comparatively inexpensive equipment requiring relatively low pressures.

Prior art forging techniques and known forging apparatus have not proved satisfactory when used for the forging of the newer refractory metals and alloys. These non-ferrous materials, such as commercially pure chromium, nickel, mixtures of chromium and nickel, and alloys exemplified by the trade name Waspalloy are not very ductible, even in the range of 2000" F. or higher. In some instances, forging of these metals must be limited to temperatures not in excess of 1600 F. in order to preserve a desired crystal lattice.

Forging generally consists in reducing the cross-sectional area of a piece of stock while simultaneously increasing its length. For example, a round rod may be forged into a rod of square cross section having a greater length. conventionally, this is done by applying a force to opposed sides of the rod, as for example by means of a trip hammer, or by passing the rod between a pair of rollers.

When conventional means of this kind are used on the refractory metals and alloys, shattering of the stock almost invariably results. A trip hammer applies a sharp impact which causes the metal to chip olf into small pieces. Passing the metal between a pair of spaced rollers usually causes the metal to fracture in a transverse direction as the narrowly spaced rollers act in the same manner as a pair of wedges to tear the metal apart.

Alternatively, it has been suggested to apply the forging force to the stock by a pair of parallel force producing members, such as the parallel platens of a hydraulic press. Although this technique allows the force to be applied in a gradual, rather than a sudden manner, it results in all of the distortion in the stock taking place in one direction. For example, when a round rod is placed between parallel force-producing members, the metal flow will take place in the direction of the smallest dimension in contact with the force-producing members, which, in the case of a round rod, is in the lateral direction. The friction between the stock being processed and the force-producing members is so great that no elongation or expansion in the longitudinal direction is produced. Furthermore, if it is desired to form a wedgeshaped piece of metal, such as the head of a brick ham- 2,885,916 Patented May 12, 1959' It is another object of this invention to provide improved forging apparatus, as described above, which enables metal stock to be forged at a comparatively rapid rate and with a relatively low pressure.

It is still another object of this invention to provide an improved forging apparatus which applies a force to opposed sides of a piece of stock progressively along the length of the stock to simultaneously flatten and elongate the stock. It is a further object of this invention to provide improved forging apparatus, as described above, which deforms the stock in a uniform manner along its length by retaining the pressure on the stock as such pressure is progressively applied along the length of the stock.

It is a still further object of this invention to provide new and improved forging apparatus which is characterized by its efficiency, its wide range of application and its economy of construction and operation.

These and other objects are realized in accordance with a specific illustrative embodiment of the invention wherein the forging apparatus is comprised of a pair of forming jaws which are curved outwardly and pivoted at their ends. In accordance with a feature of this invention, the more widely spaced ends of the curved jaws are pivoted to the lower and upper platens, respectively, of a hydraulic press. The more narrowly spaced ends of the curved jaws are pivotally connected to a yoke formed by a pair of spaced parallel plates.

Thus, as the stock is fed between the pair of curved jawsadvantageously the stock is fed into narrow space between the ends of the jaws in the yoke-the platens of the press are brought together to cause the outer ends of the jaws to move toward each other to flatten the stock by applying a force to opposed sides of the stock in a, progressive manner along its length. The force producedv not only reduces the cross-sectional area of the stock but also it causes it to elongate uniformly along its length as the pressure is retained on the areas of the stock progressively placed in contact with the curved forming jaws.

It is a further feature of this invention that the progressive application and retention of the force on the stock by the curved forming jaws enables the invention to be used for the forging of metals having relatively little ductility without fracturing such metals or causing a nonuniform expansion as in the case of forging by passing the metal through spaced rollers. Further, the improved forging apparatus of the present invention is considerably smaller and less expensive than rolling mills, and due to the substantial mechanical advantage resulting from the curved forming jaws, relatively low pressures are required.

The above and other various features of novelty which characterize the invention are pointed out with'particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of the specification. For a better understanding of the invention, however, its advantages and the specific objects attained with its use, reference is bad to the accompanying drawing and descriptive material in-which is shown and described an illustrative embodiment of the invention.

In the drawing:

Figure 1 is a side elevational view of an improved forging apparatus embodying the invention;

Figure 2 is a front elevational view of the forging apparatus shown in Figure 1;

Figure 3 is a view partly in cross section showing the details of the forming jaws and pivoted yoke assembly in accordance with the invention; and

Figure 4 is a perspective view of one embodiment of offset pin for adjusting the spacing between the forming jaws at the yoke. v Referring now to the drawing, there is shown a specific illustrative embodiment of an improved forging apparatus in accordance with the invention which is particularly adapted for the forging of refractory metals and refractory alloys. The forging apparatus comprises a pair of arcuate forming jaws and 12 which advantageously are curved outwardly to define a narrow opening between the jaws at one end thereof and a comparatively wide opening between the jaws at the other end thereof.

In accordance with a feature of this invention, the more widely spaced ends of jaws 10 and 12 are pivoted to the lower and upper platens of a hydraulic press. Thus, one end of the forming jaw 10 is pivotally positioned by means of a bearing pin 14 extending therethrough between a pair of supports 15 and 16 depending from the upper platen 18 of the hydraulic press.

Similarly, one end of the forming jaw 12 is pivotally positioned by means of the bearing pin 20 extending therethrough, between a pair of supports 22 and 24 extending upwardly from lower platen 26 of the hydraulic press. Advantageously, bearing pins 14 and 20 are threaded at their opposing ends and are maintained in position by means of the lock nuts 28 threaded thereon.

A yoke comprising a pair of spaced apart, vertically positioned plates 30 and 32 is adapted to support the other ends of the forming jaws 10 and 12 between the plates. As shown in greater detail in Figure 3, an arcuate plate cap 34 is secured to the end of forming jaw 10 by means of screw 36 threaded into jaw 10 and an arcuate plate cap 38 is secured to the end of the forming jaw 12 by means of the screw 40 threaded into jaw 12. Each plate cap is curved to receive a bearing pin having offset hubs for enabling the position of the jaw to be changed to the end that the opening between the jaws can be adjusted as desired.

As shown in Figure 4, each bearing pin is formed with a cylindrical body 42 having a pair of offset threaded hubs 44 and 46 extending from opposing sides thereof. Forming jaw 10 is formed with an arcuate recess 47 adapted to receive the cylindrical body 42 of the bearing pin 48 and the pin is positioned between the plate cap 34 and-the forming jaw 10. Similarly, forming jaw 12 is formed with an arcuate recess 49 so that bearing pin 50 is positioned between forming jaw 12 and the plate cap 38.

The threaded hubs of each bearing pin extend through the vertical yoke members 30 and 32 so that the ends of the arcuate forming jaws are pivotally supported in the yoke. Advantageously, the bearing pins are maintained in position by means of the nuts 51 threaded on hubs 44 and 46 at their outer surfaces of the yoke plates 30 and 32.

Plate cap 34 is provided with a set screw 52 and plate cap 38 is provided with a set screw 54, each of which may be tightened into the surface of its respective bearing pin to lock the pin in position. In accordance with an aspect of this invention, the set screws 52 and 54 may be loosened to allow the bearing pins to be rotated on their offset hubs for adjusting the spacing between the arcuate forming jaws 10 and 12 to any desired opening.

In the forging apparatus of the invention, it has been found advantageous to support the ends of the forming jaws 10 and 12 positioned in the yoke by means of a pair of arcuate supports positioned at each side of the forming jaws. Thus, at one side of the forming jaws 10 and 12, an arcuate support is pivoted at one end to the bearing pin 20 and at its other end to the bearing pin 48.

In a similar fashion, an arcuate support 62 is pivoted at one end to the bearing pin 14 and at its other end to the bearing pin 50. The other sides of the forming jaws 10 and 12 also are provided with a pair of similarly pivoted support members 64 and 66. In accordance with an aspect of this invention, theends of supports 60,

62, 64 and 66 which are pivoted to the yoke bearing pins are provided with-suitable elongated slots, such as the slot 68 in the support 62', so that when the forming jaws are opened or closed, the supports are operative to maintain the yoke in a desired position. In lieu of the arcuate supports 60, 62, 64 and 66, the yoke and forming jaws at the narrow opening may be supported by any suitable means such as a. flexible chain depending from the upper press platen 18 and connected to the yoke plates.

In the operation of the. invention the stock is fed betweenthe pair of arcuate forming jaws 10 and 12, and the platens 18 and 26 of the press are brought together to cause the outer. ends, of the jaws to move toward each other. One considerable advantage of this invention is that as the arcuate forming jaws are moved towards each other by the press, the stock between the jaws is flattened by a force which is applied progressively to opposing sides of the stock along its length from the yoke end of the forging apparatus to the widely spaced end. The force applied to the stock not only reduces its cross-sectional area in a desired manner, but very importantly, this force causes the stock to elongate uniformly. along its length since the pressure of the forming jaws is maintained on the areas of the stock progressively placed in contact with the jaws. In other words, as the force of the forming jaws is progressively applied along the length of the stock, the portions of the stock to which the force has already been applied continues to have the force applied thereto. This action serves to elongate the stock in a uniform manner along its length and to enable the stock to be simultaneously flattened in a similarly uniform manner.

It is a further and very important feature of this invention that the progressive application and retention of the force on the stock by the arcuate forming jaws 10 and 12 enables the forging apparatus to be used for the forging of metals having-relatively little ductility without fracturing such metals or causing a non-uniform expansion as occurs, for example, in forging operations where the metal is passed through spaced rollers.

The above-described forging apparatus provides a considerable advantage over conventional forging means, such as the trip hammer or spaced roller type, for the force is applied to the stock in a gradual rather than a sudden manner. This results in all of the distortion in the stock taking place in la single direction since the friction between the stock being processed and the force producing members is so great along the longitudinal direction that no real elongation or expansion in the transverse direction can take place.

Further, the improved forging apparatus described above has the considerable advantage of being very much smaller and less expensive than forging apparatus of the rolling mill type.

A still further advantage arises from the substantial mechanical advantage achieved from the curved forming jaws in that only relatively low pressures are required with their use.

While a specific embodiment of the invention has been shown and described in detail, it will readily be understood by those skilled in the art that this embodiment is illustrative only of the principles of the invention and is not to be taken as a definition of the scope of the invention, reference being had for this purpose to the appended claims.

What I claim as my invention is:

1. The improvement of forging apparatus comprising the combination of a pair of arcuate forming jaws adapted to be spaced from each other to define a wide opening at one end of the jaw and a narrow opening at the other end of the jaw, a pair of spaced yoke members, means pivotally connecting the end of the jaws defining the narrow opening to said spaced yoke members, said yoke members and said jaws defining an opening for receiving metal stock, press means having an upper and a lower platen, and means pivotally connecting the ends of the jaws defining the wide opening to said upper and lower platens respectively for enabling the closure of said platens to cause said arcuate forming jaws to apply a force to opposing sides of the metal stock progressively .along its length, whereby said metal is simultaneously flattened and elongated by said jaws.

2. The improvement of forging apparatus particularly adapted for forging refractory metal and refractory alloy stock comprising a pair of arcuate forming jaws spaced from each other to receive the stock therebetween, said jaws at one end thereof defining a relatively narrow opening and at the other end thereof defining a relatively wide opening, means pivotally connecting the ends of the jaws at the narrow opening to a pair of spaced support members, and means pivotally connecting the ends of the jaws at the wide opening to a pair of platens whereby the closure of the platens causes the jaws to progressively apply a force to opposing sides of the stock for simultaneously flattening and elongating the stock.

3. The improvement of forging apparatus comprising the combination of a pair of spaced arcuate forming jaws, a pair of spaced yoke members, means pivotally connecting one end of each jaw to said spaced yoke members, said yoke members and said jaws defining an opening for receiving metal stock, press means having an upper and a lower platen, and means pivotally connecting the other ends of the jaws to said upper and lower platens, respectively, whereby the closure of said platens causes said arcuate forming jaws to be pivoted about their pivotal connection on said yoke members to apply a force by said jaws to opposing sides of the metal stock progressively along its length, whereby said metal is simultaneously flattened and elongated by said jaws.

4. The improvement of forging apparatus comprising a pair of arcuate forming jaws for forging a piece of stock placed therebetween, means pivotally connecting one end of each jaw to a support to define a relatively narrow opening between said pair of arcuate forming jaws, means pivotally connecting the other ends of the jaws to a further pair of supports to define a relatively wide opening therebetween, and press means connected to said further pair of supports for closing the jaws to simultaneously flatten and elongate the stock by applying and maintaining a force by said jaws to opposing sides of the stock in a progressive manner along its length.

5. The improvement of forging apparatus particularly adapted for forging refractory metal and alloy stock comprising a pair of arcuate forming jaws spaced from each other to receive the stock therebetween, said jaws at one end thereof defining a relatively narrow opening and at the other end thereof defining a relatively wide opening, means pivotally connecting the ends of the jaws at the narrow opening to a yoke, means pivotally connecting the ends of the jaws at the wide opening to a pair of platens whereby the closure of the platens causes the jaws to be pivoted about their pivotal connection at said yoke to progressively apply a force by said jaws to opposing sides of the stock for simultaneously flattening and elongating the stock, and support means for said yoke, said support means comprising a pair of arcuate support members pivotally connected between the platens and the yoke.

6. The improvement of forging apparatus comprising a pair of arcuate forming jaws for forging a piece of stock placed therebetween, means pivotally connecting one end of each jaw to a support to define a relatively narrow opening therebetween, means at the connection between each end of the jaw and the support for adjusting the size of said relatively narrow opening as desired, means pivotally connecting the other ends of the .6 jaws to a further pair of supports to define a relatively wide opening therebetween, and press means connected to said further pair of supports for pivotally operating the jaws at said narrow opening and thereby closing the jaws to simultaneously flatten and elongate the stock by applying and maintaining a force to opposing sides of the stock in a progressive manner along its length.

7. The improvement of forging apparatus comprising a pair of arcuate forming jaws for forging a piece of stock placed therebetween, means pivotally connecting one end of each jaw to a support to define a relatively narrow opening therebetween, means for adjusting the size of said narrow opening to a desired spacing including a pin having a cylindrical body and a pair of off center hubs extending from opposing sides thereof, and an arcuate plate cap positioned in locking engagement with said cylindrical body for locking the pin in a selected position, means pivotally connecting the other ends of the jaws to a pair of supports to define the relatively wide opening therebetween, and press means connected to said pair of supports for closing the jaws to simultaneously flatten and elongate the stock by applying and maintaining a force to opposing sides of the stock in a progressive manner along its length.

8. The improvement of forging apparatus for metal stock comprising the combination of a pair of arcuate forming jaws adapted to be spaced from each other to define a wide opening at one end of the jaw and a narrow opening at the other end of the jaw, a pair of spaced yoke members, means pivotally connecting the end of the jaws defining the narrow opening to said spaced yoke members, and press means pivotally connected to the ends of the jaws defining the wide opening for pivotally operating the arcuate forming jaws at their connection to said yoke and thereby closing said arcuate forming jaws to apply a force to opposing sides of the metal stock progressively along its length, whereby said metal is simultaneously flattened and elongated by said jaws.

9. The improvement of forging apparatus particularly adapted for forging refractory metal and alloy stock comprising a pair of arcuate forming jaws spaced from each other to receive the stock therebetween, said jaws at one end thereof defining a relatively narrow opening and at the other end thereof defining a relatively wide opening, means pivotally connecting the ends of the jaws at the narrow opening to a yoke, means pivotally connecting the ends of the jaws at the Wide opening to a pair of platens whereby the closure of the platens causes the jaws to be pivotally operated at their yoke connection to progressively apply a force by said jaws to opposing sides of the stock for simultaneously flattening and elongating the stock, and means at said yoke for adjusting the spacing between the arcuate forming jaws at said relatively narrow opening.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 483,091 Yarington Sept. 20, 1892 832,804 ONeal et al. Oct. 9, 1906 1,114,889 Kohlhaas Oct. 27, 1914 1,354,216 Schneider Sept. 28, 1920 1,971,512 Stahl Aug. 28, 1934 2,298,937 Green Oct. 13, 1942 2,421,414 Ernst June 3, 1947 2,483,597 Schogren Oct. 4, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS 12,787 Great Britain June 10, 1896 535,471 France Apr. 15, 1922 269,872 Switzerland Nov. 1, 1950 1,070,799 France Feb. 24, 1954

US692725A 1957-10-28 1957-10-28 Forging apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2885916A (en)

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Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US483091A (en) * 1892-09-20 Charles h
GB189612787A (en) * 1896-06-10 1897-05-22 Thomas Price Taylor Improvements in the Manufacture of Metallic Articles, such as Spoons, Forks, and the like, and in the Machinery and Tools to be Used therein.
US832804A (en) * 1906-10-09 Andrew S Nisler Tool.
US1114889A (en) * 1913-10-04 1914-10-27 Peter Zirbes Kohlhaas Process of making knives.
US1354216A (en) * 1918-08-21 1920-09-28 Schneider & Cie Process and apparatus for ascertaining the hardness of metal parts
FR535471A (en) * 1920-05-17 1922-04-15 New long gripper system
US1971512A (en) * 1933-07-24 1934-08-28 Frank E Stahl Method of forming a reenforcing swell on the inside of welded chain links
US2298937A (en) * 1941-04-30 1942-10-13 Westinghouse Electric & Mfg Co Method and machine for securely clamping filaments to leads
US2421414A (en) * 1946-02-19 1947-06-03 George M Ernst Vise shears
US2483597A (en) * 1946-03-22 1949-10-04 Heppenstall Co Supplemental forging press die
CH269872A (en) * 1949-02-22 1950-07-31 Hartmann Rudolf Tool and the like for gripping a partially submerged in wells bodies, such as wedges.
FR1070799A (en) * 1952-02-13 1954-08-12 Wiggin & Co Ltd Henry Stamping perfected

Patent Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US483091A (en) * 1892-09-20 Charles h
US832804A (en) * 1906-10-09 Andrew S Nisler Tool.
GB189612787A (en) * 1896-06-10 1897-05-22 Thomas Price Taylor Improvements in the Manufacture of Metallic Articles, such as Spoons, Forks, and the like, and in the Machinery and Tools to be Used therein.
US1114889A (en) * 1913-10-04 1914-10-27 Peter Zirbes Kohlhaas Process of making knives.
US1354216A (en) * 1918-08-21 1920-09-28 Schneider & Cie Process and apparatus for ascertaining the hardness of metal parts
FR535471A (en) * 1920-05-17 1922-04-15 New long gripper system
US1971512A (en) * 1933-07-24 1934-08-28 Frank E Stahl Method of forming a reenforcing swell on the inside of welded chain links
US2298937A (en) * 1941-04-30 1942-10-13 Westinghouse Electric & Mfg Co Method and machine for securely clamping filaments to leads
US2421414A (en) * 1946-02-19 1947-06-03 George M Ernst Vise shears
US2483597A (en) * 1946-03-22 1949-10-04 Heppenstall Co Supplemental forging press die
CH269872A (en) * 1949-02-22 1950-07-31 Hartmann Rudolf Tool and the like for gripping a partially submerged in wells bodies, such as wedges.
FR1070799A (en) * 1952-02-13 1954-08-12 Wiggin & Co Ltd Henry Stamping perfected

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