US2881444A - Aerodynamic seal for face masks - Google Patents

Aerodynamic seal for face masks Download PDF

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Publication number
US2881444A
US2881444A US584868A US58486856A US2881444A US 2881444 A US2881444 A US 2881444A US 584868 A US584868 A US 584868A US 58486856 A US58486856 A US 58486856A US 2881444 A US2881444 A US 2881444A
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United States
Prior art keywords
face
seal
mask
pressures
masks
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Expired - Lifetime
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US584868A
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John N Fresh
Richard D Murphy
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John N Fresh
Richard D Murphy
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Priority to US584868A priority Critical patent/US2881444A/en
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Publication of US2881444A publication Critical patent/US2881444A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F9/00Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; Apparatus to guide the blind; Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand
    • A61F9/02Goggles
    • A61F9/026Paddings; Cushions; Fittings to the face

Description

April 14, 1959 J. N. FRESH ET AL 2,881,444

AERODYNAMIC. SEAL FOR FACE MASKS Filed May 14, 1956 m S P W R E mH N NSM. R E 0 V D T 1. M R

H ma Unie tate P e 7 2,881,444 AERODYNAMIC SEAL non FACE MASKS John N. Fresh and RichardD. Murphy, Bethesda, Md.

' Application May 14, 1956, sans... ss4,sss

ZClaims. cu-9 (Granted under Title as, Us. cost 1952 see. 266) The invention described herein may be manufactured andused by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefor.

' This invention relates 'to face masks or shields and more particularly to a face seal for open-ended wind masks which permits such masks to be worn for extended periods of time without imposing discomfort due to headband pressures necessary to" keep them substantially airtight about the wearers face.

Prior art open'ended air-stagnating-wind masks encii'cling portions of a wearer's face 'a're'adapted to protect a wearers face, and particularly his, eyes against the hazards of high winds and/or extremecold. Sealing about the face is-required-toprevent'l'achrymation and is usually effected through a resilient'b'ead or the like about the facecontacting-periphery" of the mask. A strap is*usually-employed-to maintain the bead pressed against the face.

Because such masks are worn over protracted periods of time comfort is a prime consideration. In the prior art, severe headband pressures were required to effect proper sealing against wind pressures buffeting the mask from different angles. These pressures produced discomfort about the face and headaches after prolonged wear. Further, since masks are not usually manufactured for particular individuals, and due to different facial contours, sealing, in many instances, could only be effected by employing headband pressures which deformed the masks. Such an expedient reduced the effect of the seal and multiplied the deleterious effects on the wearer. Such an expedient also reduced the time the mask could be worn and affected the alertness of the wearer during the time it could be worn.

The instant invention provides a face seal for a face mask which gives greater comfort over longer periods of time by reducing headband pressures necessary to provide efficient sealing. The seal comprises generally a thin circumferential flap and a plurality of spaced annular elements all integral with the mask frame, and wherein said elements form a plurality of air passages which act individually to seal the mask by taking advantage of the stagnation pressures in the mask, and together to provide a comfortable resilient cushion through distribution of pressures over a greater area of the face. The frame of the seal further incorporates a bellows which in combination with said cushion enables the mask to adapt to a variety of facial contours, eliminating the need for severe headband pressures which would tend to deform the frame about the face contacting periphery, without impairing sealing action.

An object of the invention is to provide a face mask employing an aerodynamic seal which enables it to be worn comfortably for extended periods of time.

Another object of the invention is the provision of a seal for a wind mask which conforms to a variety of facial contours while eliminating the requirement of severe headband pressures to effect sealing.

A further object of the invention is the provision of a face seal for a wind mask which utilizes the difference in pressures between ambient and the pressures within the mask to render the mask substantially airtight.

Another object of the invention is the provision of a seal for a wind mask which acts positively to render the seal more airtight upon the occurrence of leaks therearound.

Still another object is to providea cushion and seal which renders the abrasion against a wearers face negligible.

Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detail description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a goggle-type wind mask in accordance with the invention;

Fig. 2 is a plan view in elevation of the wind mask of Fig. 1; and

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal cross sectional viewof the wind of a goggle type contoured in accordance with an average.

facial structure. The mask :5 is secured to a wearers face 6 as by a strap 7 or the like adapted to hold a seal and cushion generally designated by reference 8 (Fig. 3) against said wearers face. It is to be understood that the instant invention may be utilized with'face shields which protect the whole of a wearers face or with breather type masks which cover only the nose and mouth portions of the wearers face.

Specifically the wind mask comprises an annular substantially elliptical relatively resilient tubular frame body member 9 of rubber or plastic composition. Secured to the frame body member 9 by any suitable method is a tubular open-ended transparent wind shield 10 made of plastic or the like, having good temperature stability over wide ranges. The strap 7 of resilient material or nonresilient material with means for positively adjusting it in length is provided and secured as at 11 to the frame member 9 by any appropriate means.

Considering the mask by itself, the face contacting edge (Fig. 3) of the frame member 9 incorporates the seal and cushion 8 which comprises a fringe with a plurality of oval elements 12. The outermost element is an oval flap 13 substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the frame body member 9 adapted to flare outwardly against the wearers face during use. The remaining elements are oval ridge-like projections or fingers 14 integral with or originating from a thickened portion of the frame body material 9. Each of the fingers or elements 13 and 14 is much thinner than the main portion of the frame member 9 from which it extends. These fingers 14 project inwardly at an acute angle and increase in length toward the axis of the mask. Oval spaces 15 between the projections 14 are such as to form a plurality of air passages which together with the projections 14 act collectively to form a flexible cushion against the wearers face and individually to provide a. plurality of seals about the wearers face as will he described later. Intermediate of the frame body 9 between the cushion and seal 8 and the transparent shield 10 are provided two wedge-shaped depressions 16 on the opposite short sides of the elliptical frame member 9 Patented Apr-f 14, 1959* The principle of operation of the seal and cushion described is to divide the total pressure differential between the inside -andvoutside of. themask into, a series. of smaller differential pressuresacross each of. the elements. IZ Inasmuch as; the reaction of a given pressure differential. .by a single element determines. the normal ,force hetween. .that,element orlsealand the face, assuming the seal perfectly fits theface, dividing that same pressure differential by employinga plurality. ofelements 12 distributes the normal.force or pressure against the face and thereby reducesthat pressure underthe same atmospheric conditions to give a cushioning effect. v

wI use the-outermost element orlfl ap 13.:splays outwardly ,of thewearersface and the othenelements-or projections 14 deflect inwardly of the wearers face. The spaces. 15 between;projections14. entrap airwwhen in usevandnvarious pressure .levels,across.themulti-element 2:1;

seal aremaintained b'y slight leakagefrom each element 12. to anadjacent one inthe directionof, decreasing staticpressure. This slight leakage. is not objectionable so long as, the velocities adjacent the Wearers eyes do not produce lachrymation. Should leakage past one. of the ele-. mental} become-appreciable the local static pressureat the leak will be reduced in accordance with the aerodynamic principle of pressure reduction with .increased velocity of flow. This reduction of pressure at the leak due to flow in an adjacent air passage 15 willcause the next adjacent projectionor. finger 14 to .be drawn toward the wearers face resulting in an automatic sealing action.

1 The pliable fringe and bellows 16 in combination allow the automatic adaptation of the mask to. a variety of. facial structureswithout the necessity for the utilization of headband pressures which-would tend to deform the mask and impair the seal, Any depression infacial contours will be sealed by individualprojections14 notbeing depressed tothe same degree as they would be over a' convex portion of the wearer's face. The" action of thewbellowsu lfi isradapted torallow thernask to adjust to faces of varying width with limited deformation of the seal portion of the frame body.

Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claim's the invention may be practiced otherwisethan as specifically. described What is claimed is #15. A mask of a type .describedkomprisin'g a -"frame member of voval shap e, said frame-,membenhaving a bellow-like constinct'io'n' 'at' its sides centrallythereof, a

1,. flexible seal at the face end'of said ;frame member adapted towardthe, otherendof said mask.

to ea the ma ktq a. we r rs fa e an str rz mea s for securing the -mask "to" the head-ofthe Wearerfsa'idstrap means being secured to said frame member between said bellow-like construction and said seal.

2., Ai-mask asdefined .in, claim .1, but further-characterizedbysaid sealcomprisinga plurality of 'flexiblefingers and a flexible :flap, Saidfingersbeing adapted. to: splay inwardly on the wearersface, and being. slightly graduated transversely, being. relatively. longer in a direction I v ReferencesCited in the patent I UNITED STATESlATENTS FOREIGN PATENTS France.... Sept. 29, 1954

US584868A 1956-05-14 1956-05-14 Aerodynamic seal for face masks Expired - Lifetime US2881444A (en)

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US584868A US2881444A (en) 1956-05-14 1956-05-14 Aerodynamic seal for face masks

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Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3027562A (en) * 1960-07-06 1962-04-03 James K Widenor Skin diver's mask
US3483569A (en) * 1968-06-04 1969-12-16 Israel Armendariz Underwater eyemask
US4069516A (en) * 1976-07-21 1978-01-24 A-T-O Inc. Breathing face mask
US4654899A (en) * 1985-02-19 1987-04-07 National Research Development Corporation Eye protectors
US4698857A (en) * 1986-06-09 1987-10-13 Varo, Inc. Light secure eyecup for use with night vision goggles
US4753378A (en) * 1985-12-12 1988-06-28 Varo, Inc. Night vision goggle headgear
FR2684292A1 (en) * 1991-11-29 1993-06-04 Cebe International Sa Mask-goggles for protecting the eyes
EP0898948A1 (en) * 1997-08-27 1999-03-03 Herman Chiang Sport goggle structure
US5901382A (en) * 1996-03-26 1999-05-11 Chiang; Herman Swimming goggles
US20040148684A1 (en) * 2001-05-30 2004-08-05 Klaus Wiedner Safety glasses
US20060130844A1 (en) * 2004-12-22 2006-06-22 Ric Investments, Llc. Cushion for a patient interface
US20060213520A1 (en) * 2000-06-22 2006-09-28 Resmed Limited Mask with gusset
US8032947B1 (en) * 2007-05-29 2011-10-11 Rawlings Sporting Goods Company, Inc. Flex fit eyewear
US20130111655A1 (en) * 2011-11-07 2013-05-09 Yuji Kuroda Swimming mask
US8485192B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-07-16 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8517023B2 (en) 2007-01-30 2013-08-27 Resmed Limited Mask system with interchangeable headgear connectors
US8522784B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2013-09-03 Resmed Limited Mask system
US8869797B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2014-10-28 Resmed Limited Cushion and cushion to frame assembly mechanism for patient interface
US8944061B2 (en) 2005-10-14 2015-02-03 Resmed Limited Cushion to frame assembly mechanism
US9381316B2 (en) 2005-10-25 2016-07-05 Resmed Limited Interchangeable mask assembly
US9907922B2 (en) 2012-09-04 2018-03-06 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Valsalva mask
USD823455S1 (en) 2017-02-23 2018-07-17 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Cushion assembly for breathing mask assembly
USD823454S1 (en) 2017-02-23 2018-07-17 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Cushion assembly for breathing mask assembly
USD824020S1 (en) 2017-02-23 2018-07-24 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Cushion assembly for breathing mask assembly
US10220171B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2019-03-05 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Interface comprising a rolling nasal bridge portion

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB573676A (en) * 1943-10-29 1945-11-30 Arthur Abbey Improvements in variable density goggles
FR920668A (en) * 1946-01-25 1947-04-15 Groove contiguous sealing the edges of the underwater glasses
FR924381A (en) * 1945-06-29 1947-08-04 Mask glass window for divers or diver
US2625684A (en) * 1948-11-12 1953-01-20 Magnusson Eskil Adolf Borje Face protector
FR1089472A (en) * 1953-12-16 1955-03-17 face of the protective device for motorcyclists or cyclistss
US2758308A (en) * 1953-03-02 1956-08-14 American Optical Corp Eye protective devices

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB573676A (en) * 1943-10-29 1945-11-30 Arthur Abbey Improvements in variable density goggles
FR924381A (en) * 1945-06-29 1947-08-04 Mask glass window for divers or diver
FR920668A (en) * 1946-01-25 1947-04-15 Groove contiguous sealing the edges of the underwater glasses
US2625684A (en) * 1948-11-12 1953-01-20 Magnusson Eskil Adolf Borje Face protector
US2758308A (en) * 1953-03-02 1956-08-14 American Optical Corp Eye protective devices
FR1089472A (en) * 1953-12-16 1955-03-17 face of the protective device for motorcyclists or cyclistss

Cited By (65)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3027562A (en) * 1960-07-06 1962-04-03 James K Widenor Skin diver's mask
US3483569A (en) * 1968-06-04 1969-12-16 Israel Armendariz Underwater eyemask
US4069516A (en) * 1976-07-21 1978-01-24 A-T-O Inc. Breathing face mask
US4654899A (en) * 1985-02-19 1987-04-07 National Research Development Corporation Eye protectors
US4753378A (en) * 1985-12-12 1988-06-28 Varo, Inc. Night vision goggle headgear
US4698857A (en) * 1986-06-09 1987-10-13 Varo, Inc. Light secure eyecup for use with night vision goggles
FR2684292A1 (en) * 1991-11-29 1993-06-04 Cebe International Sa Mask-goggles for protecting the eyes
US5901382A (en) * 1996-03-26 1999-05-11 Chiang; Herman Swimming goggles
EP0898948A1 (en) * 1997-08-27 1999-03-03 Herman Chiang Sport goggle structure
US8978653B2 (en) * 2000-06-22 2015-03-17 Resmed Limited Mask with gusset
US20060213520A1 (en) * 2000-06-22 2006-09-28 Resmed Limited Mask with gusset
US9522246B2 (en) 2000-06-22 2016-12-20 Resmed Limited Mask with gusset
US20040148684A1 (en) * 2001-05-30 2004-08-05 Klaus Wiedner Safety glasses
US7080415B2 (en) * 2001-05-30 2006-07-25 Uvex Arbeitsschutz Gmbh Safety glasses
US20060130844A1 (en) * 2004-12-22 2006-06-22 Ric Investments, Llc. Cushion for a patient interface
US7931024B2 (en) 2004-12-22 2011-04-26 Ric Investments, Llc Cushion for a patient interface
US20110155139A1 (en) * 2004-12-22 2011-06-30 Ric Investments, Llc Cushion for a patient interface
US9636475B2 (en) 2004-12-22 2017-05-02 Ric Investments, Llc Cushion for a patient interface
US20070221228A1 (en) * 2004-12-22 2007-09-27 Ric Investments, Llc Cushion for a Patient Interface
US7237551B2 (en) 2004-12-22 2007-07-03 Ric Investments, Llc. Cushion for a patient interface
US8631792B2 (en) * 2004-12-22 2014-01-21 Ric Investments, Llc Cushion for a patient interface
US8613281B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-12-24 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8616211B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-12-31 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8550083B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-10-08 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US9295800B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2016-03-29 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8550081B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-10-08 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8550082B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-10-08 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8555885B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-10-15 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8567404B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-10-29 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8573213B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-11-05 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8573215B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-11-05 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8573214B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-11-05 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8485192B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-07-16 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8613280B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-12-24 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US8578935B2 (en) 2005-01-12 2013-11-12 Resmed Limited Cushion for patient interface
US10137270B2 (en) 2005-10-14 2018-11-27 Resmed Limited Cushion to frame assembly mechanism
US8944061B2 (en) 2005-10-14 2015-02-03 Resmed Limited Cushion to frame assembly mechanism
US9381316B2 (en) 2005-10-25 2016-07-05 Resmed Limited Interchangeable mask assembly
US10183138B2 (en) 2005-10-25 2019-01-22 Resmed Limited Interchangeable mask assembly
US9962510B2 (en) 2005-10-25 2018-05-08 Resmed Limited Respiratory mask assembly
US9937315B2 (en) 2007-01-30 2018-04-10 Resmed Limited Mask with removable headgear connector
US8517023B2 (en) 2007-01-30 2013-08-27 Resmed Limited Mask system with interchangeable headgear connectors
US8960196B2 (en) 2007-01-30 2015-02-24 Resmed Limited Mask system with interchangeable headgear connectors
US8869797B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2014-10-28 Resmed Limited Cushion and cushion to frame assembly mechanism for patient interface
US10195384B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2019-02-05 Resmed Limited Cushion and cushion to frame assembly mechanism for patient interface
US8032947B1 (en) * 2007-05-29 2011-10-11 Rawlings Sporting Goods Company, Inc. Flex fit eyewear
US8550084B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2013-10-08 Resmed Limited Mask system
US9119931B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2015-09-01 Resmed Limited Mask system
US8522784B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2013-09-03 Resmed Limited Mask system
US9770568B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2017-09-26 Resmed Limited Mask system with snap-fit shroud
US8528561B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2013-09-10 Resmed Limited Mask system
US9962511B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2018-05-08 Resmed Limited Mask system with snap-fit shroud
US9027556B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2015-05-12 Resmed Limited Mask system
US9950131B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2018-04-24 Resmed Limited Mask system with snap-fit shroud
US9757533B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2017-09-12 Resmed Limited Mask system with snap-fit shroud
US10220171B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2019-03-05 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Interface comprising a rolling nasal bridge portion
US9663204B2 (en) * 2011-11-07 2017-05-30 Tabata Co., Ltd. Swimming mask
US20130111655A1 (en) * 2011-11-07 2013-05-09 Yuji Kuroda Swimming mask
US9950130B2 (en) 2012-09-04 2018-04-24 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Valsalva mask
US9907922B2 (en) 2012-09-04 2018-03-06 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Valsalva mask
US9907923B2 (en) 2012-09-04 2018-03-06 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Valsalva mask
USD824020S1 (en) 2017-02-23 2018-07-24 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Cushion assembly for breathing mask assembly
USD837973S1 (en) 2017-02-23 2019-01-08 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Cushion assembly for breathing mask assembly
USD823455S1 (en) 2017-02-23 2018-07-17 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Cushion assembly for breathing mask assembly
USD823454S1 (en) 2017-02-23 2018-07-17 Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited Cushion assembly for breathing mask assembly

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