US2837276A - Self-complementing gas tube counter - Google Patents

Self-complementing gas tube counter Download PDF

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US2837276A
US2837276A US301675A US30167552A US2837276A US 2837276 A US2837276 A US 2837276A US 301675 A US301675 A US 301675A US 30167552 A US30167552 A US 30167552A US 2837276 A US2837276 A US 2837276A
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cathode
digit
glow
transfer
pulse
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US301675A
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Richard K Steinberg
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International Business Machines Corp
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International Business Machines Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F7/00Methods or arrangements for processing data by operating upon the order or content of the data handled
    • G06F7/38Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation
    • G06F7/48Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation using non-contact-making devices, e.g. tube, solid state device; using unspecified devices
    • G06F7/491Computations with decimal numbers radix 12 or 20.
    • G06F7/498Computations with decimal numbers radix 12 or 20. using counter-type accumulators
    • G06F7/4981Adding; Subtracting
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J17/00Gas-filled discharge tubes with solid cathode
    • H01J17/38Cold-cathode tubes
    • H01J17/48Cold-cathode tubes with more than one cathode or anode, e.g. sequence-discharge tube, counting tube, dekatron
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2893/00Discharge tubes and lamps
    • H01J2893/007Sequential discharge tubes

Description

June 3, 1958 R. K. STEINBERG SELF-COMPLEMENTING GAS TUBE COUNTER 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed July 30, 1952 TRIGGER CSTh T T T T U U U U w w w w U H U T U U U 0 S O S O S O .C Q. C a C ADD- SUBTRACT TRIGGER 2 2 ILWZI h 2 l 2 l 2 G T A 61 J rT A2 ig rv e a w 6 aw w C I 2 2 2 T I U Pi in F E B d JG 4 J .v 1 D 1 D r Q A A RW K WX L M R L #X R R R R 6 RG P P G P P P L L T L L L L N G10. m 0 G10. 0 G10. 0 G10. 0 G10. 1 R L S 8/ s f P A N D T T T W S/U T U N h U E H U ST U S A T P R T P N P H T P ST. N DI N ET. N NI .N U l I N l T l U I O U W H INVENTOR RICHARD K. STEINBERG FIG. 3

ATTORNEY June 3, 1958 R. K STEINBERG sELF-COMPLEMENTING GAS TUBE COUNTER 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed July so, 1952 o SUBTRACT NEGATIVE VOLTAGE ON CYLINDER CARD MOTION PUNCH I2 FOR SUBTRACT PUNCH II FOR ADD TO BRUSH CB 6 CORRESPONDING TO SIGN COLUMN ATTORNEY D B 45% S E 2..- TT m W/@ MLH D W M W MwU in R m 25A A S nrfic w l vu4 w P u 06 P RI]- B F o b V.

- June 1953 R. K. ,STEINBERGI 3 2 SELF-COMPLEMENTING GAS TUBE COUNTER Filed July 30, 1952 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 FIG.5

RESET RESET Oi TIME I I2 II 0 l 2 3 4 ADD INPUT UNITS ADD INPUT 0023, TENS INPUT UNDREDS INPUT THPOUSANDS SUBTRACT INPUT UNITS SUB- TRACT 'yggg 0039 INPUT I-UNDREDS INPUT THQUSANDS F ADD INPUT UNITS ADD INPUT 0005 TENS INPUT HUNDREDS INPUT THQUSANDS INVENTOR RICHARD K. STEINBERG United States Patent .0

2,837,276 SELF-COMPLEMENTING GAS TUBE COUNTER Richard K. Steinherg, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., assignor to International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application July 30, 1952, Serial No. 301,675

Claims. (Cl. 235-61) This invention relates to storage devices and more particularly to a novel gaseous discharge tube of the glow transfer type for effecting the storage of positive and negative values.

One such storage or counting device of the prior art provides a first glow transfer path and effects a step-bystep transfer of the glow' discharge therealong in one direction to effect storage of positive quantities. A second glow transfer path is provided in glow transfer relation to the first to effect the storage of negative quantities. To efi'ect such storage the glow discharge is transferred to the second path and transferred therealong in a step-bystep fashion in a direction opposite to the glow transfer along the first path. Such a tube, therefore, effectively substracts by counting backwards.

A device which stores a decimal digit and which converts the stored digit to the complement of that digit upon reception of a signal is a self-complementing device. A counter having this feature eliminates considerably external circuitry normally required to read out balances of either sign properly.

Another object is to provide a novel storage tube of the glow transfer type for storing positive and negative quantities wherein both the positive or negative quantities are entered in true form.

Another object is to provide a novel self-complementing storage tube of the glow transfer type wherein the self-complementing feature of the tube is utilized just prior to and after entries of one sign are stored and is not utilized when entries of the other sign are stored.

Another object is to provide a gaseous glow transfer type counter tube for effecting addition and 'substraction in response to the transfer of a glow discharge in one single direction along a single glow transfer path wherein the amount stored in the tube is complemented before and after each addition.

A further object is to provide a gaseous glow transfer type counter tube for effecting addition and subtraction wherein a single glow transfer storage path having a pre-selected number of stable glow discharge positions therealong is provided and means are included within the tube for effecting glow transfer from any stable glow position to another, non-consecutive therewith, when the next subsequent arithmetic operation is different from the last; i. e., when addition is followed by substraction or vice versa.

A still further object is to provide a gaseous glow transfer type counter tube for effecting addition and subtraction wherein a single glow transfer storage path is unidirectionally traversed in a step-by-step fashion, from one digit representing stable position to another, to effect both addition and subtraction in turn, and means are provided for effecting, just prior to changing from one arithmetic operation to the other, the transfer of the glow discharge to another stable position representing a pre-selected complement of the value then stored.

Another object is to provide a self-complementing tube of the glow transfer type wherein both addition and subtraction may be performed by effecting glow transfer in a single direction along a single glow transfer storage path.

Other objects of the invention will be pointed out in the following description and claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, which disclose, by way of examples, the principle of the invention and the best mode, which has been contemplated, of applying that principle.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic showing of one embodiment of the invention,

Fig. 1a is a view along a--a of Fig. 1 showing a crosssection of a portion of the electrode structure.

Fig. 2 is a circuit diagram of a circuit element usable in practicing the invention,

Fig. 3 is a circuit diagram of an accumulator employing the invention,

Figs.4, 4a, 4b, 4c and 4d are a diagrammatic illustration of one read card controlled mechanism to operate the accumulator of Fig. 3. I

Fig. 5 is a pulse diagram illustrating the operation of the circuit of Fig. 3 in response to mechanism in Figs. 4, 4a, 4b, 4c and 4d.

Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic showing of another embodiment of the invention.

Briefly, the tube in the invention is of the gaseous glow transfer type wherein a single glow discharge exists at all times within the tube. Ten digit representing cathodes and ten transfer cathodes are alternately interspersed with one another to form a closed glow transfer path having ten stable .glow discharge positions therealong exhibited respectively by the existence of the glow discharge to each of the digit representing cathodes. A single anode is common to all cathodes.

The formation of the cathodes shown herein and a detailed description of the transfer of the glow discharge is set forth in the application of Richard K. 'Steinberg, Serial No. 192,199 filed October 26, 1950, now Patent Number 2,621,313. The cathodes are each formed as open-ended cylinders having a coating of different material on their inside and outside surfaces so that a glow discharge between any cathode and the anode will automatically confine itself to the inside surface of the cathode at the open end nearest the anode as distinguished from existing at both the inside and outside surfaces of the cathode. A separate glow transfer wire designated t is connected at one end to each of the cathodes and has its other, or free end, extending into the space between another cathode and the anode so that when a glow discharge exists between the latter cathode and the anode and the voltage difference between the latter cathode and anode is sufficiently less than that between the former cathode and the anode the glow discharge is transferred from the latter cathode via the transfer wire to the former cathode. Each cathode has one transfer wire connected to it and another transfer wire extending into the space between that cathode and the anode so that a continuous closed glow transfer path is formed with each of the enumerated cathodes forming a terminal for the glow discharge as it traverses this path. Each input pulse is actually applied simultaneously to each of the transfer cathodes so that each such pulse will cause a transfer of the glow discharge from one digit representing cathode to an adjacent transfer cathode and then to the other digit representing cathode adjacent to that transfer cathode. Hence, when a glow discharge exists to a digit representing cathode it may be referred to as digit representing cathodeD-l and the anode.

complement cathodes into a preselected glow transfer relation with the digit cathodes. Glow transfer is provided for in either direction between each digit representing cathode and the other digit representing cathode which represents the digit which is the nines complement of digit represented by the former. For example, one complement cathode is arranged to transfer a glow dis charge from the cathode representing the digit 7 to the cathode representing the digit 2 and another complement cathode is arranged to transfer a glow discharge from the cathode representing the digit 2 to the cathode representing the digit 7. All complement cathodes are commonly connected so that a proper voltage applied thereto will transfer the glow discharge from its stable glow position to the other stable glow position representing the nines complement of the first position. 7

Each pulse to be stored is applied simultaneously to all the trans-fer cathodes and. effects a transfer of the glow discharge to the next higher digit representing cathode. Output may be provided by any chosen digit representing cathode, for example, the cathode representing the digit 9. Sign indicating means are connected to be responsive to this output to indicate whether the value stored is positive or negative. Both positive and negative values are stored in true form. If positive quantities are to be stored the value already stored is complemented just prior to entry of the positive quantity to be stored and is again complemented after the positive quantity is stored. When entering negative values no complementing of the value stored is required.

Referring more particularly to Figs. 1 and la, the tube includes ten digit representing cathodes D4) to D-9,

inclusive, representing the digits -9 respectively, ten transfer cathodes T-tl to T9 inclusive, ten complement cathodes C4 to C9 inclusive, anda common anode A equidistant from each of the cathodes. The anode A is shown as a rectangle merely to clarify that it is equidistant from the cathodes and common thereto.

Numerous transfer wires t are employed to effect transfer of the glow discharge therealong from the cathode adjacent to their free end to the cathode to which their other end is attached when the appropriate Voltage difference exists between the two cathodes.

The anode A is connected through a resistance, not shown, to a suitable source of positive voltage indicated as terminal 13+. The complement cathodes, C0 to C9 inclusive, are connected together and to a terminal C. The digit representing cathodes D-0 to D 8 inclusive, are connected together and through a resistance, not shown, to a suitable source of voltage, less positive than 13+, indicated as terminal DV. The digit representing cathode D-9 is connected to an output terminal 10 which is connected through another resistance, not shown, to the same source of voltage to which the D4) to 13-8 cathodes are connected. The transfer cathodes, T-O to T9 inclusive, are connected together and to a terminal TV.

For purposes of explanation it is assumed that initially a stable glow discharge exists between the cathode D0 and the anode A. When a negative input pulse to be stored is applied to the transfer cathodes from the terminal TV the voltage difference between the transfer cathode T1 and the anode A becomes greater than that between the cathode D-0 and the anode and the glow discharge is accordingly transferred along the transfer wire attached to the cathode T-l until it arrives at the cathode T1. The glow discharge exists between the transfer cathode T-l and the anode only so long as the input pulse remains negative. When this pulse goes positive the voltage difference between the transfer cathod T-l and the anode becomes less than that between the Accord ingly, the glow discharge is transferred from the cathode T-l over the transfer wire attached to cathodeD-l and extending intermediate the cathode T4 and the anode. until it arrives at the cathode D-l. The glow discharge 4. remains in this stable position until the next input pulse is applied.

The next negative input pulse applied to terminal TV causes a similar transfer of the glow discharge from the cathode D-lt to the cathode D-Z via the transfer cathode T4. and the intermediate transfer. wires.

Similarly, the third input pulse causes the glow discharge to be transferred to the digit representing cathode D3. The fourth input pulse causes a transfer of the glow discharge from the cathode D-3 to the cathode D-4.-' Subsequently input pulses cause the glow discharge to be transferred to the cathodes D-5, D-6, D-7, D-8, D-9 and D4) in turn to complete the traverse of the glow transfer storage path.

When. the glow discharge arrives at the cathode D-9 in response to the ninth input pulse this cathode goes positive. The cathode D-9 goes negative when the tenth input pulse is applied to cause the glow discharge to leave the cathode D-9 on its 'way to the cathode D-0 to complete the traverse of the glow transfer storage path. Hence, the output terminal 10 goes positive when nine digits have been stored in the counter and goes negative when storage of the tenth digit is begun.

If the digit stored in the counter is in true form it may be readily converted to its nines complement and vice versa by applying a negative pulse to the terminal C connected to the complement cathodes C() to C-9 inclusive. For example, if a glow discharge exists between the digit representing cathode D-2 and the anode A and a negative pulse is applied to the terminal C the glow discharge will be transferred to the digit representing cathode D-7. When this pulse goes negative the glow discharge is transferred over the transfer wireconnected to. the complement cathode C2 and extending intermediate the digit representing cathode D-2 and the anode A until it arrives at the complement cathode, C2. When this pulse goes positive the glow discharge is transferred from the complement cathode C2 over the transfer wire attached to the cathode D-7 until it arrives at the cathode D-7 where it remains in a position of stable discharge until an input pulse to be stored is applied to the terminal TV or another negative pulse is applied to the terminal C. If another negative pulse is next-applied to the terminal C a similar transfer of the glow discharge will occur to return it to a position of stable dischargeat the cathode D-2. This transfer is effected from the cathode D-7 to the cathode D-2 via the complement cathode C-7. and the two associated transfer wires.

On the other hand, if an input pulse to be stored is next applied to the terminal T the glow discharge Willbe transferred from the cathode D-7 to the cathode D-S. Hence, the input pulses to be stored may be in true or complement form and the value stored may be in true or complement form. Because of the self-complementing ability of the counter both addition and subtraction may be correctly effected if the values are stored in true form in one case and in complement form in the other case. In all cases all storage is effected by glow transfer in the same single direction along a single glow transfer storage path. It will be appreciated from the subsequent description that the form ofthe result is readily determined from the occurence of carry or the output of the separate counters or orders when several such tubes are used to form an accumulator. Specifically, if end-around carry occurs an even number of times during a given operation the result is positive and if it occurs an odd number of times the result is negative.

Referring to Fig. 2 the trigger circuit is enclosed by dotted lines and is of the well-known EcclesJordan-type. The electronic tube 12 has two triode sections referredto herein as the L and R tubes.- The plate of each tube is connected through an appropriate resistor 13 to a terminal 14. to which a suitable positive voltage is applied. The cathodes are commonly connectedlto, ground. Aparasitic suppressor resistor; 15 isconnectedtothe con:

trol grid of each tube.- The control grid of tube R is also connected through capacitor 16 and resistor 17, in parallel, to the plate of the tube IL and through a resistor 18 to a terminal 19 to which a suitable negative bias voltage is applied. Likewise, the control grid of the tube L is also connected through a capacitor 20 and resistor 21, in parallel, to the plate of the tube R and through a resistor 22 to a terminal 23 to which a suitable negative bias voltage is applied. Input terminal GL is connected through a capacitor 25 and resistor 15 to the control grid of the tube L. Input terminal GR is connected through a capacitor 26 and resistor 15 to the control grid of the tube R. The plate of the tube R is connected to an output terminal PR and the plate of the tube L is connected to an output terminal PL.

In operation, the trigger has two stable conditions alternately assumed. In one stable condition the tube R is highly conductive and the tube L is nonconductive. This stable condition is referred to herein as the Right condition. In the other stable condition the tube L is highly conductive and the tube R is nonconductive. This stable condition is referred to herein as the Left condition.

When the various operating voltages are applied the trigger circuit will assume one of its two stable conditions. However, if it is desired that the Right condition be initially assumed this may be assured by opening the lead connected to terminal 19 and subsequently closing it again. Similarly, the lead connected to terminal 23 may be opened and closed if it is desired that the Left condition be initially assumed. Numerous means may be employed for initially setting the trigger circuit to one chosen stable condition and such does not constitute part of this invention. For purposes of explanation it is assumed that the trigger circuit is initially in the Right condition.

Trigger circuits may be designed as desired to be more responsive to positive or negative input pulses applied to the control grids of its tubes. Trigger circuit T-15 is more responsive to negative input pulses, hence a similar positive pulse will not effect a switching of the trigger circuit to its other stable condition. If the input terminals GL and GR are connected together and negative input pulses are applied thereto each such pulse will switch the trigger circuit to the other stable condition.

storshown comprises units, tens, hundreds and thousands orders. the type described in connection with Fig. 1. The trans fer cathodes are designated as T, the complement cathodes as C, the digit representing cathodes D4) to D'8 inclusive as D and the cathode D-9 as D-9. Each cathode D9 is connected through a resistor 30 to a terminal 31 to which a suitable voltage is applied and the cathodes D are connected through a suitable resistor 32 and switch 33 to the terminal 31. It is seen that it a glow discharge exists within the tube GC and the switch 33 is opened the glow discharge will thereafter exist between the anode A and the cathode D-9 and a closing of the switch 33 will not disturb this condition.

In Fig. 3 the circuit elements used are shown in block diagram form. Each block diagram having four terminals within the square is a trigger circuit of the type described in connection with Fig. 2. An x near the extreme right of square indicates that the trigger circuit is initially in the Right condition and means that the voltage at its terminal PR is low as compared to that at its terminal PL. If an x is near the extreme left of the square it indicates that the trigger circuit is initially in the Left condition and means that the voltage at its terminal PR is high as compared to that at its terminal PL. The

trigger circuits shown are the add-subtract trigger rks; input triggers ITTh, ITH, HT, and ITU; the positivenegative trigger TS for determining the sign of the result;

and carry storage triggers CSTh, CSH, CST, and CSU.

The rectangles having three terminals therein all represent electronic gates. These gates may comprise a single electron tube having at least two grids. Before the tube can be rendered plate current conductive, it is necessary that both these grids have at least a certain positivevoltage appliedto them simultaneously. These grids are represented by the terminals G1 and G2 respectively and t the plate is represented by the terminal P. The rectangles However, as shown a negative input pulse applied to the GL will switch the trigger circuit only from the Left to the Right condition and will have no effect on its stable condition when it is in the Right condition.

decreases the voltage at the common grid of the condition tube R, the resulting increased voltage at the plate of the tube R is transferred through parallel connected capacitor 20 and resistor 21 to the control grid of the nonconductive tube L to render it conductive. The resulting decreased voltage at the plate of the tube L is transferred through parallel connected capacitor 16 and resistor 17 to the control grid of the tube R to render it still less conductive. This cumulative action is continued until the tube R is rendered non-conductive and the tube L is rendered highly conductive to place the trigger circuit in the Left condition.

If a negative input pulse is now applied to the terminal GL it will decrease the voltage at the control grid of the conductive tube L. Similarly, increased voltages will be transferred to the control grid of the tube R and decreased voltages will be transferred to the control grid of the tube L to switch the trigger circuit to the Right condition. Subsequent input pulses cause a repetition of the above switching action.

Likewise, a negative input pulse applied to the terminal GR will Referring more p articularly to .Fig. ,3, the .accurnulahaving two terminals therein are electronic inverters and may comprise any suitable electronic tube which will be rendered conductively responsive to produce a pulse at its output having a polarity opposite to that of the input pulse to which it responded. Such a circuit may comprise a triode amplifier wherein an input pulse is applied to its control grid and an output pulse is derived from its plate.

Theinput and output terminals are designated respectively as G and P. Numerous other conventional electronic gates and electronic inverters could be employed in Fig. 3

and since each is well known in the art further description is deemed unnecessary.

The operation of the circuit shown in Fig. 3 will be described by conjoint reference to Figs. 3, 4, 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, 5 and 6 and solution of the example problem; 2339 +3. In Fig. 5 the spaced digits and letters at the top indicate the cycle time corresponding to the entry of that digit or performance of a specified function in the accumulator of Fig. 3. Hence, the time the digit 2 is entered is referred to as 2 time, the time the digit 3 is entered as 3 time, etc. The letters and numerals outside the commutator shown in Figs. 4a, 4b. 4c and 4d corre-' spond to those of Fig. 5. The card shown in Fig. 4 con These positions tains twelve positions in each column. are labelled 12, 11, 0-9 inclusive, reading from top to bottom as shown. A single brush is provided for each column of the card. The card is fed as indicated by the arrow between the card brushes CB and the feed roll R. I

A suitable negative voltage designated B- is applied to the feed roll R through the brush 50b. Hence, as the- 9 card is fed between the brushes CB and the roll R and one of the brushes CB encounters a hole in the card that roll R.

Each order includes a gas tube counter GC of I If, addition is to be effected, such is, indicated in any desired column of the card by the presence of an 11 hole. On. the other hand, if subtraction is to be performed, such. is indicated by the presence of a 12 hole. Whether addition or subtraction is being performed the switches 51s, 52s of Fig. 4c, switch 533 of Fig. 4d, and switch 543 of Fig. 3 are placed in the accumulate position.

If read out of the amount stored in the accumulator is to be effected, these switches are placed in the other or read out position. The output terminals of Fig. 4a designated Add and Subtract respectively are connected to the correspondingly designated terminals of the Add-Subtract trigger of Fig. 3. The output terminals A and F of Fig. 4b are connected to the terminals A and F of Fig. 3, the output terminals C, D of Fig. 4c and B of Fig. 4d are connected to terminals C, D and B respectively of Fig. 3. Connections (not shown) are made from an appropriate pro-selected brush CB to the input terminals of the units, tens and hundreds order of the accumulator of Fig. 3 to effect entry into the accumulator of the amounts to be stored in response to holes punched in the cards.

Initially the trigger circuits AS, ITTh, 1TH, ITT, ITU and TS are in the Right condition so that the voltage transferred from their respective terminal PR is low.

The trigger circuits CSTh, CSH, CST and CS0 are.

in, the Left condition so the voltage transferred from their respective terminal PR is high. The value 9999 is then placed in the tubes GC and the accumulator is prepared to, effect storage of 23 in accordance with the solution of the example problem; 23-394-3.

At 11 time (Fig. 5) the brush [2 of the commutator of Fig. 4b contacts a segment and when in contacttherewith transfers a negative voltage from the brush b connected to a source of negative voltage designated B through the segment to the terminal A (Figs. 4b and 3). This A pulse switches the trigger circuits ITU, ITT, 1TH, and ITTh to the Left condition. The voltage applied to the terminal G2 of each of the gates GAS, GTH, GH, GT and GU, is therefor positive.

Also, at 11 time the brush b of the commutator of Fig. 4a contacts a segment of the commutator and simultaneously the brush CB scanning the sign column of the card contacts the roll R through a hole in the card. This hole indicates that the next subsequent entry into the accumulator is addition. An A pulse is initiated from the negative voltage applied to the roll R, this voltage is transferred from the roll R throughthe' brush CB, the commutator brush b, and the commutator segment beginning at ll time to the Add terminal (Figs. 4a and 3). This causes the. trigger. circuit AS to switch to the Left condition, thereby applying; a positive-voltage to the terminal G2 of the. gate GAS, 7

Also, at 1.1, time the brush of the commutator of Fig. 40 contacts a segment to. initiate production of a positive pulse. The brush b is grounded and when it contacts a segment connected to the terminal D the voltage at that. terminal is increased as compared to the voltage B- to which it is connected. This positive D pulse is appliedto the terminal D (Figs. 4c and, 3). Since switch 54s -(Fig. 3) is in the accumulate position this D pulse causes the, terminal G1 of gate GAS to. go positive. Gate GAS is therefore rendered conductive andv causes a negative pulse to be transferred therefrom 'to the inverter IAS- which transfers ,a positive pulse to. the inverter IC. A negative pulse is then transferred. from the inverter IC to the complement. cathodes of all the tubes GC. to complementthe value stored or place. the value 0000 therein; An F pulse is then applied from the commutator of Fig. 4b between ll and 0 time to the terminal F (Fig. 3) connected to the terminals GL of the. triggers CSU, CST, CSH and CSTh to switch all those triggers to the Right condition[ A negative or low voltage is transferred from the terminal PR of the trigger CSU to the terminal G2 of the gate GT2, from:

8 the terminal PR of-the trigger CST tothe terminal G2 of the gate GH2, from the terminal PR of the trigger CSH tothe terminal G2 of the gate GThZ, and from the terminal PR of the trigger CSTh to the terminal G2 of the gates GTS and GU2.

At 0 time'a pulse is applied from a brush CB (Fig. 4) to the input terminal of the triggers 1TH and ITTh of the hundreds .and thousands orders, respectively, to switch them from the Left'to the Right condition to place 1 a low voltage on the terminal G2 of the gates GH and GT1: to prevent subsequent entry of B or input pulses to be stored into the hundreds and thousands orders of the accumulator. These positive B pulses are obtained from the commutator of Fig. 4c and appear at the terminal B (Figs. 4d and 3). These pulses are produced during each rotation of the brush b (Fig. 4d), independent of the holes in the card, because the brush is grounded and the terminal B is connected to a source of negative. voltage designated B.

The next two B pulses, occurring just prior to l and 2 time, applied to the terminal Bconnected to the terminal G1 of the gates GU, GT, GH and GTh render the.

gates GU and GT conductive since their terminals G2 have a high or positive voltage applied thereto from the triggers ITU and ITT respectively. Accordingly, two

pulses are applied to the tubes GC of the units andtens orders to effect storage of the digit 2 in each. At 2 time an input pulse is applied to the input terminal of the tens trigger ITT to switch the trigger ITT to the Left condition to prevent subsequent conduction of the gate Such conduction is pre- GT in response to B pulses. vented by the low voltage applied from the terminal PR of the trigger ITT to the terminal G2. Similarly, the

next B pulse occurring just prior to 3 time causes the.

the trigger ITU to switch it to the Right condition and thereby render the gate GU non-responsive to subsequent B pulses applied to the terminal GT thereof from the terminal B. The accumulator now indicates 0023 and 23 has been added therein.

Finally, the carry pulse C is applied to the terminal C connected to the terminal Gl'of each of the gates GUZ, GT2, GH2, GTh2 and GT5. However, these gates are not rendered conductive by the carry pulse because the other input terminal G2 of each of the gates has a low voltage applied thereto from the carry storage trigger connected thereto. This is because the carry storage triggers are in the Right condition as previously explained herein.

The next D pulse applied to the terminal D causes the amount stored in the accumulator to be again complemented in the manner previously set forth. Accordingly, since the amount stored was 0023 the value now standing in the accumulator is 9976. The sign trigger TS was initially in the Right condition thereby indicating that the amount in the accumulator was positive. This trigger has not been switched and remains in the Right condition thereby correctly indicating that the amount stored in the accumulator is positive.

The accumulator has now completed one read in or storage cycle and is ready to effect storage of 39.

At 12 time the hole in the card indicating subtraction permits a negative pulse to be transferred to the Subtract terminal of trigger circuit AS (Fig. 3) to switch it to the-Right condition. A low voltage is therefore applied to the terminal G2 of the gate GAS so that the next subsequent D pulse (11 time) does notrender gate GAS conductive. In other words, the amount stored in the accumulator is not complemented in response to that D pulse.

Next, at 11 time the A- pulse provided by the commu tator of Fig. 4b is supplied to theterminal A (Fig: 3)- :and swltches trigger circuits ITU, ITT; ITH--' and ITTh f 9' to the Leftcondition. 'A half. cycle" point later between Hand time the F pulse switches trigger circuits CSU, CST, CSH, and CSTh to the Right condition.

At 0 time input pulses are applied from brushes CB to the input terminal of the triggers ITH and ITTh of the hundreds and thousands orders respectively to switch those triggers to the Right condition to prevent storage of subsequent B pulses in the hundreds and thousands orders of the accumulator. Subsequent B pulses are stored in the units and tens orders.

Finally, at 3 time a pulse from CB is applied to the input terminal of the trigger ITI of the tens order and at 9 time to the input terminal of the trigger IT U of the units order to switch those triggers to the Right condition to prevent the subsequent storage of the B pulses.

Prior to the entry of 39 the amount stored in the accumulator was 9976. It is seen that when 39 is added to 9976 the result is 0015 plus a carry or 0016. Hence, between 2 and 3 time when the third B pulse went positive the glow discharge was transferred from the cathode D-9 of the self-complementing tube GC of the tens order. The resulting decreased voltage at the cathode D-'9 was transferred to the terminal GR of the carry storage trigger CST to switch it from the Right to the Left condition, thereby placing a positive voltage on the terminal G2 of the gate'GH2 of the hundreds order. Also, between 3 and 4 time when the fourth B pulse went positive the glow discharge was transferred from the cathode D-9 of the self-complementing tube GC of the units order. The resulting decreased voltage at the cathode D-9 was transferred to the terminal GR of the carry storage trigger CSU to switch it from the Right to the Left condition, thereby placing a positive voltage on the terminal G2 of the gate GT2 of the tens order.

When the carry pulse C is applied to the terminal C connected to the terminal G1 of gates GT2 and GH2 those gates are rendered conductive because of the positive voltage on their terminals G2, which positive voltage is applied from the respective carry storage trigger. The resulting decreased voltage applied from the plate of the respective gate to the tubes GC of the tens and hundreds orders causes an additional digit to be stored in each. The storage of this digit in the hundreds order causes the glow discharge to be transferred from the cathode D-9'to switch the carry storage trigger CSH to the left condition and apply an increased voltage to the terminal G2 of the gate GThZ of the thousands order. Accordingly, the C pulse then causes an additional digit to be stored in the thousands order and the glow discharge to be transferred from the cathode D-9 of the tube GC thereof. This transfer switches the carry storage trigger CSTh to the left condition to apply an increased voltage to the terminal G2 of the gate GTS. The C pulse applied to the terminal G1 of the gate GTS causes that gate to be rendered conductive and a decreased voltage to be transferred from the terminal P thereof to the terminals GL and GR of the sign trigger TS to switch the trigger TS to the left condition. Trigger CSTh also causes an increased voltage to be applied to terminal G2 of gate GU2, and since the C pulse is applied to terminal G1 of GU2, then GU2 becomes conductive and causes the glow GC of the units order to transfer to the next intermediate cathode. At the termination of the C pulse, the glow in the counter tubes 60 of each order (units, tens, hundreds and thousands) transfers from the intermediate or tranfer cathode to which it had been trasferred by the C pulse to the next digit cathode. The accumulator has 0016 stored therein and the trigger TS is in the left condition indicating that the quantity is negative.

The D pulse next applied to the terminal D -of the gate GAS has not eifectsince the trigger AS is in the righ'tjconditio'n thereby applying a decreased voltage to thelit r minal G2 of the gate The-second storage,

' terminal.

'10 or read'in cycleis now complete and the digit 3 remains to be added.

First, at 11 time a hole in the card permits the commutator of Fig. 4a to apply a negative add pulse to the Add terminal of the trigger circuit AS to switch it to the left condition to supply a high or positive voltage to the terminal G2 of gate GAS.

Also, at 11 time the A pulse supplied by the commutator of Fig. 4b switches the trigger circuits ITU, I'IT, ITH, ITTh to the left condition; The D pulse also occurring at 11 time and supplied by the commutator of Fig. 40 causes conduction of the gate GAS, causes inverter IAS to be cut off or rendered non-conductive at its plate, and causes inverter IC to be rendered plate current conductive to complement the amount stored in the counter. The accumulator now indicates 9983 since 0016 was stored in the accumulator just prior to the application of the D pulse. Next, at a half cycle point or half time after 11 time the F pulse supplied by the com mutator of Fig. 4b is applied to the terminal GL of each of the carry storage triggers CSO, CST, CSI-I and CSTh and switches each of them to the right condition.

At 0 time pulses from the brushes CB are applied to the input terminals of the triggers ITT, 1TH and ITTh of the tens, hundreds and thousands orders to switch them to the left condition and thereby prevent storage of subsequent B pulses into those orders. The B pulses occurring prior to 3 time are applied to the terminal B and cause conduction of the gate GU of the units order to effect the storage of three digits therein. At 3 time an input pulse from a brushCB is applied to the input 9 terminal ofthe trigger ITU of the units order and prevents storage therein in response to subsequent B pulses. The value stored in the accumulator is now 9986.

When the carry pulse C is finally applied to the terminal C it has no effect since the voltage at the terminal G2 of all of the gates GU2, GT2, GH2 and GThZ is low because of the fact that each of the carry storage triggers CSU, CST, CSH, and CSTh is in the right condition. The next D pulse effects conduction through the gate GAS and inverters IAS and IC to complement the value stored in the accumulator. Hence, the accumulator now indicates 0013 and the sign trigger TS indicates that the sign is negative. The proper answer to the example problem 23-39+3 is 13 as is now indicated by the accumulator. The balance is negative and the valve stored is in true form. To effect read out the valve stored is complemented, ten pulses are applied to each order of the'accumulator and the accumulator is again complemented to return it to its initial condition just prior to the read out.

To effect read out the switches 51s, 52s, 53s and 54s are placed in the read out position. Immediately, it is seen that the B and C pulses do not reach the accumulator and that the read out pulses R0 are applied to the B It is noted that when reading in or storing is accomplished by the accumulator the D pulses are applied to the gate GAS and that their effect is determined by the stable condition of the Add-Subtract trigger AS. When effecting read out the D pulses are applied through the switch 54s to the read out gate GRO. However, the stable condition of the signtrigger TS having its terminal PR connected to the terminal G2 of gate GRO determines whether or not the D pulses are, effective. When the value stored in the accumulator is positive the sign trigger TS is in the right condition and therefore applies a low voltage to the terminal G2 of gate GRO to render gate GRO non-responsive to subsequent D pulses. On theother hand, when the balance stored in the accumulator is negative the trigger circuit TS is in the left condition and a positive voltage is applied from the terminal PR thereof to the terminal G2 of the gate GRO. Hence, a subsequent D pulse applied to the terminal G1 of gate GRO will cause a decreased voltage at the terminal P T1 of the gate GRO and the terminal G of inverter IAS, and increased voltage at the terminal P of IAS and the terminal G of inverter IC, and a decreased voltage at the terminal P of inverter IC. This decreased or negative voltage at the terminal P of inverter IC is applied to the counter tubes GC to complement the value stored therein.

During the read out cycle a hole indicating add or subtract is not provided in the card and therefore no add or subtract pulses are present.

The A pulse provided by the commutator of Fig. 461 at 11 time switches the triggers ITU, ITT, 1TH, and ITT/i to the Left condition. The first D pulse provided by the commutator of Fig. 40 at 11 time renders the gate GAS plate current conductive, the inverter IAS non-conductive at its plate and the inverter IC conductive to complement the value stored in the accumulator thereby causing the accumulator to indicate that 9986 is stored therein. The F pulse provided by the commutator of Fig. 4b at half time after 11 time then switches the triggers CSU, CST, CSH and CSTh to the Right condition to place a low voltage on the terminals G2 of the gates GU2, GT2, 6H2, GThZ and GT8.

The ten read out pulses RO provided by the commutator of Fig. 4c and beginning at time and ending at half time after 9 time are then applied to the terminal B. At the beginning of the first read out pulse ,(0 time) the glow discharge leaves the cathode D-9 ofthe tubes GC of the hundreds and thousands orders and a negative output pulse appears at the output terminal of both the hundreds and thousands orders. Such indicates that the digit stored in each of these orders was 0.

At the beginning of the second readout pulse (1 time) the glow discharge leaves the cathode D-9 of the tube GC of the tens order and a negative output pulse appears at the output terminal of the tens order indicating that the digit stored therein was 1. At the beginning of the fourth read out pulse (3 time) the glow discharge leaves the cathode D-9 of the tube GC of the units order to provide a negative pulse at the output terminal thereof to indicate that the digit stored therein was 3.

Each subsequent read out pulse causes the glow discharge in each of the tubes GC of the units, tens, hundreds and thousands orders to advance to the next digit representing cathode along the glow discharge path.-

Finally, the tenth read out pulse returns the accumulator to its initial indication of 9986 and read out of the negative value 0013 has been completed.

As the glow discharge within each of the tubes GC left the cathode D-9 thereof to produce an output pulse at the output terminal of that order it also effected a switching of the carry storage trigger connected thereto to the Left condition. Hence, the accumulator is in condition to effect end-around carry in response to the next carry pulse C. If such is permitted to be effective the value stored in the accumulator will be in error. To prevent such error carry pulse C is not applied during the read out cycle because switch 51s is in the read out position.

Finally, the next D pulse beginning at half time after Y time again complements the value stored in the accumulator. The accumulator again indicates the negative value 0013 as it did just prior to the read out operation and subsequent addition and subtraction may be effected as described above.

The application of Edward J. Rabenda, Serial No. 306,983, filed August 29, 195 2, discloses other structure employing the tube of the invention.

plement cathodes are located between digit-representing I: is readily seen that any or all of the cathodes may be i For.

the complement cathode C7 to the cathode D3 which represents the digit3 or the-tens complement of 7. If another pulse is applied to the terminal 0 the glow dis charge will be transferred from the cathode D-3 via the the complement cathode C-3 to the cathode D-7 thereby indicating the tens complement of the value just previously stored in the tube.

if the value 0 or 5 is stored the tens complement is identical with the value stored and a transfer of the glow discharge is unnecessary. However, if no transfer is provided for, the application of. the pulse to the terminal C might effect a spurious transfer of the glow discharge. For this reason the complement cathodes C0 and C-5 are provided. Hence, if a glow discharge exists to either of the digit representing cathodes D-t) or D-5 and a pulse is applied to the terminal C the glow discharge will be transferred from the digit-representing cathodes D43 or D-Ei, as the case may be, to the correspondingcomplement cathode and back again to that digit-representing cathode.

While there have been shown and described and pointed out the fundamental novel features of the inven.-. tion as applied to a preferred embodiment, it will be.

understood that various omissions and substitutions and changes in the form and details of the device illustrated and in its operation may be made by those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit of the invention.

It is the intention, therefore, to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims.

What is claimed is:

l. A pulse responsive gaseous discharge glow transfer. storage device including a preselected number of cathodes and an anode common to all cathodes for effecting addition and subtraction in turn, by a step-by-step transfer of a glow discharge from one stable glow position at one cathode to the next along a closed glow transfer path in a single direction, means for effecting glow transfer along said path in response to pulses representing the true value to be added and subtracted; glow transfer complement means coupling each stable glow position cathode to the glow position cathode representing a we selected complement thereof; and pulse means connected to said complement means, selectively operable to render the latter effective just prior and subsequent to effecting addition. a 2. The invention .set forth in claim 1 wherein said cathodes include ten digit-representing cathodes representing the digits ()9 inclusive, ten transfer cathodes located between successive digit-representing cathodes; and said glow transfer complement means including ten complement cathodes each arranged in glow transfer relation between preselected digit-representing cathodes to transfer the glow discharge from one of the digit-representing cathodes to the other when a pulse is applied to said glow transfer complement means.

3. The invention set forth in claim 2 wherein the comcathodes which represent digits which are nines complement of'each other.

4. The invention set forth in claim 2 wherein the complement cathodes are located between digit-representing cathodes which represent digits which are the tens complement of each other.

5. In a gaseous discharge device of the glow transfer type for elfecting addition and subtraction comprising an anode and a plurality of digit representing electrodes arranged physically in consecutive order-forming a closed path as a single group with said electrodes providingsuccessive stable glow dischargepositions and wherein a glow discharge is transferred along a single closed glow transfer path in step-by-step fashion from one stable glow position at one electrode to the next consecutive one to effect storage, electrode means coupling consecutive ones of said cathodes for establishing stable glow positions of said means coupling complement digit representing ones of said electrodes forming stable glow positions to effect transfer therebetween;

6. A self-complementing gaseous digital storage tube including electrode means comprising an anode and a plurality of digit representing cathodes arranged physically in consecutive order corresponding with successive digital values represented and providing a single glow discharge path having a stable glow discharge position at each cathode corresponding to each one of a'plurality of digits to be stored; and complement electrode means for establishing a glow discharge transfer path from each of said stable digit representing glow discharge cathode positions to a stable glow discharge cathode position representing a preselected digital complement thereof.

7. In a gaseous decade storage tube of the glow transfer type including ten digit-representing cathodes'each defining a position of stable glow dischargeand representing the digits -9 inclusive; ten transfer cathodes, each intermediate two digit-representing cathodes and coupled thereto to effect glow transfer in one direction from one digit-representing cathode to the other when a preselected electrical change is applied to that transfer cathode; complementing glow transfer means coupled between each digit-representing cathode and the digit-representing cathode representing the nines component of the digit represented by the former cathode.

8. The invention set forth in claim 7 whereinsaid complementing glow transfer means are commonly energizable by a single pulse to effect glowtransfer to thereby effect storage in complement form of the amount stored in the tube.

9. The invention set forth in claim 7 wherein said complementing glow transfer means is coupled between each digit-representing cathode and the digit-representing cathode representing the tens complement of the digit represented by the former cathode except the digit-representingcathodes representing the digits 0 and 5 each of which defines the only stable position of stable glow discharge in a glow transfer path established by said complement glow transfer means.

10. A gaseous discharge glow transfer storage device for eifectingaddition and subtraction in turn, by a stepby-step transfer of a glow discharge from one stable glow position at one electrode to the next along a closed glow transfer path in a single direction, means for effecting glow transfer along said path in response to pulses representing the true value to be added and subtracted; glow transfer complement means coupling each stable glow position electrode to the glow position electrode representing a preselected complement thereof; and pulse means connected to said complement'means to render the latter effective just prior and subsequent to effecting addition.

11. A gaseous discharge tube of the glow transfer type for effecting addition and subtraction, one at atime, in response to pulses representing the true values to be added and subtracted respectively; ten digit cathodes representing the digits 0-9 respectively, digit cathodes 0-4 inclusive being arranged in a row and digit cathodes 5-9 inclusive being arranged in another row substantially parallel with the first; ten transfer cathodes, one .between each two successive digit cathodes; glow transfer wires coupling said digit and transfer cathodes so that said digit and transfer cathodes are included in a single glow transfer path along which a glow discharge is transferable in a step-by-step fashion in only one direction from one stable glow position to the next; means commonly con"- necting said transfer cathodes so that a series of pulsesv 12. The invention set forth in claim 11 wherein said' complement cathodes are positioned intermediate digit cathodes representing digits which are the ninescomplement of each other; said complement cathodes are commonly connected; and pulse means are provided to apply a single pulse to the complement cathodes before and after addition to cause the tube to indicate the value stored as the nines complement of that just previously stored.

13..In a storage system for efiecting addition and subtraction in response to pulses representing the respective quantities in true form; a source of pulses to be stored; a' plurality of gaseous discharge tubes of the glow transfer type, one for each digital order to be stored, each tube including ten digit cathodes representing the digits 0-9 inclusive and each such cathode defining a stable glow discharge position, ten transfer cathodes arranged intermediate successive digit cathodes and glow transfer means therebetween to establish a closed glow transfer path traversed in one direction from one stable position to the next in response to each pulse to be stored, ten complement cathodes, means coupling each of said complement cathodes in glow transfer relation with two digit cathodes to effect glow transfer from one such cathode to the other representing the digit which is the ninescomplement of that represented by the former cathode; means for applying pulses to be stored simultaneously to said transfer cathodes; an electronic switch, for each order, connected to be conductively responsive to a pulse produced when the glow discharge is transferred from the digit cathode representing the digit 9; carry pulse means; electronic gate means, for each order, connected to be rendered conductively responsive to the simultaneous ap plication of a preselected voltage from the electronic switch of the next lower order and said carry pulse means to effect carry to the discharge tube of that order;.and a connection from the electronic switch of the highest order to the electronic gate means of the lowest order.

14. The invention set forth in claim 1?; including a common connection from said complement cathodes to a pulse source for applying a pulse to said complement cathodes to complement the value stored in said tubes prior to and after addition.

15. In a storage system for effecting addition and subtraction in response to pulses representing the respective quantities in true form; a source of pulses to be stored; a plurality of gaseous discharge tubes of the glow transfer type, one for each digital storage order, each tube including ten digit cathodes representing the digits O-9 inclusive and each such cathode defining a stable glow discharge position; ten transfer cathodes arranged intermediate successive digit cathodes and glow transfer. means therebetween to establish a closed glow transfer path traversed in one direction from one stable position to the next in response to each pulse to be stored; ten complement cathodes, means coupling each of said complement cathodes in glow transfer relation with two digit cathodes to effect glow transfer from one such cathode to the other representing the digit which is the nines complement of that represented by the former cathode; means for applying pulses to be stored simultaneously to said transfer cathodes; a first electronic switch for each order connected to be conductively responsive to a pulse produced when the glow discharge is transferred from the digit cathode representing the digit 9; carry pulse means; electronic gate means, for each order connected to be rendered conductively responsive to the simultaneous application of a preselected voltage from the electronic switch of the next lower order and said carry pulse means to efiect carry to the discharge tube of that order; a connection from the first electronic switch of the highest order to the electronic gate means of the lowest order; a common connection from said complement cathodes to a pulse source for applying a pulse to said complement cathodes to complement the value stored in said tubes prior to and after addition; a second electronic switch having two stable conditions; a gate circuit connected to said second electronic switch; a connection from the first electronic switch of the highest order to said gate circuit; and a connection from said carry pulse means to said gate circuit whereby said second electronic switch is rendered responsive to he switched from either stable condition to the other by the simultaneous application of a voltage from said first electronic switch of the highest order and said carry pulse means to said .gate circuit.

16. In a gaseous discharge tube of the glow transfer type having a single glow transfer path defined by the positioning of a plurality of digit representing cathodes relative to a common anode; a glow transfer electrode arranged intermediate each digit representing cathode and means connected to said glow transfer electrodes to apply electrical manifestations representing amounts to be stored to said tube, said means being operable to effect a stepby-step transfer of the glow discharge in the same direction for all manifestations to be stored irrespective of the algebraic sign of those manifestations; and electrode means coupling each cathode with a preselected complement digit representing one of said cathodes, said electrode means being responsive to an electrical impulse applied thereto to manifest the amount stored in the tube in complement form.

17. In an accumulating device for effecting storage of amounts in response to pulses representing the amounts in true form and having means to manifest the amount therein and also means to manifest the algebraic sign of said amount; sensing means for sensing a succession of records for designations representing amounts and the algebraic signs of those amounts; a gaseous discharge counter tube of the glow transfer type for each order of the accumulator; said counter tube comprising an anode and a plurality of digit representing cathodes defining a closed glow transfer path along which a glow discharge is stepped in response to electrical pulses applied to the tube, and having complementing glow transfer means coupled between digit representing cathodes of complementary value and adapted to complement the amount stored in response to an impulse; circuit means connected to be energized by said sensing means for entering into the accumulator electrical pulses representative of the amounts sensed from the succession of records and including means for pulsing said complementing cathodes of each of said counter tubes for cyclically complementing the amounts thus represented and stored in the accumulator just prior to and just after entry of each amount having a predetermined algebraic sign; and cyclic pulse producing means synchronized with said sensing means for reading out pulses representative of the amount stored in said accumulator.

18. In an accumulator for effecting storage of amounts of different algebraic sign and exhibiting the sign of the amount stored by a predetermined electrical condition; sensing means for sensing a succession of records for designations representing amounts and the algebraic signs of those amounts; a gaseous discharge counter tube of the glow transfer type for each order of the accumulator; said counter tube comprising an anode and a plurality of digit representing cathodes defining a closed glow transfer path along which a glow discharge is stepped in response to electrical impulses applied to the tube, and having complementing glow transfer means coupled between digit representing cathodes of complementary value and adapted to complement the amount stored in response to an impulse; first circuit means connected to be energized by said sensing means for entering into the accumulator electrical pulses representative of the amounts sensed from the succession of records and including means for pulsing said complementing cathodes of each of said counter tubes for cyclically complementing the amount thus represented and stored in the accumulator prior to and after entry of each amount having a predetermined algebraic sign; cyclic pulse producing means synchronized with said sensing means for reading out electrical pulses representative of the amount stored in said accumulator; and second circuit means energized conjointly by said electrical condition exhibiting said sign of the amount stored for complementing the amount stored in the accumulator prior to read out when said amount stored is of one predetermined algebraic sign.

19. A gaseous discharge storage device adapted to represent either digits or complements of said digits comprising an envelope having a gaseous atmosphere at glow discharge pressure and having a plurality of digit representing cathodes, a plurality of auxiliary cathodes, one for each pair of adjacent digit cathodes, means for applying a single impulse to said auxiliary electrodes for stepping the glow discharge from any digit cathode to the next higher digit cathode, further auxiliary electrodes, one for each pair of digit cathodes and arranged intermediate digit cathodes having a complement digit relationship with respect to one another, means for applying a single impulse to said further auxiliary electrodes for stepping the glow discharge from any digit cathode to the digit cathode having a digit complement relationship thereto, and an anode opposite said digit and auxiliary cathodes.

20. In a gaseous discharge storage tube of the glow transfer type including a plurality of digit-representing cathodes each defining a position of stable glow discharge, a like plurality of transfer cathodes, each intermediate two digit-representing cathodes and coupled thereto to elfect a glow transfer in .one direction from one digitrepresenting cathode to the other when a preselected electrical changev is applied to that transfer cathode, complementing glow transfer cathode means coupled directly between each digit cathode and the digit cathode representing the complement of the digit represented by the former cathode, to effect a glow transfer directly therebetween when a single preselected electrical change is appliedto that complementing glow transfer means.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,489,325 Ridler Nov. 29, 1949 2,502,360 Williams Mar. 28, 1950 2,514,036 Dickinson July 4, 1950 2,536,955 Palmer Jan. 2, 1951 2,575,370 Townsend Nov. 20, 1951 2,598,677 Depp June 3, 1952 2,606,309 Townsend Aug. 5, 1952 2,607,891 Townsendu Aug. 19, 1952 2,618,767 Gugelberg Nov. 18, 1952 2,619,528 Vroom Nov. 25, 1952 2,651,741 Koehler Sept, 8, 1953 2,702,357 Townsend Feb. 15, 1955

US301675A 1952-07-30 1952-07-30 Self-complementing gas tube counter Expired - Lifetime US2837276A (en)

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NLAANVRAGE7414968,A NL180236B (en) 1952-07-30 Process for the preparation of highly pure sodium.
NL95346D NL95346C (en) 1952-07-30
US301675A US2837276A (en) 1952-07-30 1952-07-30 Self-complementing gas tube counter
FR1086432D FR1086432A (en) 1952-07-30 1953-07-20 glow discharge lamp to convert a real number to its complement
CH312270D CH312270A (en) 1952-07-30 1953-07-28 Device for glow discharge lamp storage for converting a real number to its complement.

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US2514036A (en) * 1941-05-23 1950-07-04 Ibm Selective number electronic pulse producer
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