US2807522A - Apparatus for burning sulfur and treating liquids with the combustion gases therefrom - Google Patents

Apparatus for burning sulfur and treating liquids with the combustion gases therefrom Download PDF

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US2807522A
US2807522A US398773A US39877353A US2807522A US 2807522 A US2807522 A US 2807522A US 398773 A US398773 A US 398773A US 39877353 A US39877353 A US 39877353A US 2807522 A US2807522 A US 2807522A
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sulfur
burner
combustion
air
chamber
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US398773A
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Jolly T Russell
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Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co
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Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B17/00Sulfur; Compounds thereof
    • C01B17/48Sulfur dioxide; Sulfurous acid
    • C01B17/50Preparation of sulfur dioxide
    • C01B17/54Preparation of sulfur dioxide by burning elemental sulfur
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B17/00Sulfur; Compounds thereof
    • C01B17/69Sulfur trioxide; Sulfuric acid
    • C01B17/74Preparation

Description

Sept. 24, 1957 J. T. RUSSELL 2,807,522 APPARATUS FOR BURNING SULFUR AND TREATING LIQUIDS WITH THE COMBUSTION GASES THEREFROM Filed Dec. 1'7, 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 A BSGRPTION TOWER MAKE UP WATER 90; kscmcumr/w SULFUR HOPPER- AND caou/va Mam/g CHAMBER 87 TOWER 47 PH. RECORDER 4 vii; KETTLE '62 AND coMsusr/oy 86 CI. PUMP Y CHAMBER AIR 73 TREATED PRESSURE I WATER RECORDER IIII'I I. I. 47

37 INVENTOR.

Jolly T. Russell.

Sept. 24, 1957 J RUSSELL 2,807,522 I APPARATUS FOR BURN ING SULFUR AND TREATING LIQUIDS WITH THE COMBUSTION GASES THEREFROM Filed Dec. 17. 1953 4 Sheefs-She'et 2 l 85 80 78 I 76 I 79 7 I 1 .l 3 Q I I 9/ is? 70 I 6 7/ 65 72 4' E I 1,4 F| 2s 7- 25 84 l/* r L. i 2 L v i: 4 3 a 5 73, 86 7 !8 as I I 23 32 g; 29 J -35 7 I, /A A A A A A\\ A 7 30 3/4 INVENTOR.

Jolly "7'. Russell BY W J QA A T TORNYS.

p 1957 J. T. RUSSELL 2,807,522

APPARATUS FOR BURN NG SULFUR AND TREATING LIQUIDS WITH THE COMBUSTION GASES THEREFROM Filed Dec. 1'7, 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR.

Jo/ly T Russell, y

A rro/PNE vs.

Sept. 24, 1957 'J. 'r. RUSSELL 2,307,522

. 'APPARATUS FOR BURNING SULFUR AND TREATING uquxos WITH THE COMBUSTION GASES THEREFROM Filed Dec. 17, 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 c aawamamaea amaaea' belawmafi Z u a 0 INVENTOR. 42 37 J0// 7'. Russell A 'T-TORNE rs;

United States Patent Ofilice 2,807,522 Patented Sept. 24, 1957 APPARATUS FDR BURNING SULFUR AND TREAT- ING LIQUIDS WITH THE CQMBUSTION GASES THEREFROM Jolly T. Russell, Kansas City, Mo., assignor to Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company, Kansas City, Mo., a corporation of Delaware Application December 17, 1953, Serial N0. 393,773 7. Claims. (Cl. 23-478) This invention relates to apparatus for burning sulfur and treating liquids with the combustion gases therefrom, and more particularly to a novel apparatus for burning sulfur and varying the production of combustion gases therefrom and introduction of such gases into liquid in accordance with the acidity or alkalinity of the liquid.

Scale and deposit formations and corrosion in cooling water systems have long been a source of trouble. Various methods including the addition of sulfuric acid for alkalinity control have been used with varying degrees of effectiveness. The combustion gasesfrom the burning of sulfur have been used in the treatment of liquids in order to avoid the hazards of handling of sulfuric acid. Sulfur burners in the past have also had a number of disadvantages. In some of the structures there was ever present a danger of flooding the burner chamber with liquid sulfur and the burners were of high cost and of complicated structure. Also, water treatment systems employing a sulfur burner do not make ample provision or allow suflicient time for the oxidation of the sulfurous acid produced to sulfuric acid or the oxidation of its compounds (sulfites) formed by the reaction of the sulfurous acid with the constituents in raw water to sulfates.

It has been found that this oxidation is necessary since chlorine, bromine and other compounds used for algae control together with dichromate compounds used for corrosion control are oxidizing agents and would readily react with sulfurous acid and sulfites which are reducing agents. Provision for effecting this oxidation prevents increased cost of chemicals for algae and corrosion control might result from the use of a sulfur burner for cooling water treatment. In addition, since calcium sulfite is nearly insoluble, it is preferable that the oxidation to sulfate be completed before the treated water enters the cooling water system in order to minimize the danger of calcium scale deposition on hot surfaces. It has been found that with a given exposed surface of molten sulfur the amount of air passed through the burning chamber governs the amount of sulfur burned, but when the air supply over the liquid sulfur is shut off or when it is necessary to burn only a very small amount of sulfur it has been difficult and impractical to properly control the sulfur burner.

Also, presently available burners are not satisfactory for operation by automatic controls, since such a burner must function when the burning rate is practically nothing to that corresponding to full capacity, whereas presently available burners must consume sulfur at a certain minimum rate, about one pound per hour per square foot of burning surface, to avoid smothering of the combustion by an accumulated crust of gangue material, similar to the oxide sludge which accumulates on top of molten metal. In addition, even if smothering were not a factor, presently available burners are not amenable to operation by automatic controls because they do not make provision to handle the large volume of sublimed sulfur which results when combustion is stopped, as by shutting off the air supply, and sensible heat in the sulfur and its surroundings is dissipated as heat of sublimation. Finally, a burner amenable to automatic control must provide a means of readily reigniting the sulfur when burning is to resume, a feature lacking in presently available burners.

The objects of the present invention are to provide apparatus including the burning of sulfur wherein the acidity or alkalinity of the liquid to be treated is used to continuously and automatically control the rate of burn-' ing of the sulfur by regulating the amount ofcombustion air supplied to the burner; to provide a sulfur burner in which ignition of the sulfur is maintained for instant variation in the output of combustion gases; to provide a sulfur burner construction that is readily adapted for change in the arrangements of firebrick, refractory, or other suitable lining within the combustion chamber to vary the capacity of the burner; to provide a sulfur burner structure capable of burning low grades of raw sulfur that present no hazard in the handling or storage thereof; to provide a sulfur burner and elevated absorption tower combination for applying a natural draft to the burner thereby eliminating blowers and the like for forcing combustion air to the burner; to provide a combination of a sulfur burner and absorption-aerator section wherein the sulfur is burned and the combustion gases or sulfur dioxide absorbed in water to be treated; to provide a combination of a sulfur burner an an absorption-aerator section wherein an ample excess of air is injected into the combustion gases to provide for the oxidation of the sulfurous acid and/or sulfites to sulfuric acid and/or sulfates; to provide a combination of a sulfur burner and an absorption-aerator section which islocated a considerable distance from a cooling tower for the .dual purposes of safety (as when an inflammable material is being cooled) and of allowing ample time for the oxidation reaction to approach completion and thus reduce losses of chlorine or other algaecides and/or dichromate compounds or other oxidizing agents used for corrosion.

control; to provide a sulfur burner with automatic controls for the level of liquid or molten sulfur therein wherein fuel used for melting the sulfur is controlled in accordance with pressure required for air to be bubbled through the liquid sulfur; to provide means for bubbling air through the molten sulfur for agitation of the surface thereof and effect a low rate of burning of the sulfur to maintain the sulfur molten and flame for instant increase in the rate of burning; and to provide apparatus with suitable controls for the burning of sulfur and the treating of water that can be operated for long periods of time with only periodic inspection, that is economical to manufacture and operate and that can be easily altered to burn various amounts of sulfur.

In accomplishing these and other objects of the present invention, I have provided improved details of structure, the preferred forms of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein:

Fig. lis a diagrammatic view of the apparatus for burning sulfur and treating liquids with the combustion gases thereof, together with the various controls for regulating the apparatus. A

Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view through the sulfur burner, absorption tower and aerator.

Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view through the sulfur melting and burning apparatus.

Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional view through the lower portion of the sulfur burner on the line 4-4, Fig. 5.

Fig. 5 is a horizontal sectional viewthr-ough the lower portion of the sulfur burner on the line 5-5, Fig. 3.

Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional view through the sulfur burner on the line 6-6, Fig. 5.

Referring more in detail to the drawings:

1 designates an apparatus for burning sulfur and treating liquid with the combustion gases, which generally ineludes a sulfur melting and. burning apparatus 2, an absorption-aerator section 3 preferably supported on a tower 4, a liquid cooling tower 5 the water from which isibeing treated by the apparatus described, and aliquid' collecting basin or sump 6 under the cooling tower. The sulfur melting and burning apparatus 2 has a hopper 7 adapted to receive a be burned. The hopper 7 is supported on a plurality of legs 8 inspaced relation to a suitable base, ground or other supporting structure 9. The hopper. has a top wall 10 which is suitably secured to the upper ends of side walls 11 and each'of the side walls 11 terminates at its lower end in inwardly and downwardly sloping portions 12, which terminate as at 13 to provide an opening 14 at the bottom of the hopper. Aheater structure 15 is arranged under the hopper, said heater structure having a bottom wall 16 and side walls 17 extending upwardly from said bottom wall, the upper ends of the side walls 17 being suitably secured to the inwardly and downwardly sloping portions 12 of the hopper in outwardly spaced relation to the opening 14. Suitably supported in the heater structure is a hopper sump member 18 having upper edges 19 close to or substantially engaging around the lower edges 13 of the wall portions 12; The top wall lllhas an upwardly extending flange 22 defining an opening 23 which is closed by a hatch cover 24 hingedly mounted whereby it can be opened for introducing sulfur into the hopper and then moved into position to close the opening 23 during operation of" the apparatus. An agitator 25 is located in the hopper slightly above the lower edge 13 of the wall portions 12. The agitator consists of a shaft 26 having a plurality of radially arranged fingers 27 extending there from. The shaft 26 is rotatably mounted in the hopper with one end of said shaft extending through a wall and provided with a,suitable handle for manually oscillating the agitator at periodic intervals to prevent bridging of the sulfur in the hopper.

A burner 28 operating on gas or other suitable fuel is located .in a chamber 29 defined by the walls 16 and 1-7 and the sump member 18. The burner 28 supplies heat to the sump member to melt the sulfur and the molten sulfur moves down the inclined walls of the sump member and flows through adownwardly extending pipe 30 to a sulfur combustion section 31 in which the lower end of the pipe30 extends below the surface of the molten sulfur at the minimum level to prevent escape of combustion gases through the pipe 30 or entry of air through said pipe to the combustion section to be later described. Gas or other suitable fuel is supplied through a pipe 32 to the burner 28. In order that the apparatus may operate in locations exposed to the weather it is preferable that the burner 28 be entirely in the chamber 29 and that air to support combustion enter through an adjustable air inlet. 33 in the form of a door or the like in a wall of the chamber 29 and a duct 33' which is turned downwardly to protect the entry from weather. However, conventional forms of gas and air mixers may be used for the burner if desired. The chamber 29 has a flue connection including a stack 34 for escape of the products ofcombustion from the burner 28, said stack having an open lower end 35 forming a draft check at the lower end thereof.

The sulfur melting and burning apparatus 2 includes a sulfur combustion section 31 preferably located under the chamber 29. The sulfur combustion section 31 consists of a metal housing having a top wall 36, bottom wall 37, front wall 38, back wall 39 and side walls 40 and 41, said walls being removably secured together as by bolts or the like 42. A partition 43 extends upwardly from the bottom wall 37'substantially midway between the front and rear walls 38 and 39 respectively to form a primary sulfur combustion chamber 44 between the front wall 38 and partition 43 and a secondary chamber 45 between the partition 43 and therear wall 39. The

suitable quantity of raw sulfur to partition terminates as at 46 in spaced relation to the top wall.36. Each of the chambers 44 and 45 contains a plurality of blocks 47 of refractory or other suitable lining material, the blocks being of suitable size to form a lining for each chamber and protect themetal of the housing from contact with the sulfur or gases therefrom. The number of blocks used, particularly in the primary chamber 44, may be varied to change the horizontal cross section of the chamber space defined by the innermost blocks, it being preferable to add or remove blocks to the sides of the space as illustrated in Fig. 5 in making such variation.

The rate of burning of molten sulfur varies with the surface area of the molten sulfur. and the air passed through the burning chamber. Therefore the ability to change the area by the addition or removal of the blocks is important in varying the capacity of the burner according to the requirements desired. The blocks adjacent the partition 43 have openings 48 extending therethrough above the partition to provide communication between the chambers 44 and 45. The molten sulfur supply pipe 30 extends through the top wall 36 and through the liner blocks forming the lining for the top wall and extends downwardly into the primary combustion chamber 44 whereby the sulfur flowing from the hopper into the sump member and melted therein is discharged into the burner chamber 44. It is preferable that the pipe 30 extend through a sleeve 36' on the wall 36 and suitable packing 36 be contained therein to prevent passage of air or combustion gas around the pipe 30 to or from the combustion chamber 44. A packing gland or the like may be used to form the seal if desired. Combustion air for burning of the sulfur enters or is discharged into the chamber 44 above the level of the molten sulfur therein by means of a pipe 49. The air inlet pipe preferably is alranged to extend through the wall 38 and adjacent liner blocks in a downwardly and inwardly sloping angle toward the molten sulfur in the primary chamber 44.

A T fitting 50 preferably is arranged on the pipe 49 exteriorly of the wall 38 with one of the aligned branches secured to the pipe 49 and the other provided with a connection to a gate or like valve 51. as illustrated in Fig. 3. Extending outwardly from the gate valve is a tubular member 52 having the outer end thereof closed by a glass 53 or other suitable window whereby when the valve 51 is opened an operator can look through the glass 53, connection 52, valve 51, T fitting 50 and pipe 49 to view the conditions in the primary chamber 44. In normal operations the valve 51 is closed and the outer end of the tube 52 closed by a suitable cover 54. The other branch of the T fitting 50 is connected to an inlet pipe 55 open to atmosphere or connected to a suitable source of air, the delivery of the air through the pipe 55, T fitting 50 and pipe 49 being controlled by a regulator valve 56, the opening of which is controlled as later described. The air delivered through the pipe 49 to the primary chamber 44 supports combustion of the molten t sulfur therein and the products of combustion of the sulfur pass through the opening 48 into the secondary chamber 45, then downwardly in the chamber 45 over secondary chamber burner 57 where any sublimed sulfur is ignited, air for such combustion and for secondary burner 57 being drawn through a secondary chamber air louver 57. Air in excess of that required for combustion of sublimed sulfur and fuel for burner 57 is admitted through louver 57' to serve for the oxidation of sulfurous acid and/or sulfites to sulfuric acid and/or sulfates as later described. Combustion gases and excess air leave chamber 45 through a duct 58, the duct 58 preferably being a metal pipe lined with suitable refractory material. All metal parts throughout the entire apparatus that come in contactwith the sulfur or gases thereof are preferably of noncorrosive metal such as stainless steel or are pro tected by suitable coating of refractory material or other suitable protective coating. The products of combustion of the sulfur are delivered by the duct 58 to the absorption-aerator section 3.

A small tube 59 extends downwardly through the wall 38 and adjacent refractory blocks and terminates in an open end adjacent the bottom of the molten sulfur containing space of the primary chamber 44. The tube 59 is connected to a suitable air and/ or gas supply under pressure, the flow of air through the tube 59 being controlled by a valve 59. Air is continually delivered through the tube 59 and said air escapes and bubbles upwardly through the molten sulfur in the chamber 44 where it serves the triple purpose of controlling level of. molten sulfur in chamber 44, agitating the surface of molten sulfur to continually move any accumulated gangue t the sides and thus expose a clean sulfur surface at all times, and provide a controlled amount of burning serving as a pilot flame to reignite the entire sulfur surface as needed, and, at the same time, providing suflicient heat to keep the sulfur molten. Gas under pressure can also be injected in tube 59 along with the air if greater heat liberation is required. Dilference in level of the sulfur will vary the back pressure on the air flowing through the tube 59 and this variation in back pressure is used to automatically control the level of the liquid sulfur in the chamber 44.

A pressure recorder and control 60 is connected to the tube 59 between the valve 59' and the open end of said tube whereby the back pressure on the air in the tube 59 is recorded and the pressure recorder and control 60 has a connection 62 to a gas regulator valve 63 in the gas supply to the pipe 32 for operating the valve 63 in accordance to the back pressure in the tube 59. When the level of molten sulfur in the chamber 44 lowers to a predetermined level the reduction in back pressure causes the pressure regulator controller 60 to effect opening of the valve 63 to deliver gas to the burner 28. A pilot light 64, connected to the gas supply in front of the valve 63, maintains a flame in the burner chamber whereby when the gas supply valve 63 is open the gas is ignited at the burner to supply heat to the sump member 18 to melt additional sulfur which is delivered through the pipe 30 to the chamber 44. When the liquid sulfur in said chamber raises to a predetermined level the increased pressure in the tube 59 causes the pressure recorder-controller 60 to effect closing of the valve 63 to reduce the rate of or stop the melting of additional raw sulfur. This arrangement provides an automatic level control which constantly functions to maintain a supply of sulfur in the primary chamber 44.

The controlling of the valve 56 in accordance with the requirements for the gaseous products of combustion from the burning of sulfur, the control of the sulfur level in the chamber 44 and the sulfur melting burner 28 provide an eflicient, automatically operated sulfur burner requiring only periodic attention to refill the hopper withv raw sulfur to be melted and the moving of the agitator 26 to prevent bridging of the sulfur in the hopper, inspection of the conditions in the chamber 44 by looking through the glass 53 and examination of the pressurerecorder 60 to observe the variation in the back pressure in the tube 59.

The absorption-aerator section 3 is supported at an elevation substantially above the sulfur burning apparatus by means of a tower 4 having a frame 64. The frame is. preferably of open construction of pipes or structural members suitably secured together. Supported by the tower frame at an elevation above the sulfur burner is a platform 65 having a central opening 66 therein. A tubular structure 67 of suitable material, such as a plurality of tiles 68, is mounted on the platform 65, the tiles preferably being of the bell end type for the seating of one tile in another. A perforated plate 68 is arranged preferably at the joint of the tiles, whereby all material flowing through the tiles must pass through the perforated plate. A closure plate 69 is sealed in the lower end of the lowermost tile 68 and rests on the plat form 65, the plate having an opening 70 therein surrounded by a depending flange 71 which extends into the upper end of a suitable reducer fitting 72, the lower end of which extends into a pipe 73 leading to the collecting basin or sump 6 of the cooling tower 5. The pipe 73 is preferably of plastic or other acid resistant material and the upper portions thereof supported by clamps 74 and turnbuckles75, as illustrated in Fig. 2. Pipe 73 is of suitable length to permit location of the sulfur burner installation a safe distance in case the tower 5 is cooling inflammable liquids, vapors or gases. Length of pipe 73 is such as to require a residence time of preferably two minutes for treated water leaving the absorption-aerator section 3 to reach cooling tower basin 6, thus allowing time for substantially all sulfites and/or sulfurous acid to be oxidized to sulfates and/or sulfuric acid. In order to catalyze such oxidation a trace of copper is maintained in the water furnished through pipe 84 presently to be described.

The uppermost tile 68 has a closure plate 76 provided with a central opening 77 through which extends the lowermost of a plurality of bell end tiles 78 which are smaller in diameter than the tiles 68. The tiles 78 extend upwardly and are suitably secured together and sealed with suitable cement or the like. The cover plate 76 also has an opening 79 spaced from the opening 77 and the discharge end of the pipe 8% is secured therein. The pipe 8%) leads to a suitable source of makeup Water for the water system being treated, the delivery of makeup water to the absorption-aerator section 3 by the pipe 80 being controlled by a valve 81 operated by a level responsive control device 82 in the basin 6 of the cooling tower, whereby the supply of water in the basin is maintained between a predetermined minimum and maximum.

The duct 58 communicates with the interior of the uppermost tile 78 at a point spaced below the upper end 83 of said tile, the upper end 83 of the tile being suitably closed to prevent entry of air from the atmosphere. A pipe 84 of substantially smaller size than the interior of the tiles 78 extends downwardly through the closed end 83 and preferably substantially midway the height of the tiles 78. A plurality of spray nozzles 85 are arranged on the lower end of the pipe 84 for spraying water delivered by the pipe 84 downwardly inside of the tiles 78. The perforated plate 68' is provided to aid mixing of the water from pipe 84 which has largely absorbed the sulfur dioxide from the combustion gases, and the makeup water from pipe 80, thus effecting a conversion of carbonates and bicarbonates in the makeup water to sulfites and providing conditions favoring the absorption of any remaining sulfur dioxide. In addition contact with the excess air in the combustion gases is effected as the combined water streams flow through the holes of plate 68' thus providing for the absorption of oxygen needed for the oxidation of sulfurous acid and/or sulfites to sulfuric acid and/or sulphates. A pump 86 has its inlet connected to the basin 6 and its discharge is through a pipe 87 which is connected to a T 88, one branch of said T being connected to a pipe 89 for delivering a portion of the water pumped by the pump 86 to the top of the cooling tower 5. The other branch of the T 88 is connected to the pipe 84 whereby a portion of the water is delivered to the sprays 85 and discharged downwardly in the tiles 78. The sprays 85 are arranged relative to the interior of thetiles 78 whereby said sprays of water induce a flow of air from the secondary burner chamber and through the duct 58 and also induce a draft that draws the gases from the burning sulfur in the burner chamber 44. The elevated location of the absorptionaerator section 3 together with the action of the sprays 85 induces a flow of gas therein and provides a draft that acts on the chambers 44 and 45 and draws air through the pipe 55. This provides a natural and induced draft and eliminates the requirement for a blower for supplying combustion air to the sulfur burner, and in this way the valve 56 merely controls the entry of atmospheric air into the sulfur burner. When the sulfur. burner is operating to, burn sulfur the product of combustion thereof, namely sulfur dioxide, together with air that enters through the louver 57', is drawn through the duct 58 and downwardly in the tiles 78, into the sprays of water from the sprays 85, whereby the water absorbs the sulfur dioxide. The flow of sulfur dioxide, rich water and air passes downwardly in the tiles 68. The aeration taking place in this chamber as the water falls downward aids oxidation of the sulfurous acid and sul fites by the oxygen from the atmosphere and the absorption of the atmospheric oxygen converts the sulfurous acid and sulfites into sulfuric acid and sulfates. A tubular stack 90 has an open end above the absorption aerator section and extends downwardly and communicates with the interior of the tiles 68 as at 91 in spaced relation to the bottom plate 69 to permit escape of unabsorbed gases.

A pH recorder-controller 92 is connected to a pH cell 93 in a line 94 which is connected to the pipe 87 for bypass of a small quantity of the discharge water of the pump 86, through the cell 93 and back to the basin 6. The pH cell actuates the pH recorder-controller to measure and record the acidity or alkalinity of the water and provides a means of assuring the correct amount of neutralization of the alkalinity of the cooling water at all times by a connection from the pH recorder-controller 92 to the valve 56. Thus when the cooling water is too far on the acid side, high acidity, the controller operates to actuate the valve 56 to shut off the supply of combustion air to the primary sulfur burner chamber 44, which in turn reduces the rate of burning of sulfur and the production of sulfurous acid and finally reduces the neutralization of the alkalinity of the cooling water. Likewise when the cooling water as measured by the pH cell 93 becomes too alkaline the controller effects opening of the valve 56 for increased flow of combustion air to the primary chamber 44, increasing the rate of burning of sulfur and the production of sulfurous acid to further neutralize the alkalinity of the cooling water, thereby providing an automatic control of the burning of the sulfur in accordance to the requirements of the water to be treated.

The controls 60, 82 and 92 may apply power for operating the valves 63, 81 and 56 respectively in any suit able manner. as by electric current or by air pressure. It is preferable that such controls be standard items ob tainable in commercial channels, and since plants having such installations usually have a supply of compressed air it is preferable to use valves which are normally closed by a spring pressure and opened by air pressure from the supply of air to the valves as controlled by the respective controllers 60, 82 and 92.

In operating a sulfur burner and water treating system constructed and assembled as described, the hatch cover 24 is raised and the hopper filled with raw sulfur. The hatch cover 24 is moved to closed position and then the pilot light 64 is ignited. Air or other suitable, poweris supplied to the controllers 60, 82 and 92 and with water in thebasin 6 the pump 86 is operated to start circulation of said water. .With no molten sulfur in the chamber 44 there is substantially no back pressure in the tube 59. Therefore the pressure recorder-controller 60 will function to effect opening of the valve 63 whereby gas is delivered to the burner 28 which is ignited by the pilot light 64, the products of combustion from the burner 28 escaping to the atmosphere through the flue stack 34. The heat from the burner 28 melts the sulfur in the sump member 18 and the liquid sulfur runs through the pipe 30 into the primary chamber 44. The sulfur is ignited and the air bubbling through the molten sulfur from the tube 59 will cause a slow burning of the liquid sulfur to act as a pilot light and also generate sufficient heat to keep the sulfur in the chamber 44 molten. As the pump circulates the water a small portion thereof will pass through the bypass 94 and pH cell 93, and as the alkalinity of said water becomes more than a predetermined maximum the pH recorder-controller 92 operates to effect opening of the valve 56. The spray of water from the sprays in the absorption-aerator section induces a draft drawing air through the pipe 55 into the chamber 44, over the surface of the liquid sulfur therein to support combustion of the sulfur and the sulfur dioxide or products of combustion of the sulfur passes through the opening 48 through the chamber 45 over the secondary burner 57 where any sublimed sulfur is burned with air drawn in through the secondary chamber louver 57 and leaves through the duct 58 to the absorptionaerator section 3 where such gas is absorbed in the water sprays. Air drawn into the water effects aeration of same in the absorption-aerator section 3 to oxidize the sulfurous acid and sulfites to form the sulfuric acid and sulfates in the treated water. Excess or unabsorbed gases escape through the flue 90. The treated water flows through the pipe 73 to the sump 6, gradually reducing the alkalinity thereof. As the alkalinity decreases the pH cell causes the pH recorder-controller 92 to actuate the valve 56 to close the pipe 55, shutting off the main combustion air supply to the chamber 44, but air is continued through the tube 59 to maintain a small burning of the sulfur and keep the same molten whereby the next time the pH. of the water indicates that it needs further treatment and the valve 56 is opened increased burning will begin instantly.

From time to time sulfur vapors will escape from chamber 44 unburned, especially when valve 56 is closed following vigorous burning. When the combustion gases cool, these sulfur vapors will sublime to sulfur powder, which, if not removed, would plug duct 58 and prevent functioning of the apparatus. To prevent such sublimation, burner 57 is provided to ignite any escaping sulfur vapors, air for such combustion being drawn through louver 57'. As stated heretofore, air in excess of that required by burner 57 and the burning of sulfur vapors is drawn through louver 57', such excess air subsequently serving for the oxidation of sulfurous acid and/or sulfites.

The burner 28 continues to effect melting of the raw sulfur to supply molten sulfur to the chamber 44 until the level of sulfur therein has sufficient head to cause a back pressure on the air flowing through the tube 59 to actuate the pressure recordencontroller 60 to effect closing of the valve 63, shutting off the main supply of gas to the burner 28 and the melting of additional sulfur will stop until such time as the level of the sulfur in the chamber 44 recedes to a point 'wherein the back pressure created in the tube 59 indicates that additional molten sulfur should be supplied. With this arrangement the entire sulfur handling apparatus is under a vacuum due to the spray in the absonption-aerator section and the elevation thereof, thereby reducing possibility of injury in the operation of the burner and escape of the sulfurous gases therefrom. Also the entire system is automatically controlled to supply the needed water treatment. The level of liquid sulfur in the chamber 44 is maintained and the surface of the sulfur therein is continually disturbed by the bubbling air in the sulfur to maintain ignition in said chamber and maintain the sulfur therein in molten condition and, at the same time preventing the forming of deposits or gangue on the sulfur in the chamber 44. The sulfur burner capacity may be easily altered by removing the side plates and some of the lining blocks to increase and decrease the capacity of the apparatus in the treatment of water.

It is believed obvious I have provided an efficient, economical system of burning sulfur and treating water with the products of combustion of the sulfur, which will continue to operate over long periods of time with.

b substantially no attention, with little possible injury to attendants.

What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

l. A sulfur burner comprising, a hopper for containing raw sulfur, a housing under the hopper, a burner in the housing, means for supplying combustible fuel to the burner whereby ignition of said burner applies heat to the hopper to melt sulfur therein, a shell below the housing and defining a sulfur combustion chamber, means for flowing molten sulfur from the hopper to the combustion chamber to form a pool of molten sulfur therein, means for delivering air into the pool adjacent the bottom thereof whereby said air bubbles up through the molten sulfur agitating the surface of the pool and supports low rate combustion of the sulfur in the combustion chamber, means responsive to back pressure on the air delivery means caused by the head of molten sulfur in the pool and connected to the burner fuel supply means for controlling the heating of the raw sulfur in the hopper and rate of melting said raw sulfur whereby the level of sulfur in the pool is maintained, an air inlet in the combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, a duct having communication with the combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, and means inducing a draft in the duct to draw air through the air inlet to support high rate combustion of the molten sulfur and draw the sulfur dioxide produced by such combustion from the combustion chamber.

2. A sulfur burner comprising, a hopper for containing raw sulfur, means providing access to the hopper for introducing raw sulfur thereto, a sump member at the bottom of the hopper, a housing under the hopper and surrounding the sump member, a burner in the housing, means for supplying combustible fuel to the burner where by ignition of said burner applies heat to the sump member to melt sulfur in the lower portion of the hopper which melted sulfur runs to the sump member, a flue communicating with the housing for escape of products of combustion of the burner, a shell below the housing and defining a sulfur combustion chamber, means for flowing molten sulfur from the sump member to the combustion chamber to form a pool of molten sulfur therein, means for delivering air into the pool adjacent the bottom thereof whereby said air bubbles up through the molten sulfur agitating the surface of the pool and supports low rate combustion of the sulfur in the combustion chamber, means responsive to back pressure on the air delivery means caused by the head of molten sulfur in the pool and connected to the burner fuel supply means for controlling the heating of the raw sulfur in the sump member and rate of melting said raw sulfur whereby the level of sulfur in the pool is maintained, an air inlet in the combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, and means effecting a flow of air through the air inlet to support high rate combustion of the molten sulfur.

3. A sulfur burner comprising, a hopper for containing raw sulfur, means providing access to the hopper for introducing raw sulfur thereto, a sump member at the bottom of the hopper, a housing under the hopper and surrounding the sump member, a burner in the housing, means for supplying combustible fuel to the burner whereby ignition of said burner applies heat to the sump member to melt sulfur in the lower portion of the hopper which melted sulfur runs to the sump member, a flue communicating with the housing for escape of products of combustion of the burner, a metal shell below the housing, refractory lining blocks removably mounted in the shell defining a sulfur combustion chamber, means for flowing molten sulfur from the sump member to the combustion chamber to form a pool of molten sulfur therein, means for delivering air into the pool adjacent the bottom thereof whereby said air bubbles up through the molten sulfur agitating the surface of the pool and supports low rate combustion of the sulfur in the combustion chamber, means responsive to back pressure on the air delivery means caused by the head of molten sulfur in the pool and connected to the burner fuel supply means for controlling the heating of the raw sulfur in the sump member and rate of melting said raw sulfur whereby the level of sulfur in the pool is maintained, an air inlet in the combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, means controlling said air inlet, a duct having communication with the combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, and means inducing a draft in the duct to draw air through the air inlet to support high rate combustion of the molten sulfur and draw the sulfur dioxide produced by such combustion from the combustion chamber.

4'. Apparatus for burning sulfur and treating water with the products of combustion thereof comprising, a hopper for containing raw sulfur, a housing under the hopper, a burner in the housing, means for supplying combustible fuel to the burner whereby ignition of said burner applies heat to the hopper to melt sulfur therein, a shell below the housing and defining a sulfur combustion chamber, means for flowing molten sulfur from the hopper to the combustion chamber to form a pool of molten sulfur there-in, means for delivering air into the pool adjacent the bottom thereof whereby said air bubbles up through the molten sulfur agitating the surface of the pool and supports low rate combustion of the sulfur in the combustion chamber, means responsive to back pressure on the air delivery means caused by the head of molten sulfur in the pool and connected to the burner fuel supply means for controlling the heating of the raw sulfur in the hopper and rate of melting said raw sulfur whereby the level of sulfur in the pool is maintained, an air inlet in the combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, means controlling said air inlet, a duct having communication with the combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, a water circulation system, an absorption tower in the water circulation system and having water spray means therein, said duct communicating with the absorption tower whereby the water spray means induces a draft in the duct to draw air through the air inlet to the combustion chamber to support combustion of the molten sulfur and draw the sulfur dioxide produced by such combustion from the com-bustion chamber into the absorption tower, an aerator section in the water circulation system of the absorption tower for aerating the treated liquid and oxidizing sulfurous acid and sulfites therein to form sulfuric acid and sulfates, and means responsive to the degree of alkalinity of the water in the Water circulation system and having connection with the air inlet control means for regulating the amount of com-bustion air introduced through the air inlet to the combustion chamber and regulate the burning of the molten sulfur in accordange to the requirements of the water being treated,

5. Apparatus for burning sulfur and treating water with the products of com-bustion thereof comprising, a hopper for containing raw sulfur, means providing access to the hopper for introducing raw sulfur thereto, a sump member at the bottom of the hopper, a burner in the housing, means for supplying combustible fuel to the burner whereby ignition of said burner applies heat to the sump member to melt sulfur in the lower portion of the hopper and said melted sulfur runs to the sump member, a flue communicating with the housing for escape of products of combustion of the burner, 21 metal shell below the housing, refractory lining blocks removably mounted in the shell defining a sulfur combustion chamber, means for flowing molten sulfur from the sump member to the combustion chamber to form a pool of molten sulfur therein, means for delivering air into the pool adjacent the bottom thereof whereby said air bubbles up through the molten sulfur agitating the surface of the poo-l and supports low rate combustion of the sulfur in the cornlbustion chamber, means responsive to back pressure on the air delivery means caused by the head of molten sulfur in the pool and connected to the burner fuel supply means for controlling the heating of the raw sulfur in the sump member and rate of melting said raw sulfur whereby the level of sulfur in the pool is maintained, an air inlet in the combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, means controlling said air inlet, a duct having communication with the combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, a water circulation system, an absorption tower in the water circulation system and having water spray means therein, said duct communicating with the absorption tower whereby the water spray means induces a draft in the duct to draw air through the air inlet to the combustion chamber to support combustion of the molten sulfur and draw the sulfur dioxide produced by such combustion from the combustion chamber into the absorption tower, an aerator section in the water circulation system of the absorption tower for aerating the treated liquid and oxidizing sulfurous acid and sulfites therein to form sulfuric acid and sulfates, and means responsive to the degree of alkalinity of the water in the water circulation system and having connection with the air inlet control means for regulating the amount of combustion air introduced through the air inlet to the combustion chamber and regulate the burning of the molten sulfur in accordance to the requirements of the water being treated.

6. A sulfur burner comprising, a hopper for containing raw sulfur, a housing under the hopper, a burner in the housing, means for supplying combustible fuel to the burner whereby ignition of said burner applies heat to the hopper to melt sulfur therein, a shell below the housing and defining a sulfur combustion chamber, means for flowing molten sulfur from the hopper to the combustion chamher to form a pool of molten sulfur therein, means for delivering air into the pool adjacent the bottom thereof whereby said air bubbles up through the molten sulfur agitating the surface of the pool and supports low rate combustion of the sulfur in the combustion chamber, means responsive to back pressure on the air delivery means caused by the head of molten sulfur in the pool and connected to the burner fuel supply means for controlling the heating of the raw sulfur in the hopper and rate of melting said raw sulfur whereby the level of sulfur in the pool is maintained, an air inlet in the combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, a secondary combustion chamber having communication with the firstnamed combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, a duct having communication with the secondary combustion chamber, means inducing a draft in the duct to draw air through the air inlet into the first-named combustion chamber to support combustion of the molten sulfur and draw the sulfur dioxide produced by such combustion from the first-named combustion chamber and through the secondary combustion chamber, and heating means in the secondary combustion chamber for maintaining sufiicient heat therein to burn any sulfur particles drawn therethrough and prevent sublimation of sulfur inthe sulfur dioxide.

i 7. Apparatus for burning sulfur and treating water with the products of combustion thereof comprising, a shell defining a sulfur combustion chamber, means for deliveringmolten sulfur to the combustion chamber to form a pool of molten sulfur therein, means for delivering air into the pool adjacent the bottom thereof whereby said air bubbles up through the molten sulfur agitating the surface of the pool and supports low rate combustion of the sulfur in the combustion chamber, means responsive to back pressure on the air delivery means caused by the head of molten sulfur in the pool and connected to the molten sulfur delivery means for controlling the delivery ofthe molten sulfur to the combustion chamber whereby the level of sulfur in the pool is maintained, an air inlet in the combustionchamb'er above the level of molten sulfur, means controlling said air inlet, a secondary combustion chamber having communication with the firstnam'ed combustion chamber above the level of molten sulfur, said secondary combustion chamber having an adjustable air inlet, a burner in the secondary combustion chamber tomaintain sufiicient temperature therein to ignite any unburned sulfur vapors and thus prevent sublimation of sulfur, a duct having communication with the secondary combustion chamber, a water circulation systern, an absorption tower in the water circulation system and having water spray means therein, said duct comrrrunicating with the absorption tower whereby the water spray means induces a draft in the duct to draw air through the first-named air inlet to the first-named combustion chamber to support combustion of the molten sulfur and draw the sulfur dioxide produced by such combustion from the combustion chamber into the secondary chamber and draw air through the air inlet in the secondary combustion chamber and the sulfur dioxide from the secondary combustion chamber through the duct into the absorption tower, and means responsive to the degree of alkalinity of the water in the water circulation system and having connection with the air inlet control means for regulating the amount of the combustion air introduced through the air inlet to the combustion chamber and regulate the burning of the molten sulfur in accordance to the requirements of the water being treated.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS January 1949, page 95.

Claims (1)

1. A SULFUR BURNER COMPRISING, A HOPPER FOR CONTAINING RAW SULFUR, A HOUSING UNDER THE HOPPER, A BURNER ING THE HOUSING, MEANS FOR SUPPLYING COMBUSTIBLE FUEL TO THE BURNER WHERENY IGINITION OF SAID BURNER APPLIES HEAT TO THE HOPPER TO MELT SULFUR THEREIN, A SHELL BELOW THE HOUSING AND DEFINING A SULFUR COMBUSTION CHAMBER MEANS FOR FLOWING MOLTEN SULFUR FROM THE HOPPER TO THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER TO FORM A POOL OF MOLTEN SULFUR THEREIN, MEANS FOR DELIVERING AIR INTO THE POOL ADJACENT THE BOTTOM THEREOF WHEREBY SAID AIR BUBBLES UP THROUGH THE MOLTEN SULFUR AGITATING THE SURFACE OF THE POOL AND SUPPORTS LOW RATE COMBUSTION THE SULFUR IN THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER, MEANS RESPONSIVE TO BACK PRESSURE ON THE AIR DELIVERY MEANS CAUSED BY THE HEAD OF MOLTEN SULFUR IN THE POOL AND CONNECTED TO THE BURNER FUEL SUPPLY MEANS FOR CONTROLLING THE HEATING OF THE RAW SULFUR IN
US398773A 1953-12-17 1953-12-17 Apparatus for burning sulfur and treating liquids with the combustion gases therefrom Expired - Lifetime US2807522A (en)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3226201A (en) * 1963-02-07 1965-12-28 William W Cornforth Apparatus for treating irrigation water
US3337989A (en) * 1963-02-07 1967-08-29 William W Cornforth Process of treating soil containing carbonates
US3355259A (en) * 1964-02-03 1967-11-28 Freeport Sulphur Co Process for melting sulfur
US3907510A (en) * 1972-12-26 1975-09-23 Chemsoil Corp System for burning sulfur and absorbing sulfur dioxide in water
US3948774A (en) * 1973-10-05 1976-04-06 Environment Improvement, Inc. Water purification process and apparatus
US4039289A (en) * 1971-02-08 1977-08-02 Chemsoil Corporation Sulphur-burning and gaseous products absorption system and components therefor
US20030143127A1 (en) * 1998-08-07 2003-07-31 Edward Jackson Sulphurous acid generator with air injector
US20030211018A1 (en) * 1997-07-07 2003-11-13 Jackson Edward W. Open system sulphurous acid generator with plume demister
US20180237299A1 (en) * 2015-09-04 2018-08-23 Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions Ag Method and device for producing sulfuric acid
WO2019035900A2 (en) 2017-08-15 2019-02-21 Oxy Usa Inc. Sulfur management method
US10457578B1 (en) 2018-06-22 2019-10-29 Gary McInnis Automated sulfur burner for agricultural irrigation

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1595196A (en) * 1924-12-22 1926-08-10 Gen Chemical Corp Process for producing sulphur dioxide and apparatus therefor
US1928099A (en) * 1929-06-28 1933-09-26 Gen Chemical Corp Sulphur burner
US2030885A (en) * 1931-06-15 1936-02-18 Maxim Myles Standish Apparatus for burning sulphur
US2310173A (en) * 1939-06-07 1943-02-02 Freeport Sulphur Co Method and apparatus for providing a controlled supply of sulphur combustion gases
US2625176A (en) * 1951-03-26 1953-01-13 Multi Meter Corp Mixing attachment for water faucets

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1595196A (en) * 1924-12-22 1926-08-10 Gen Chemical Corp Process for producing sulphur dioxide and apparatus therefor
US1928099A (en) * 1929-06-28 1933-09-26 Gen Chemical Corp Sulphur burner
US2030885A (en) * 1931-06-15 1936-02-18 Maxim Myles Standish Apparatus for burning sulphur
US2310173A (en) * 1939-06-07 1943-02-02 Freeport Sulphur Co Method and apparatus for providing a controlled supply of sulphur combustion gases
US2625176A (en) * 1951-03-26 1953-01-13 Multi Meter Corp Mixing attachment for water faucets

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3226201A (en) * 1963-02-07 1965-12-28 William W Cornforth Apparatus for treating irrigation water
US3337989A (en) * 1963-02-07 1967-08-29 William W Cornforth Process of treating soil containing carbonates
US3355259A (en) * 1964-02-03 1967-11-28 Freeport Sulphur Co Process for melting sulfur
US4039289A (en) * 1971-02-08 1977-08-02 Chemsoil Corporation Sulphur-burning and gaseous products absorption system and components therefor
US3907510A (en) * 1972-12-26 1975-09-23 Chemsoil Corp System for burning sulfur and absorbing sulfur dioxide in water
US3948774A (en) * 1973-10-05 1976-04-06 Environment Improvement, Inc. Water purification process and apparatus
US20030211018A1 (en) * 1997-07-07 2003-11-13 Jackson Edward W. Open system sulphurous acid generator with plume demister
US20030143127A1 (en) * 1998-08-07 2003-07-31 Edward Jackson Sulphurous acid generator with air injector
US7182919B2 (en) * 1998-08-07 2007-02-27 Edward Jackson Sulphurous acid generator with air injector
US20180237299A1 (en) * 2015-09-04 2018-08-23 Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions Ag Method and device for producing sulfuric acid
US10435299B2 (en) * 2015-09-04 2019-10-08 Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions Ag Method and device for producing sulfuric acid
WO2019035900A2 (en) 2017-08-15 2019-02-21 Oxy Usa Inc. Sulfur management method
US10457578B1 (en) 2018-06-22 2019-10-29 Gary McInnis Automated sulfur burner for agricultural irrigation

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