US2768919A - Armor material - Google Patents

Armor material Download PDF

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Publication number
US2768919A
US2768919A US37341453A US2768919A US 2768919 A US2768919 A US 2768919A US 37341453 A US37341453 A US 37341453A US 2768919 A US2768919 A US 2768919A
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Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
calottes
layer
armor
attached
armor material
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Bjorksten Johan
Harry O Rennat
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BJORKSTEN RES LAB Inc
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BJORKSTEN RES LAB Inc
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Publication date
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A42HEADWEAR
    • A42BHATS; HEAD COVERINGS
    • A42B3/00Helmets; Helmet covers; Other protective head coverings
    • A42B3/04Parts, details or accessories of helmets
    • A42B3/10Linings
    • A42B3/12Cushioning devices
    • A42B3/121Cushioning devices with at least one layer or pad containing a fluid
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A42HEADWEAR
    • A42BHATS; HEAD COVERINGS
    • A42B3/00Helmets; Helmet covers; Other protective head coverings
    • A42B3/04Parts, details or accessories of helmets
    • A42B3/06Impact-absorbing shells, e.g. of crash helmets
    • A42B3/062Impact-absorbing shells, e.g. of crash helmets with reinforcing means
    • A42B3/065Corrugated or ribbed shells
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10S428/911Penetration resistant layer
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10S74/10Polymer digest - plastic gears
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/16Two dimensionally sectional layer
    • Y10T428/163Next to unitary web or sheet of equal or greater extent
    • Y10T428/168Nonrectangular
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/2419Fold at edge
    • Y10T428/24215Acute or reverse fold of exterior component
    • Y10T428/24231At opposed marginal edges
    • Y10T428/2424Annular cover
    • Y10T428/24248One piece
    • Y10T428/24256Abutted or lapped seam
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/18Mechanical movements
    • Y10T74/18056Rotary to or from reciprocating or oscillating
    • Y10T74/18088Rack and pinion type
    • Y10T74/18128Clutchable gears
    • Y10T74/18136Bevel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/20Control lever and linkage systems
    • Y10T74/20576Elements
    • Y10T74/20732Handles
    • Y10T74/20876Caps and covers

Description

IOct. 3o, 1956 J. BJoRKsTl-:N ErAL ARMORMATERIAL Filed Aug. 1o, 41993 Ry o. REN/mr l INVENTORS United States Patent Oliiice ARMOR MATERIAL Johan Bjorlrsten and Harry 0. Rennat, Madison, Wis., assignors to Bjorksten Research Laboratories, Inc., Madison, Wis., a corporation of Illinois Application August 10, 1953, Serial No. 373,414 7 Claims. (Cl. 154-525) This invention relates to an armor material, and more specically to a crashor football helment designed to combine light weight with a high degree of protection against relatively slow non-ballistic impact.

Heretofore, impact protection has been provided largely by heavy padding, or in the case of armor, by the use of steel or iiberglass. However, in all such devices of prior art, the direction of the blow has been substantially Unchanged and no 4attempt has been made to deflect this blow so that it will dissipate its force in a direction parallel with the surface.

An object of this invention is a new type of armor.

Another object is a. new type of crashor football helmet.

A further object is an armor, in which the force of impact is dissipated in a direction parallel to the surface and distributed substantially over the entire area of the armor.

A further object is a protective helmet being exceptionally light in weight in relation to its eiiciency.

Further objects will become apparent as the following detailed description proceeds.

The invention is further illustrated by the drawings, of which Figure 1 is a cross-section of an armor embodying the pricinpes in View. Figure 2 is a perspective view of one of the spherical calottes which comprise a principal component in this armor. Figure 3 represents a perspective partly sectional view of a football helment embodying this protective principle. Figure 4 is a perspective view of the slotted spherical calotte of an alternate embodiment of the invention.

Referring now to Figure l, the invention comprises a front layer 1, which is smooth and flexible and which may consist, for example, of a thin sheet of resilient plastic material, or of about 3-5 mil metal foil. This is followed by a layer 2, which is composed of a large number of small spherical calottes, made of `a material permitting elastic recovery, such as, for example, a fiberglass plastic laminate, steel, hard aluminum, titanium, ceramic reinforced magnesium or aluminum, or the like. Layer 3 is composed of a layer essentially similar to layer 2 except that the spherical calottes are larger. Layer 4 is a smooth layer, similar to layer 1, but thicker and more resistant. A smooth resilient layer 10 may be positioned between the layer of calottes, to support the outer layer more evenly, though this layer is not necessary for the invention.

Small calottes 5 may be placed between the large calottes of layer 3, in order to provide a smoother overall layer.

When a blow hits the surface of this armor, on layer 1, the force will tend to atten the calottes, and in this fashion the shock will be dissipated parallel to the surface propagating by edge to edge pressure from calotte to calotte, so that waves through these surfaces are generated parallel to the surface. This leads to absorption of the shock. Accordingly, by this deection of the force of the shock to a direction parallel with the surface. the

2,768,919 Patented Oct. 30, 1956 entire surface of the armor will be made to react. Highly effective dampening is thus achieved.

The small component of the shock which remains directed inwardly, is then distributed by the subsequent layer of calottes, which can flatten and recover in contact with the smooth layer 4.

Figure 4 represents a modiiication in which the calottes have been provided with radial slots, in order to further increase the springiness and the ease of expansion sidewise when a shock impinges on the apex of a calotte. The form or width of these slots are immaterial, and are adjusted for the optimum balance between springiness and rigidity for each embodiment of the invention.

We may incorporate further in the assembly, a greasetype material, to provide for easier slippage of the edges of the calottes, or an adhesive to bond the system together more iirmly. In such lease, l prefer to use a resilient adhesive, which may be, for example, a polyvinyl butyral, a rubber-type composition, a silicon acrylate-type elastomeric material, or the like.

It is thus seen that the invention is broad in scope, and is not to be limited excepting by the claims in which it is our intention to cover all novelty inherent in this invention as broadly as possible in view of prior art.

Having thus Vdisclosed our invention, we claim:

1. Armor material adapted to protect a portion of a human from a projectile, comprising a supporting sheet, a rst layer of calottes positioned edge to edge and attached by their edges to and supported by said sheet, a second supporting sheet attached to peaks of calottes in said rst layer, and a second layer of calottes, positioned edge to edge and supported by and attached by their edges to said second sheet.

2. Armor material adapted to protect a portion of a human from a projectile, comprising at least two layers of calottes characterized by the calottes in each layer being positioned with edges abutting, the edges of the calottes in each layer being attached to a supporting sheet and the supporting sheet for one of the layers being attached to the peaks of calottes in the other layer.

3. Armor material adapted to protect a portion of a human body from a projectile, consisting essentially of at least two layers of spherical calottes characterized by the calottes in each layer being positioned with edges abutting, the edges of the calottes in each layer being attached to supporting means and said supporting means for one of the layers being attached to the peaks of the calottes in the other layer.

4. Armor material adapted to protect a portion of a human from a projectile, comprising at least two layers of calottes and supporting means therefor, comprising sheets of elastic material attached to the edges of calottes, characterized by the calottes in each layer being positioned with edges abutting and by the calottes in one layer being supported by peaks of calottes in another ayer.

5. The armor material of claim 4 wherein said calottes are steel.

6. The armor material of claim 4 wherein said calottes are glass ber reinforced organic synthetic resin.

7. The `armor material of claim 4 wherein said calottes are titanium.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1, 5 1 0, 1 3 3

Claims (1)

1. ARMOR MATERIAL ADAPTED TO PROTECT A PORTION OF A HUMAN FROM A PROJECTILE, COMPRISING A SUPPORTING SHEET, A FIRST LAYER OF CALOTTES POSITIONED EDGE TO EDGE AND ATTACHED BY THEIR EDGES TO AND SUPPORTED BY SAID SHEET, A SECOND SUPPORTING SHEET ATTACHED TO PEAKS OF CALOTTES IN
US2768919A 1953-08-10 1953-08-10 Armor material Expired - Lifetime US2768919A (en)

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Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3039109A (en) * 1958-10-16 1962-06-19 Electric Storage Battery Co Lining for safety helmets
US3039108A (en) * 1958-07-14 1962-06-19 John W Lohrenz Protective helmet
US3167974A (en) * 1960-11-11 1965-02-02 Daimler Benz Ag Steering wheel
US3203698A (en) * 1962-05-14 1965-08-31 Charles A Saunders Archery target with arrow stop means
US3242500A (en) * 1964-08-24 1966-03-29 John W Derr Protective head covering
US3266790A (en) * 1961-07-14 1966-08-16 Roger G Bradeen Cushioning media
US3286275A (en) * 1964-12-30 1966-11-22 American Safety Equip Safety helmet
US3350959A (en) * 1965-04-29 1967-11-07 Teleflex Inc Cable or conduit assembly
US3395067A (en) * 1964-10-12 1968-07-30 Aerojet General Co Composite laminated armor plate with internal projectile-deflecting surfaces
US3447163A (en) * 1966-02-16 1969-06-03 Peter W Bothwell Safety helmets
US3523057A (en) * 1965-10-24 1970-08-04 Schjeldahl Co G T Ball and plastic armour plate
US3577836A (en) * 1969-11-12 1971-05-11 Raymond M Tamura Armored garment
US3800989A (en) * 1971-06-22 1974-04-02 J Kallander Head load balancer for bookbinders and other objects
EP0048442A1 (en) * 1980-09-18 1982-03-31 Kálmán Györy Safety helmet
FR2529761A1 (en) * 1982-07-09 1984-01-13 Gentex Corp individually adjustable internal padding for helmets
US5087516A (en) * 1985-07-02 1992-02-11 Dorothy Groves Body armor
US5738925A (en) * 1996-04-10 1998-04-14 Lockheed Martin Corporation Ballistic armor having a flexible load distribution system
US6408734B1 (en) * 1998-04-14 2002-06-25 Michael Cohen Composite armor panel
US20070148486A1 (en) * 2004-01-19 2007-06-28 Jasko Musaefendic High impact strength, elastic, composite, fibre, metal laminate
US20080141429A1 (en) * 2005-01-27 2008-06-19 Georg Scharpenack Helmet
US20150107005A1 (en) * 2013-10-18 2015-04-23 Terrence Lee Schneider Sports equipment that employ force-absorbing elements
US20150223545A1 (en) * 2014-02-11 2015-08-13 Janice Geraldine Fraser Protective headgear
WO2018035144A1 (en) * 2016-08-16 2018-02-22 Markison Timothy W Body impact protection system

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1510133A (en) * 1922-10-26 1924-09-30 Aviation Louis Breguet Sa Protecting device for fuel tanks
US1918149A (en) * 1931-05-08 1933-07-11 Burgess Lab Inc C F Sound transmitting and sound absorbing construction
US2129488A (en) * 1934-03-30 1938-09-06 Inland Container Corp Indented paperboard article
US2316055A (en) * 1939-07-10 1943-04-06 Paul H Davey Shield
US2562951A (en) * 1946-08-26 1951-08-07 Rose Arthur Armor
US2585515A (en) * 1949-01-19 1952-02-12 Henry H Talboys Adhesive structure
US2618780A (en) * 1950-07-21 1952-11-25 Cecil A Cushman Pneumatic helmet

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1510133A (en) * 1922-10-26 1924-09-30 Aviation Louis Breguet Sa Protecting device for fuel tanks
US1918149A (en) * 1931-05-08 1933-07-11 Burgess Lab Inc C F Sound transmitting and sound absorbing construction
US2129488A (en) * 1934-03-30 1938-09-06 Inland Container Corp Indented paperboard article
US2316055A (en) * 1939-07-10 1943-04-06 Paul H Davey Shield
US2562951A (en) * 1946-08-26 1951-08-07 Rose Arthur Armor
US2585515A (en) * 1949-01-19 1952-02-12 Henry H Talboys Adhesive structure
US2618780A (en) * 1950-07-21 1952-11-25 Cecil A Cushman Pneumatic helmet

Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3039108A (en) * 1958-07-14 1962-06-19 John W Lohrenz Protective helmet
US3039109A (en) * 1958-10-16 1962-06-19 Electric Storage Battery Co Lining for safety helmets
US3167974A (en) * 1960-11-11 1965-02-02 Daimler Benz Ag Steering wheel
US3266790A (en) * 1961-07-14 1966-08-16 Roger G Bradeen Cushioning media
US3203698A (en) * 1962-05-14 1965-08-31 Charles A Saunders Archery target with arrow stop means
US3242500A (en) * 1964-08-24 1966-03-29 John W Derr Protective head covering
US3395067A (en) * 1964-10-12 1968-07-30 Aerojet General Co Composite laminated armor plate with internal projectile-deflecting surfaces
US3286275A (en) * 1964-12-30 1966-11-22 American Safety Equip Safety helmet
US3350959A (en) * 1965-04-29 1967-11-07 Teleflex Inc Cable or conduit assembly
US3523057A (en) * 1965-10-24 1970-08-04 Schjeldahl Co G T Ball and plastic armour plate
US3447163A (en) * 1966-02-16 1969-06-03 Peter W Bothwell Safety helmets
US3577836A (en) * 1969-11-12 1971-05-11 Raymond M Tamura Armored garment
US3800989A (en) * 1971-06-22 1974-04-02 J Kallander Head load balancer for bookbinders and other objects
EP0048442A1 (en) * 1980-09-18 1982-03-31 Kálmán Györy Safety helmet
FR2529761A1 (en) * 1982-07-09 1984-01-13 Gentex Corp individually adjustable internal padding for helmets
US5087516A (en) * 1985-07-02 1992-02-11 Dorothy Groves Body armor
US5110661A (en) * 1985-07-02 1992-05-05 Dorothy Groves Armor component
US5738925A (en) * 1996-04-10 1998-04-14 Lockheed Martin Corporation Ballistic armor having a flexible load distribution system
US6408734B1 (en) * 1998-04-14 2002-06-25 Michael Cohen Composite armor panel
US20070148486A1 (en) * 2004-01-19 2007-06-28 Jasko Musaefendic High impact strength, elastic, composite, fibre, metal laminate
US8956711B2 (en) * 2004-01-19 2015-02-17 Jasko Musaefendic High impact strength, elastic, composite, fibre, metal laminate
US20080141429A1 (en) * 2005-01-27 2008-06-19 Georg Scharpenack Helmet
US20150107005A1 (en) * 2013-10-18 2015-04-23 Terrence Lee Schneider Sports equipment that employ force-absorbing elements
US20150223545A1 (en) * 2014-02-11 2015-08-13 Janice Geraldine Fraser Protective headgear
US9468249B2 (en) * 2014-02-11 2016-10-18 Janice Geraldine Fraser Protective headgear
WO2018035144A1 (en) * 2016-08-16 2018-02-22 Markison Timothy W Body impact protection system

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